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Production and disposition of purebred Jersey populations
Published November 24, 2008

In Hungary crossbreeding wit Jersey has been in practice since 2004. Uniquely in the Hungarian history of the Jersey breed two times fifty head pregnant heifers were imported in 2006. The aim of our study is to present through the description of the production and the type traits of the population the inherent possibilities of Jersey. The breed... is presented by the figures of the rolling lactations, 305 day milk production, correlations between the traits and by the results of the evaluation of type traits. Analyses of the data were done by using independent samples t-test.
Based on data of 87 cows the average number of days in milk  is 308 and 48 cows has finished lactation. During the rolling lactation they produced 5050 kg milk with 5.34% fat and 3.8% protein content.
The first lactation Jersey cows’ production when corrected to 305 days was 5089 kg milk with 5.35% fat and 3.81% protein. Between the herds there was significant difference in milk kg, amount of fat produced, protein content and amount of protein produced. On the two farms distribution of cows belonging to different production levels is very different. The biggest difference is when categorized by the amount of milk produced.
Correlation between the milk kg and fat kg is the greatest (r=0.950). Similar values were obtained for the correlation between fat and protein kg (r=0.919) and for the milk kg and fat kg (r=0,898). 
Disposition of the Jersey cows is very well balanced. Their stature, strength, body depth, dairy form, rump angle and pin width is favorable, the average scores are between 4.5 and 6.5. The leg of the cows is a bit sickly, and is hocking in a little with medium-low angled hoof. Average values of all traits describing the udder are between 4 and 5. Cows belonging to the two herds differ by disposition. Significant difference exists in the following traits: body depth, dairy form, pin width, rear leg - side view, rear leg, rear view, foot angle, fore udder attachment, teat length. The
Jersey population imported to Hungary has a final score of 78 points which equals with the “good” qualification. 

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The role of type traits of dairy cattles in long productive life
Published May 23, 2006

In the last few decades, a new intensive milking stock has developed as a result of breed-converter crossing in Hungary. Additionally, the reproduction biology of the population was adversely affected by keeping and feeding technologies. Productive lifetime has shortened and the service period has lengthened. However, profitable milk production... requires cows with longer productive lives and larger life-time productions. In our study, we made a comparison between production, culling causes, and type traits of culled Holstein Friesian cows after first calving and of cows with a minimum of eight lactations. We established that the first lactation production of cows with longer productive lives was more or less homogeneous. Disease of metabolism as well as digestive and respiratory problems, were the main causes of the culling of cows with short productive lives, and reproduction and udder problems as well as low production, were the main causes of the culling of cows with long productive lives. We found a significant difference in the distributions of strength, body depth, dairy form, croup width, rear leg side view, foot angle, fore udder attachment and teat placement between the two groups. Furthermore, we established that cows with lower stature, less strength, a somewhat deeper body, better dairy form, narrower croup width, smaller foot angle, looser fore udder attachment and some outside teat placement had longer productive lives.

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Morphological diversity of current melons (Cucumis melo) compared to a medieval type
Published November 15, 2007

Morphological diversity of melon (Cucumis melo); phenotype reconstruction of a medieval sample. Morphological diversity among 47 melon (Cucumis melo) cultivars and landraces from Hungarian germplasm collection (ABI, Tápiószele) were analyzed with an ultimate aim to characterize morphologically cv. Hógolyó, which showed the closest genetic s...imilarity to a medieval melon recovered from the 15th century. Cultivars based on fruit morphology were grouped into the three main types of melon as reticulatus, cantalupensis and inodorus. Cluster analysis (by SPSS-11) based on 23 morphological (quantitative and qualitative) traits recorded revealed an extreme diversity among accessions, nevertheless cultivars were clustered into main melon clusters with only two exceptions of inodorus type cv. Zimovka J. and Afghanistan. Cultivars Sweet ananas and Ezüst ananász; and  two Hungarian landraces Kisteleki and Nagycserkeszi showed close similarity. Cultivars Hógolyó and Túrkeve of inodorus type
were also grouped in one cluster, which provide insight into the morphological reconstruction of the medieval melon recovered from the 15th century. These results also indicate that old Hungarian landraces could be re-introduced into breeding programs for broadening genetic base of melon.

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Using phenotypic correlations in the breeding evaluation of Hungarian Sport Horse mares
Published May 23, 2006

The aim of this paper is to analyse phenotypic relationships between self performance test (SPT) parameters of Hungarian Sport Horse mares. Establishing these relationships may contribute to develop a breeding value estimation model. Data were given by the Association of Hungarian Sport Horse Breeders.
The analysis is based on the SPT result...s of 3 and 4 year old mares from 1993 to 2004. Our aim is to determine practically explainable correlations among conformational traits (type, head, neck, saddle region, frame, forelegs, hind legs, regularity of movement, impulsion and elasticity of movement, overall impression); free jumping performance (jumping style, jumping ability, observation during training) and movement analysis traits (walk, trot, canter, overall impression, test rider’s score). A further aim is to determine correlations between free jumping performance and movement analysis traits.

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Az évszak és az azonos évszakban történt ismételt mintavételek hatása holstein tenyészbikák ejakulátumának minőségi- és mennyiségi jellemzőire
Published March 27, 2002

This study was carried out at the Hungarian National Artificial Insemination Centre in order to evaluate the seasonal effects on the quantitative and qualitative parameters of sperm production using sperm analyser equipment. The volume of ejaculate (VE), percentage of living sperm (PLS), spermatozoa concentration (SC), motility score (MC), perc...entage of motile spermatozoa (PMS), speed of movement of sperm cells (SMS) and the percentage of sperm cells moving straightforward (PSMS) were collected and observed in three seasons (summer, autumn, winter) in Holstein-Friesian breeding bulls (n = 15). The sperm collection was done for three successive weeks in every season on the same day (summer: n = 41, autumn: n=39, winter: n = 42, altogether: n = 122). The same sperm samples were measured by sperm analyser equipment (HTM version 7.0, Danvers) for PMS, SMS and PSMS. The seasonal and the number of sperm collection effects were confirmed on semen characteristics by multiple analysis of variance (two ways MANOVA, Type III) using the program package of STATISTICA 4.5. The average values of VE were similar in the three seasons (summer: from 4.42 to 6.28 cm3, autumn: from 4.08 to 6.86 cm3, winter: from 5.43 to 5.71 cm3). The average values of the MC were similar in each of the three seasons (summer: from 3.66-4.00 M; autumn: from 3.66-3.77 M; winter: from 3.86-4.07 M). The summary of all effects for season (P<0.001), repeated sperm collections in the same season (P<0.05) and interaction of two traits (P<0.01) were established on the measured characteristics. The special effects (P<0.05) of a given season were calculated, excepting the VE and MC, on all of the measured characteristics. The special effect (P<0.01) of the repeated sperm collections in the same season was verified in only one case (SMS). It is not surprised at the interaction was established on the VE (P<0.001), PMS (P<0.05), and SMS (P<10.0). The results of present study suggest that seasonal effect on sperm quality of breeding bulls cannot be eliminated even at standard feeding and keeping conditions. Considering our results, we can recommend that the average values of three successive weeks in every season be used, to take advantage of seasonal effect on the quantitative and qualitative parameters of sperm production.

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Phenometric studies on stalk juice and sugar contents of silo sorghum types
Published December 21, 2008

Bioenergies (among them e.g. bioalcohol) can be solutions for the replacement of fossil fuels. For its production, plants with high sugar or starch content can be used. Juice pressed from the stalk of sugar sorghum has high sugar content (14-17%) that makes it suitable for bioethanol production. During our experiment, we examined 53 restorer ma...le lines; among them 22 were silo type sugar sorghum. We studied the following traits: plant height, breeding time, level of foliation, stalk diameter, characteristics of stalk medulla, juice content of stalk, sugar content of stalk juice. According to examined characteristics, we selected six restorer male lines for studies in the forthcoming years: RL 1, RL 2, RL 3, RL 4, RL 5, RL 9, RL 12, RL 15, RL 18. Their stalk medullas were wet, stalk diameters were medium-thick, sugar contents of juices varied between 17 and 24% at the end of milk mature. Harvest was made in September, they can be classified into early maturation group. Male sterile female lines were the following: SL 1, SL 2, SL 3, SL 4, SL 5. The maintainer male lines were: CL 1, CL 2, CL 3, CL 4, CL 5. In Hungary, there are only a few male sterile female
lines, so we will use these lines for hybrid production during the next years. 

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