The world production area and the total production of sunflower has significantly been growing. The harvested yield was 23.4 and 21.1 million ha in 2005 and 2001, respectively. The total sunflower seed production has also unexpectedly increased.
Although sunflower is produced on lower quality soils in Hungary, in 2005 the average harvested y
Sunflower is a typical commercial plant and fits well in the crop structure. Since in terms of acreage the most significant crops are corn and cereals, the partial monoculture cultivation cannot be avoided. Sunflower production is a way to eliminate this problem, therefore it has an important role both in cultivation and ecological points of view.
Accordingly, sunflower has an important role in reducing the monoculture cultivation of some plants, as well as increasing biodiversity. Sunflower well adapts to Hungary’s climatic conditions and its production is easily practicable in our country.
The reaction of sunflower hybrids on crop density change is different. Some hybrids are more some are less sensitive to this parameter. In different crop years, the crop density optimums of the different genotypes are also different. In Hungary, the yield and quality is primarily determined by fungal infections, while viruses and bacteria are less important.
The research was conducted at the Látókép farm and Regional Research Institute of the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences. The research institute is situated by Road 33,15 km from Debrecen in the Hajdúság. The duration of the experiment was seven years, 10 hybrids were examined in each year.
Two hybrids used every year, Aréna/PR and Alexandra/PR hybrids were tested by Kang’s stability analysis. We found that Alexandra/PR was most balanced at every levels of crop density. Both hybrids performed most stable yield at 65000 ha-1 crop density level and less balanced at 35000 ha-1 crop density level. As a result of improved environmental conditions, the yield increase of Aréna/PR was higher than that of Alexandra/PR.
Our regression analysis found that the maximum yield of Lympil, Louidor, Hysun 321, PR63A82 and PR64A63 hybrids were harvested at 47000-60000 plant ha-1 crop density level. The statistical analysis showed that the highest yield was harvested from Lympil and Hysun 321. As regards the crop yield, the most stable hybrids were Louidor and Lympil. The optimum crop density interval of Rigasol/PR and Larisol (58000 plant ha-1) was wider than that of Diabolo (46000 plant ha-1). The maximum yield of Larisol was higher at the optimal crop density level. As regards yield, Diabol was the most stable hybrid.
The statistical analysis on the stability of the yield of Alexandra/PR and Aréna/PR showed that Aréna/PR is more stable, and its optimal crop density level is lower than that of Alexandra/PR.
Plant protection, and especially the efficiency of protection against mycosis, is a very important production technological element concerning sunflower. The efficiency of production can be increased on the basis of a thorough pathological survey and its results carried out in a wide variety of hybrids, as the features of hybrids, the reactions... of genetic bases to pathogens can be found out under domestic conditions.
The tests were carried out at variety-test lots of OMMI for hybrids used for food or oil and other sunflower varieties admitted by the state at the Experimental Site DTTI Látókép, Centre of Agricultural Sciences, University of Debrecen between 1998 and 2002. The number of the tested hybrids was 49 in 1998, 45 in 1999, 49 in 2000, 55 in 2001, and 44 in 2002.
Due to the infection source of high amounts remained from 1997 and the favourable weather conditions for the pathogens, an infection of high degree was experienced in the tested stands. The lowest infection index in the hybrids with a very short vegetative period was experienced with Beni hybrids. Comparing to the average of the hybridgroup with short vegetative period, a low infection index characterised the Baleno, Trident, IBH-166, Hysun 321, Resia, Alexandra, Cergold and Pixel hybrids. In 1999, among hybrids with medium vegetative period, Zoltán, Zsuzsa and Util hybrids could be highlighted because of their low infection index. In 1998, among confentionary hybrids, Marica-2 hybrid had the most favourable index values (2,55).
During our trials, the experienced infection dynamics were compared in the event of hybrids with higher and lower susceptibility under different sowing technological elements. The results call for the fact that when a hybrid with higher susceptibility is produced, production technological elements, such as the time of sowing, influence considerably the damage caused by the pathogen, therefore it must not be ignored when its determination takes place. In the event of hybrids with lower susceptibility the change of the tested production technological elements within the biological optimum does not lead to the increased risk of the damage caused by Diaporthe helianthi.
The effectiveness of plant production is basically influenced by the ecological, biological and agricultural technical factors. There are many kinds of sunflower hybrids which differres in their adaptability. If we want to increase the efficiency of sunflower production, we have to design different technologies for each hybrid. In the last deca...de, the range of sunflower hybrids increased exceedingly. This is the reason why we have to do experiments with them and examine what the relationship among genotypes, the environment and the hybrids is.
We made our experiments at the Látóképi Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen. We had 57 hybrids in 2001, and 44 in 2002 and 2003. We used only just those hybrids which were planted in every year.
In 2001 the months at summer were hot and the distribution of rainfall was extreme. In the beginning of the year 2002, the summer was also hot. During the abscessing period, the temperature was under the 30 years average and the rainless period was typical. In 2003, the temperature was extrame and the rainfall during the growing season was dry. The yield average which was determined after the three years in the very early group averaged 3998,9 kg/ha. The best hybrids were the LG 5385 (4273,3 kg/ha) and the Magóg (4134,4 kg/ha). The early group’s average was 4129,4 kg/ha. The best hybrid was the Astor in the early group. The middle group’s average was 4169 kg/ha and the Zoltán had a better yield than average (4238 kg/ha). In the confectionary group the Iregi szürke csíkos (3579,9 kg/ha) reached the best yield and it is above the average to it’s group (3225 kg/ha).
To estimate the results, we used factor analysis. Its results allow us to say that rainfall first and second part of June has a negative influence on yield. Aswith to the yield, yield safety is also important to know, which shows the adaptability of the hybrid.
After examining the CV% in the three years we can say that the most stable hybrids were in the very early group Samanta (10,94 CV%) and the LG 5385 (12 CV%) In the early group, the most reliable hybrids were Altesse RM (6,9 CV%) and the Astor (10,8 CV%) and the end in the middle group the Lympil (10 CV%) and in the confectionary group the Birdy (9,8 CV%) and IS 8004 (12 CV%) were the best.
After examining yield and yield safety, our conclusions are that in the Hajdúsági löszhát, the very early group LG 5385, early group Altesse RM, middle group Lympil and the parandial group IS 8004 hybrid had the highest yield and the best yield stability.
Sunflower is our most important oil-plant grown on the largest area in Hungary. In Europe sunflower has been grown since the 16th century. In recent years sunflower growing area is between 450-500 thousand hectares. Weed management in sunflower production is getting more and more difficult in case of annual and perennial dicotyledonous weeds, e...specially in dry springs. Two active ingredients, imazamox and tribenuron-methyl could be a solution for farmers for the control of these weeds in herbicide tolerant sunflower hybrids (Christensen-Reisinger 2000, Hódi-Torma 2004, Nagy et al. 2006). Most of the farmers choose the Clearfield technology and the use of tribenuron-methyl herbicides. In 2009 imazamox- (IMI) and tribenuron-methyl- (SU) tolerant sunflower hybrids were produced on 200 hectares in Hungary, of which 150 hectares was IMI, while 50 hectares was SU-hybrids. Small plot experiments were carried out to investigate the phytotoxicity of herbicides on imazamox (IMI) and tribenuron-methyl (SU) tolerant sunflower hybrids under field conditions. At harvest we measured the moisture content of achenes and average yield.
Nowadays, phytopathogenic fungi cause the most serious yield loss in open field cultures, and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is no exception to this phenomenon. Sclerotinia stalk and head rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) is present in the whole area of Hungary, and can cause serious financial loss. In our experiment, sunflower hybrids were tested...for resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection. 16 sunflower hybrids were examined at the Experimental Breeding Site in Jászboldogháza. Pesticide treatment and also nutrient replacement were applied on the sunflower fields.
White mould is the most important desease of sunflower. We are not able to grow sunflower on the same area for 5-6 years, because of sclerotia. One of the protection methods is if we destroy the sclerotia in the soil with hyperparasite microorganisms, so we can reduce the comeback time of sunflower.
We carried out our farm size research...es through 3 years, with the most important sunflower hybrids of Hungary in the area of Vásárhelyi Róna Kft. We can conclude that the microbiological products (Koni, Trifender, Mico’sol) effect positively on the yield of sunflower hybrids, but the weather (moisture) can significantly modify this effect.
In order to produce sunflower in Hungary today it is important to develop hybrid-specific cropping technologies. The ever widening number of hybrids makes the constant examination of genotypes necessary from the viewpoint of genotype-environment interactions and critical elements. Plant density as a complex factor puts strain on the pathologica...l features, yield and quality of sunflower. The experiment’s main objective is to find the optimal plant density for both the genotype and external factors.
As a result it can be stated that the optimal crop density is between 45,000-75,000 plant/ha. In 2001 the optimal density was 55,000 plant/ha. The Aréna PR and the Alexandra PR hybrids produced the greatest yields (3511 kgha-1; 3338 kgha-1). In the growing season of 2002, the yields were higher than in the previous year and the optimal crop density was 45,000-65,000 plant/ha. The best yields were produced by the Aréna PR and Alexandra PR hybrids in this year again (4102 kgha-1; 4267 kgha-1) and in 2003, 45,000-65,000 plant/ha proved to be the best crop density. The highest yield was produced by the Alexandra PR.
Analyzing the growing seasons of 2001, 2002 and 2003 it can be declared that as a result of dry climate of the three years yields were higher. It can be stated that the yield is decreased by higher than average of precipitation in the growing season.
In our experiment the reaction of six sunflower hybrids of different genotypes (NK Oktava, ES Biba, ES Diagora, ES Ballistic, EGH 8925, PR 64 H 42) towards plant density has been investigated by different fungicide treatments in the crop-year of 2011 on a chernozem soil.
In the crop-year of 2011 sunflower populations were infected by a
disease according to our results. According to the results of the Pearson’s correlation analysis it has been revealed that stalk breakage and Diaporthe infection stand in a very close (r=0.782**) and middle close (r=0.523**) correlation resp. with plant density. The relationship between fungucude treatments and stalk breakage, just as Diaporthe infection showed to be middle and close respectively. Our results demonstrate the role of stalk and plate diseases (among them Diaporthe) in causing stalk breakage, for we have found a close positive correlation between stalk breakage and Diaporthe infection (r=0.624**) in our analysis.
From the aspect of yield amount the optimal plant density varied between 45 000 and 55 000 plants per hectare. Fungucude treatments enabled not only the use of higher plants densities, but they had a yield increasing effect as well. In the crop-year of 2011 the highest yield (4 559 kg ha-1) on a chernozem soil has been measured in case of the hybrid ECH8925.
Sunflower is one of the most important cultivated plants in Hungary. We carried out our research in 2009 with eight imidazolinone resistant hybrids and one conventional variety in order to compare the efficiency and selectivity of Clearfield technology to the conventional system. In the trial the Clearfield hybrids were treated by 3,5 l/ha Wing...-P (pre) and 1,2 l/ha Pulsar 40 SL(post). The plot of the conventional variety was sprayed by 4,0 l/ha Wing-P and 0,5 l/ha Goal Duplo (pre).
Wing-P also had a poor effect because of the lack of rain. Pulsar 40 SL gave an excellent result against the 2-6 leaves of monocotyledonous and the dicotyledonous weeds. Only the well-developed Hibiscus trionum survived the treatment. The combination of Wing-P and the Goal Duplo herbicide provided poor result against the caracteristical weeds of the experimental area because of the lack of rain. Oxifluorfen with contact effect burned the leaves of the sunflower.
Sunflower is the most important oil crop in Europe which is grown on the biggest area of all the oil crops. The area of producing sunflowers in Hungary was changing to 524–704 thousand hectares in the past decade in comparison with approximately 100 thousand hectares in the 1970’s. In our experiment different sunflowe...r hybrids were examined. The doses of fertilizers were the following in 2017 and 2018: 0–30–90–150 kg ha-1 N, 0-50-90-90 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 0–70–110–110 kg ha-1 K2O. Three different treatments of plant protection were used in the experiment to protect them from fungal infections. A rise in the dosage of nitrogen resulted in increasing infection. The biggest fungal infection was identified in 150 kg ha-1 N, 90 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 110 kg ha-1 K2O treatment. The largest infection was measured on plots without plant protection at the highest N doses, both in leaf and disc diseases. We measured the highest 41.25% in 2017 and 53.1% in 2018 Diaporthe helianthi infection, and 24.5% in 2017 and 25.5 % in 2018 Sclerotinia sclerotiorum disc infection in these plots. kg ha-1
Average yield was changing between 2.96–4.67 t ha-1 in 2017/2018. The lowest yield was obtained in the absolute control plot (without plant protection and without nutrient) in both years, which was 2.96 t ha-1 in 2017 and 3.14 t ha-1. The yields increased due to growing nutrient supply and excellent plant protection. The highest yields were 3.67 t ha-1 in 2017 and 4.67 t ha-1 in 2018 (150 kg ha-1 N, 90 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 110 kg K2O active substance). Purpose of the experiment at analysing the impact of different treatments on the profitability of sunflower production.
Extreme weather conditions are becoming more and more frequent in the crop years, thus increase the risk of sunflower production.
The objective of researches into plant production is to minimize these effects as much as possible. In this sense, the optimization of
agrotechnological factors is of high importance. Within these factors, the
and optimized, rational crop protection technologies are important, especially in the highly sensitive sunflower cultures. The effect of
sowing time, crop density, and fungicide treatments on the yield of sunflower hybrids was analysed in different crop years in 2008
and 2009. In each case, the infection was highest with the early sowing time and at the highest crop density level (65000 ha-1). When
one fungicide treatment was applied, the rate of infection decreased compared to the control treatment. The further decrease of the
infection rate was less after the second fungicide treatment.
In the humid year of 2008 the crop yield was the highest at 45000 ha-1 crop density level in the control treatment and at 55000 crop
ha-1 crop density level when fungicides were applied. In the draughty year of 2009 the maximum yield was gained at 55000 ha-1 crop
density level in the control treatment and at 65000 crop ha-1 when fungicides were applied. In 2008 and 2009 as regards the crop
yield, the difference between the optimal and minimal crop density levels was higher in the fungicide treatments than in the control
treatment (in 2008: control: 517 kg ha-1; one application of fungicides: 865 kg ha-1; two applications of fungicides: 842 kg ha-1), (in
2009: control: 577 kg ha-1; one application of fungicides: 761 kg ha-1; two applications of fungicides: 905 kg ha-1).
In each and every case, the first treatment with fungicides was more effective than the second. In 2008, the highest yield was
obtained with the third, late sowing time in each fungicide treatment. The differences between the crop yields with different sowing
times was less than in 2009, when the results of the second treatment exceeded those of the first and third treatment in each case.
In order to ensure modern Hungarian sunflower production, the development of hybrid-specific techniques are highly important. The continual expansion in hybrid choice makes the examination of genotypes necessary in the relation of genotype and environment interactions and critical factors. The Plant density as a complex determinant factor has a... strong effect on sunflower yield, quality and plant hygiene. As a result of the experiments, we can state that the optimal density was 45.000-65.000 plant/hectar. In 2001-2002, the optimal density was 45.000-55.000 plant/hectar; while in 2000, it was 65.000 plant/hectar.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Our study focused on plant density reactions of sunflower hybrids on chernozem soil in years with different levels of available water (2011 and 2012). We studied factors (i.e.infections, yield) that are most affected by the amount of precipitation.
The field research was carried out at the experimental farm of the University of Debrecen at Látókép on calcareous chernozem soil in Hungary. We examined the effects of the sowing time and the fungicide treatment on the yield, oil yield and oil content of two different genotypes of sunflower hybrids (NK Ferti, PR64H42) in 2012 and 2013. We a...pplied three different sowing times (early, average, late) and two different treatment levels of fungicides (control =no fungicides applied, double fungicide protection).
During our research, we received better results in 2013 than in 2012. The application of different planting times affected the yield and oil yield production and the oil content as well. The optimal circumstances for yield and oil yield production were provided by late planting in 2012, while by average planting time in 2013. The highest oil yield results were reached by late plating in both years (except for hybrid PR64H42 in the double treated parcels where average plating time turned out to be more effective). The correlation between the plating time, the yield and oil yield production and the oil content was strong in 2012 (r=0.600**, r=0.639**, r=0.590**). On the other side, in 2013, the correlation was medium between the planting time, the yield production and the oil content.
We applied Pearson’s correlation to analyze the effect of the double fungicide treatment on the yield and oil yield production (2012: r=0.498**, r=0.407**). These results were better in 2013 (r=0.603**, r=0.623**), besides, the double fungicide treatment also increased the oil content (r=0.315**).
Nowadays, for increasing efficiency of sunflower production treating hybrid-specific technologies was required. Increasing of hybrid choice gave reasons for trials in respects of critical factors, as well as in case of genotype-enviroment interactions. The effect of changing plant density show up as determinant factor which affects on yield as...well as on plant hygienic conditions. Trials were established on calcareous chernozem soil (Hajdú-Bihar county), in 2001-2002. The field trials were randomized, in four repetition on small parcels. The plant density trials were established in 35.000-75.000 plant/hectar interval using a scale of 10.000 plant/hectar. 10 hybrids were used in both year.
In 2001, 55.000 plant/hectar density was the optimal, in case of most of the hybrids. The yield of tested hybrids did not show significant difference. Yield decreasing effect of using less than optimal density was more significant than in case of using optimal plant density. In 2002, the optimal density was in 45.000-65.000 plant/hectar interval, there was no possibility to find narrower optimum.
Presence of Diaporthe helianthi and the damage caused by the pathogen was significant in 1997-1999, whereas in 2001-2002 the large-scale appearance of the pathogen did not occur. In 2001, the affect of high plant density on disease caused by Diaporthe helianthi showed just tendency-like appearance, in 2002, the infection showed up just in the end of the vegetation period, without significant damage. In spite of the low infection level, the difference between the infection of the diverse plant density treatment was significant. Increasing plant density made increase the frequency of the Diaporthe helianthi infection. The rate of the flower diseases was around 3-16% in 2001, the highest infection level emerged in 65.000-75.000 plant/hectar density, whereas in 2002, the rate of infection level was less than 10%. The increasing plant density helped the development of flower diseases.
Cadmium is one of the most dangerous heavy metals, which may cause serious problems in certain physiological processes of living organisms even in small amounts. In our work we analysed how cadmium affects some physiological parameters of different maize and sunflower hybrids. The chlorophyll contents and the morphological changes of the root w...ere examined. We received different results in terms of the cadmium tolerance of these two plants.