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Effect of Rootstocks on Blooming Capacity and Productivity of AppleCultivars
Published December 14, 2004
14-20

The experiment with three different rootstock cultivars was set up in a commercial apple orchard at Nagykutas, which is situated in the western part of Hungary. The aim of our two-year-study was to determine the effect three different growing rootstock cultivars (M9, MM106 and seedling) on the flowering and productivity of 33 apple cultivars. O...ur observations included the following measurements: the date of the beginning and the end of flowering, flower density, fruit density, fruit numbers per tree and tree productivity. According to our results, it was found that the different growing rootstocks have a great determining effect on the above measurements. Our results showed that the flowering period was similar for all cultivars on the three different rootstocks. However, the flowering and the fruit setting decreased in the order M9, MM106 and seedling rootstocks. In contrast, the fruit number per tree followed, in decreasing order, MM106, seedling and M9 rootstocks.

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108
Black walnut as a valuable stand-forming tree species in Hungary – a growing technology review
Published May 16, 2017
129-132

In Hungary black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is one of the most valuable exotic tree species, mainly because of its excessively liked wood for furniture industry, that has fine tissue and singular colour. Generally it is established by seeding, it can be regenerated by coopice shoot well, but not by seeding in natural way. Black walnut crops regu...rarly from the age of 25–30 years and its rotation age is 75–85 years. Prosperous decorative shape of stem allows its using in tree plantings out of forests, too. In the future its role can increase mainly on good.

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N-Phenyl-Phthalamic Acid and Fertilization Effects on Flowering, Fruit Set and Fruit Quality of Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
Published October 11, 2006
24-28

On seven apple cultivars (Gala Must, Gloster, Granny Smith, Idared, Jonagold, Jonathan Csány 1, Mutsu), the authors studied the influence of N-phenyl-phthalamic (PPA) acid and fertilization on flowering, fruit set and fruit quality in the years 2003-2004. The research results showed that PPA application extended the flowering time of the most ...cultivars. Fruit set of apple cultivars increased in many cases when regulator was applied. The additional nutrient supply could increase the fruit set too. The increase of fruit set increased the number of fruit per tree. Quality parameters determined by fertilization and fruit number per tree. For example, when N-phenyl-phthalamic acid was applied without fertilization the fruit number per tree increased considerably however, it caused a considerable frittering away. The reason for this is that fruit set was high and fruit received not enough nutrition for growing up. The skin colour of fruits was decreased in several cases by the treatments. In one respect the enlarged fruit number was shaded the others and the fertilization increased the vegetative shading leaf area.

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Comparison of apricot cultivars for suitability for organic growing
Published October 5, 2010
63-65

Nowadays, important task is using more widely the environmentally friendly production technologies. There are considerable differences
among technologies using reduced spray programs (integrated and organic) in plant protection and plant nutrition.
In this case integrated production has a better position as roles for organic production mo...re strict and due to this fruits has an obvious
temporal and permanent reduction in tree conditions. Fitotechnical elements and renewal and regeneration of cultivars are important
factors for offseting or delaying of condition weakening.
In this study, 5 apricot cultivars (not pruned for 8 years) were compared in their characteristics (assessment of inactive, semi-active and
active plant parts).
Our study showed that there were 50-70% differences among observed characteristics. Our study confirmed those cultivars which are
suitable for organic production and which one more resistant to condition weakening and which one able to tolerate negative technological
effects.

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37
68
Improvement of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) growing under marginal site conditions in Hungary: case studies
Published June 30, 2018
129-133

In Hungary, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is considered as an important exotic stand-forming tree species growing mostly under unfavourable ecological conditions for forest management. Due to climate change effects, its importance is increasing in many other countries, too. As a result of a selection programme, new black locust clones ...were tested in clone trials. Juvenile growth of 12 micropropagated black locust clones in two plots series established at different dates were evaluated in central Hungary under marginal site conditions. At age of 7 the clone R. p. ‘Bácska’ (‘KH 56A2/5’), at age of 10 the clones R.p. ‘Homoki’ (‘MB17D3/4’) and ‘PV201E2/4’ appeared to be especially promising for mass production. Based on the data obtained from the performed trials, it can also be concluded that tissue culture can be considered as a suitable tool for propagating superior individuals and offers new prospects for the rapid cloning of selected genotypes used for plantation forestry.

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Micropropagation of Leuce-poplar clones and its role in selection breeding
Published March 23, 2016
43-48
Leuce-poplars (mostly white poplar and its natural hybrid grey poplar) are native tree species trough Hungary. They are covering more than 4.0 per cent of the Hungarian forested area (77 000 ha). The white (grey) poplars play a significant role in the forestation under sandy soil site conditions as well as they are of importance from nature c...onservation point of view as well.
Long-term selection breeding work is going on at the National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre Forest Research Institute (NARIC FRI), involving selection of fast-growing Leuce-poplar clones under dry site conditions.
Micropropagation technology is relatively quickly spreading in forestry. In vitro multiplication of trees is applied mainly in fruit growing in Hungary, in case of forestry it is used mainly for selection breeding.
This paper presents a short overview on the micropropagation trials with different Leuce-poplar clones and the early evaluation of the seedlings growing of the micropropagated clones/varieties.
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109
141
Yield table for selected black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) cultivars
Published June 1, 2021
193-198

In Hungary, the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) can be considered as the most important fast-growing, stand-forming introduced tree species. Due to its positive growing technological characteristics as well as wood utilization possibilities, at the present, black locust is the most widely planted tree species in Hungary, cov...ering 25% of the country’s total forest area. One of the important tasks ahead of Hungarian black locust growers is to improve the quality of black locust stands with introducing selected cultivars. For the estimation of the growth rate and yield a numerical yield table has been constructed on the basis of surveys of the experimental plots established in pure,managed ’Nyirségi’ ,’Üllői’ and ’Jászkiséri’ black locust cultivars’ plantations which can be suitable for sawlogs production. In the course of 56 stand surveys the key stand characteristics were measured, and then, were reconsidered the average height, diameter (DBH), volume, basal area and stem number given separately for the main (remaining), secondary (removal) and total stands per hectare. The programmable editing procedure allows to extention and formal change of information content of the yield table according to different demands.

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Effect of M9, MM106 and Seedling Rootstocks on Sunburn-Sensitivity of 33 Apple Cultivars, and Sunburn Effects on Fruit Quality
Published December 6, 2005
236-247

The purpose of this study was to investigate the sunburn-sensitivity of 33 apple cultivars grafted onto 3 rootstocks (M9, MM106 and seedling) in a commercial orchard at Nagykutas (in the western part of Hungary). The authors also searched for any relationship between fruit quality parameters and the frequency of sunburn on the fruit surface....>During the observations, the cultivars had rootstock-specific properties in respect to sunburn-susceptibility. Accordingly, the injury decreased in the order M9, MM106 and seedling rootstocks. The differences in the sensitivity were founded on the foliage-morphological characteristics of trees, caused by the growing vigour of the rootstocks. Accordingly, the highest value of sunburn injury was observed on M9 rootstock, because this rootstock has a dwarfing effect on the grafted main cultivars. Thus, the vegetative area of these trees grew very slowly and the foliage was not compact enough to protect the fruits from the strong rays. The largeness and density of the foliage increased in the order M9, MM106 and seedling rootstocks. Relationships were also demonstrated between the diameter of the upper part of crown, the size of leaves, the number of fruits per tree and the injury from sunburn.
The damage values showed, that the gravity of symptoms did not decrease below a well-defined level of dimension on fruit. Determined potential area of injury was necessary for the symptoms to become visible.
The authors categorized the cultivars in the respect of values of sunburn frequency: I. „Not sensitive”, II. „Moderately sensitive” and III. „Very sensitive” categories were constituted. Generally, the Gala cultivars showed low damage (or were free of symptoms), in contrast, Golden mutants suffered relative strongly. The most sensitive cultivar was Jonica on all three of rootstocks.
We searched for any relationship between the fruit quality parameters and the frequency of sunburn. A significant correlation was found in the cases of fruit weight and colour-coverage. The latter can be related to that fact that highly colour covered fruits are found on the peripherial part of crown, so these are exposed to stronger sun rays

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248
Fruit quality parameters of sweet cherry cultivars produced under rain protected plastic foil and general orchard conditions
Published October 5, 2010
66-69

Due to global climate warming, frequency of negative weather effects (rainfall amounts, distribution, sortness) are increasing. Rainfall
amounts and frequency has also great effect of sweet cherry fruit quality around fruit ripening. Determination of optimal technological
basics (such as first class fruit quality and economic value) are a...n important task in dynamically growing sweet cherry production. This can
be solved with introduction of a new intensive training system. One of the solutions can be rain protecting foil which can reduce fruit
cracking and fruit rot. Without this option sweet cherry can not be grown in many countries. In this study, fruit quality parameters were
compared from a 10 year old intensive (4 x 1m) sweet cherry orchard. The effect of rain protecting foil was tested in comparison with fruits
from not covered tree

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Productivity of thinned black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stands in Hungary: case studies
Published May 26, 2022
181-186

Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is one of the most important introduced tree species in Hungary, covering more than 24% of the stocked area and providing approximately 20% of the country’s annual timber cut. Consequently, the research and development activities related to the improvement of the growing technology of black locust ar...e also important, especially in mitigating the negative effects of climate change. The aim of this study was to quantify growth and yield, responses of even-aged 12–31–year–old black locust stand to thinning in Hungary. The study has proved that irrespective of the yield class, age and thinning intensity, thinning could not increase effectively the cumulative volume production. As percentage of the control it has changed between +0.6 and -8.4%. On the other hand, it could increase the stand value based on stem quality index by 10–21%.

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Physiological plasticity of main tree species of lowland hornbeamoak forest as a results of forest gap regeneration
Published February 18, 2016
99-103

Specific leaf area (SLA) of English oak (Quercus robur L.) and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) as members of Querco robori-Carpinetum were investigated in two different habitat in terms of gap forest management: in the gap and in the inert forest. The artificial opening process of the forest resulted in more light for growing saplings and need f...or acclimatization. Photosynthesis is one of the most important ways for plant life and plant production basically influenced by altered light condition resulted in opening process. Efficient photosynthesis is important for plant life, plant production, but species-dependent plasticity of photosynthesis makes one species more tolerant, than others. The specific leaf area is acceptable parameters for characterising plant production, dry matter content and leaf structure. The dry matter content based on known leaf area is higher in oak both sun and shade leaves, than hornbeam. The different place of leaves in the canopy of trees did not influence the values of SLA.

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