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The structure of tertiary education, training and research potential influencing factors
Published February 3, 2016
49-53

Nowadays more and more pronounced demand for tertiary education appears as an output of the labor market and the real labor market needs coordination of intention. A necessary condition for the long-term sector strategies, conscious coordination. In Hungary – the sector management level – headed tertiary education training structure and the... transformation of the institutional network. There is a close relationship between training supply and research and development potential, as an institution typically the same disciplinary education and research base continues. Based on this, we assume that the structure of the training may influence the development of the restructuring of the research and development potential as well. The institutional network reorganization (merger, liquidation, establishment of new institutions) is expected to result in a former spatial structure of tertiary education in the modification, which in itself is a training and research supply spatial rearrangement may apply. Against this background, questions have been raised as to how the objectives in the current tertiary education strategy for economic operators serving the needs of each territorial unit, how the institution fits into network transformation of economic structure and labor market needs of the regions.

In order for the Hungarian tertiary education can meet the requirement for industry standards, an essential part of the structure of industries, and the changes occurring in the economic structure, trends and industry relations in the investigation. On the other hand, we do not ignore those factors are not, which have a determining influence on the tertiary education institutions in training and R&D supply. As part of this study in tertiary education institutions will be examined possible factors influencing education, research and development demand and supply, which gets a prominent role in the economic structure of relations between the territorial dimension in the evolution of discount factors and the nature of particular sectors.

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Differences in Regional Development in the Northern Great Plain Region
Published December 6, 2005
170-180

An important ambition of EU regional politics is the reduction of disparities. An important strategical objective of the Commission is to terminate underdevelopment and to ensure the development of the regions based on the principles of solidarity, equity and justice. The commission has dedicated forty percent of its common budget to achieve th...ese goals. The differences in development are significantly influenced by the economic characteristics of the specific region, the quality and quantity of human resources, the accessibility of the region and factors influencing local quality of life.
The new spatial structure has been formed by the processes of the change of regime, the events of nineties and the economic renewal based onforeign capital investments parallel with crisis phenomenon. The economic, political and social consequences of the transformation have significantly transformed spatial structure and increased disparities. New disparities have formed, which strengthened due to the formation of east-west slopes and local crisis zones. The outstanding improvement of the capital resulted in great regional development differences, which can be detected when examining regional distribution of gross domestic product. The Eastern part of the country was most heavily affected by the collapse of heavy industry and agricultural mass production based on the Eastern markets.
It is of key importance for the region to strengthen regional competitiveness, which requires the application of consistent development-politics. Economic development is the most important, which can also draw the possibility of establishing welfare infrastructures. It is important to develop the processing industry, the supply networks and to ease the lack of capital it is also important to involve foreign capital. Developing agriculture plays an important role in transforming the structure of the economy. Since the conditions of the region, its traditions and long-term competitive advantages are favorable, thus can represent a greater ratio in the economy than the EU average. The modernisation of the agricultural sector can be promoted by supporting marketing, quality agricultural development and producer-retail cooperation. It is also highly important to promote development in transportation and informatics infrastructure and human resources.
In the future – based on the strength of the region – it is necessary to achieve such a consistent regional development politics, which by validating the principles of regional politics, serves the interest of utilizing regional development supports most efficiently and prevents the irreversible underdevelopment of the region and promotes fast development.

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Regional Development Differences in Hungary and the Northern-Great Plain Region
Published March 4, 2005
62-71

The most important endeavour of European Union’s regional policy is to moderate disparities. An emphasised strategic objective of member states, based on the principle of solidarity, fairness and justice, is to develop regions and almost forty percent of the common budget is devoted to achieving this objective.
Hungary, as a full EU member... state, will get a new chance for underdeveloped regions, especially for the Eastern-Hungarian as well as the North Hungarian and North Plain Region.
The differences in development among the regions are significantly influenced by the economic characteristics of the specific region, quality and quantity of human resources, accessability of the region and other factors influencing local quality of life beside natural conditions.
The new spatial structure was formed by change of regime, processes of the nineties, primarily the economic renewal based on foreign capital investments and the crisis phenomena in parallel with these. The economic, political and social consequences of the transformation significantly changed spatial structure and increased disparities. New disparities formed which were further aggravated as a consequence due to the formation of the eastern-western slope and local crisis zones. As a result of the outstanding development of the capital, the long term differentiation of regional development differences can also be detected when examining the regional distribution of Hungarian gross domestic product. The collapse of heavy industry and agricultural mass production based on the eastern markets primarily affected the north-east counties in the eastern part of the country.
Strengthening regional competitiveness is of key importance for the region, which requires the application of consistent development policy. The most important is economic development which, if it operates well, also infers the possibility of establishing welfare infrastructures. Drawing in external sources to ease the significant lack of capital is important for the processing industry and the development of supplier networks. Agricultural development also plays an important role in transforming economic structure, since the characteristics of the region, its traditions and long term competitive advantages are favourable, therefore it is going to represent a higher ratio within the economy than the EU average. The modernisation of the agricultural sector can be promoted by supporting market accession, quality agricultural production and stimulating producer-retailer cooperation. The development of transportation and informatics infrastructure as well as human resource development plays a significantly important role in the development of the region.
In conclusion, the implementation of such a consistent regional development policy is required in the future, based on the strengths of the region, that serves the most efficient utilisation of regional development funds through the implementation of regional policy principles and prevents the irreversible decay of the region while promoting rapid development.

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Dilemma of interpreting the Tisza space in regional dimensions
Published March 20, 2013
169-171

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">This study deals with the evaluation of an especially important area, since the Tisza river is the basis of the spatial organisation of the Great Plain, the main spatial structural axis of Eastern Hungary and also its ecologic corridor of continental significance. The Tisza is a river which connects five countries to each other and it has an enormous catchment area. Its longest section can be found in Hungary. Two million people live directly in the spatial environment of the river. The safety and favourable quality of life of these people have to be provided. This is a great challenge from the aspect of regional development, economic, technological improvement, the acceleration of innovation processes, as well as the establishment of natural and environmental harmony.

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The characteristics of the resource needs of innovative businesses
Published March 23, 2016
123-127

Every university was funded in different historical periods with particular feature, particular political system, particular proprietory structure and particular economic background, which characterised the particular era. The historical antecedents considerably influenced the situation and role of the institutions as well as the course of thei...r development. Although they had common features but their spatial projections are very dissimilar. In the 19th and 20th century Hungarian history – in the periods of economic integration with the modification of political system and transformation of the social background – the economic and social functions of tertiary education underwent considerable changes, which started to accomplish by the second half of the 20th century and the early 21st century. To moderate regional disparities, European and Hungarian regional development policy considers particular importance to the economic structure of the regions and their potential to be reformed, which is one of the corner stones of compatibility. Considering the more and more diversifying functions of universities, the question is, which factor is more significant; tertiary education or the relation between the sectors of national economy. The possible correlations we presented through the economic structure and the transformation of tertiary education functions of the integration periods.

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Land use changes in suburban areas – case study of Lublin
Published November 13, 2012
43-46

The main reason to analyzing the space structure in the Lublin area is to determine the direction and pace of suburbanization in municipalities adjacent to Lublin, distinction factors and motives of population movements to the suburbs, complain rural-urban interaction and multifunctionality of land use. Housing development over the years was ac...companied by confusion in planning documents and the law. Changes in regulations on land use in 1994 and 2003 in Poland additionally deepened the negative situation. Local authorities failed to control the spontaneous process of suburbanization, which adversely affected not only the spatial structure of municipalities, but also on local relationship, landscape, land use and the former urban systems. The result are long-term problems associated with incompatibility rural areas to support a growing number of residents, such as failure of the social and technical infrastructure.

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Topology in the fruit plantation
Published November 13, 2012
253-257

The localization of fruit trees, the topology of the branch structure and the spatial structure of the canopy are important to plan sitespecific agro-ecological and production technology projects in an orchard. The currently used instruments and technologies – in the precision agriculture – give opportunities to obtain these informations. T...he examinations were carried out in the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag with the use of a GreenSeeker 505 Hand Held™ Optical Sensor Unit, and its interface the Trimble AgGPS FmX Integrated Display board computer. The collected spectral data were completed with the 3D point cloud by Leica ScanStation C10 laser scanner. The laser impulse data and the vegetation index values were integrated in a unified 3D system. The integration of the two special data collection system provides new opportunities in the development of precision production technology system. The results could be directly used in phytotechnology, water management, plant protection and harvesting in orchards. Our elaborated method can supply digital high spatial accuracy guidance data for development of the automated machines, which could provide some new developmental way in the immediate future.

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Periphery formation and economic-social conflict
Published May 6, 2013
87-90

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The timeliness, significance and importance of the study is sensitively shown by the fact that a large part of the Tisza region is slowly being moved to the periphery in the slowly modernising and changing economic and settlement spatial structure of the Great Plain. This situation is also deepened by the fact that the social and economic backlog increases in the majority of the region, as one third of the 33 most disadvantaged small regions in Hungary can be found here. This study basically contributes to the establishment of the development of the Tisza river’s spatial environment and the development of new solutions.

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Genetic discontinuity analysis of Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)
Published May 29, 2017
5-11

The Collared Dove conquered continent areas within a few decades. Causes and dispersion pattern of expansion has been investigated in several studies. However, the relationship between the geographic distribution and genetic structure of populations has not been researched. We used 152 individuals from 19 countries in this study. We analyze a 6...50 bp long mitochondrial COI sequences of each individuals. We were performed Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis, Principal Component Analysis and analysis of the genetic discontinuity in this study. Under 2500 km distance was a positive correlation between the genetic differentiation and different geographical areas. Hidden genetic barriers were found only Carpatian Basin. Could not be detected signs of genetic isolation in other regions. This will probably due to the unevenness of the sample collection, because these areas proportionally much fewer sequences were available. Therefore, is worth repeat this analysis after further sample collection, in the future.

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Evaluation of technologies and resources from the spatial and social aspect
Published April 23, 2014
73-75

The basic functioning of the world is mostly led by negative trends. One of the fundamental reasons for this phenomenon is that the different technologies (hardware, software, resources) do not act properly and in the proper structure by means of the produced products and services. Therefore, the examination of technologies and resources is a k...ey question of our world and development from various aspects. Technologies convey all positive and negative impacts which can be regarded as the fundamental reasons and causes of harmonious or disharmonious development. For this reason, the role of technologies in development and harmonious functioning is of paramount importance.

As a final conclusion, we established that the different technologies (hardware, software, resources) are interpreted as impact conveyors which predominate by means of products and services in a way that their relation system is determined. By using the thermodynamic interpretation which is the basis of the functioning of the world, we built a system consisting of 14 elements to evaluate different technologies, to interpret its functioning and to develop positive interactions and trends.

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Visualization techniques in agriculture
Published February 25, 2014
95-98

This paper describes a dynamic map representation method which provides a flexible, spectacular and cost-effective opportunity for the illustration and description of spatial data due to its parametrability, web-based publication and the free sowftare it uses in multi-user circumstances.

The tasks of the database serves and the processi...ng were performed by an ASUS WL-500 G Premium v2 router and a 80 GB hard disk. The database contains the measured data of the nitrogen fertilisation experiment established on the Látókép Experiment Site of the Centre for Agricultural Sciences of the University of Debrecen. The tests showed that the generation time of the processor which was run through the router did not significantly increase. Therefore, the configuration developed by us is suitable for users who do not wish to invest into a large and expensive server, but they still want to view their data quickly and easily, as well as to reach them from anywhere.

The available data were not sorted into a database which was performed with Quantum GIS in a way to have an optimum database structure which is adjusted to the expected areas of use and the expected running speeds were also taken into consideration. The processor which processes the database items was written in PHP language. The main role of the processor is that it produces a KML file real time which is suitable for viewing with a given map viewer client (e.g. Google Earth). This application makes it possible to view information related to geographical objects, values stored in the database or those calculated by the processor on a map in 2D or 3D in a versatile way.

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The situation and role of higher education in the North Hungary region
Published February 17, 2015
91-96

Northern Hungary is one of the most disadvantageous regions of Hungary and the European Union; "keeping force" is extremely week. The regional spatial inequalities – despite the national and EU convergence program – have been increasing year by year. The social and economic situation of the region shows negative trends. Negative features of... the migration processes are manifested in the candidates' choice for tertiary education has increased in the region in the past three years parallel with the proportion of those who are not on site, but primarily in the Central Hungarian region to continue their studies. An intensification of the negative trends is experienced in the economic processes both in jobs and the structure and performance of the local economy in respect of per capita income.

The transition from the nineties has decisively influenced the social and economic processes and the status of tertiary education institutions and their constantly changing role in the region. The role of education has become a key point of their activities as financing of the sector encouraged the institutions to increase the number of students and training offer, while R&D as form of cooperation in the economic sphere overshaded. Nowadays and over the past decade the increasing demand to transform their educational profile has increased in accordance with the social and economic situation of the region, adjusted to the catch-up and development opportunities of the region.

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The Target Areas of Regional Development, Tool and Institutional Background, its Present and Future Prospects
Published May 4, 2004
138-142

Regional politics determines the aims of regional structures, and the tools with the institutional background on the whole necessary achieve these. Realizing the aims of regional politics is a precondition of executing the basic principles of regional development and politics. The regional institutional system for handling the decentralized fin...ancial resources has not evolved in Hungary yet. The professional institutes for preparing the programs have not been set up, and the management of execution is slowly taking shape. There are still deficiencies in the domestic application of concentration and addition principles. A number of funds are provided on a national level, that are directly or indirectly aimed at regional development. The obvious coordination among the funds is not carried out neither on a national, nor on a regional level, partly to avoid parallel consumption aims. The future of Hungarian spatial structure depends on the type of decentralization strategy the country will follow for the new resources after the accession. Total decentralization offers the most efficient solution for Hungary.

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New challenges in soil management
Published September 5, 2018
91-92
Soil management represents two important tasks that are harmonization of the soil protection with demands of the crop to be grown on the given land under prevailing farming condition. Further goals are to preserve and/or develop the soil physical, biological and chemical condition and to avoid the unfavourable changes of the soil biological a...ctivity and the soil structure. Classical authors emphasised the importance of creating proper seedbed for plants. In the physical approach, tillage was believed to play an important role in controlling soil processes. Consequently, the period of several centuries dominated by this approach is referred to as the era of crop-oriented tillage (Birkás et al., 2017). The overestimation of the importance of crop requirements resulted in damaging the soils, which inevitably led to turn to the soil-focused tillage. Since the first years of climate change, as the new trends have raised concern, tillage must be turned into a climate-focused effort with the aim of reducing climate-induced stresses through improving soil quality.
The development of soil management has always been determined by the economical background. At the same time, deteriorating site conditions have contributed to the conception of new tillage trends by forcing producers to find new solutions (e.g. dry farming theory in the past or adaptable tillage theory nowadays). Győrffy (2009) recited the most important keywords were listed in 2001 and that seemed to be important in the future of crop production. These keywords (endeavours) were as follows:
− Biofarming, organic farming, alternative farming, biodynamic farming, low input sustainable agriculture;
− Mid-tech farming, sustainable agriculture, soil conservation farming, no till farming, environmentally sound, environmentally friendly, diversity farming;
− Crop production system, integrated pest management, integrated farming, high-tech farming;
− Site specific production, site-specific technology, spatial variable technology, satellite farming;
− Precision farming.
Győrffy’s prognosis proved to be realistic and the efforts mentioned above have mostly been implemented. New challenges have also appeared in soil management in relation to the last decades. The most important endeavours for the future are:
1) Preserving climate-induced stresses endangering soils.
2) Turn to use climate mitigation soil tillage and crop production systems.
3) Applying soil management methods are adaptable to the different soil moisture content (over dried or wet may be quite common).
4) Use effectual water conservation tillage.
5) Use soil condition specific tillage depth and method.
6) Adapting the water and soil conservation methods in irrigation.
7) Preserving and improving soil organic matter content by tillage and crop production systems.
8) Considering that stubble residues are matter for soil protection, humus source and earthworm’ feed.
9) Site-specific adoption of green manure and cover crops.
10) Applying site-adopted (precision) fertilization and crop protection. Considering the development in agriculture, new endeavours will occur before long.
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CO2 emission of the soil on barley stubble
Published October 20, 2009
95-102

In the last decades the physical and biological status of the soils in Hungary significantly decreased. The degree and intensity of CO2-production of the soil is in close correlation to its structural status and organic matter content. In a complex soil tillage experiment at Karcag in situ measurements have been carried out since 200...2 in order to determine the CO2-emission of the soil. Carbon-dioxide emission of the soil in the cases of conventional tillage and reduced cultivation system was analysed in a long-term cultivation experiment. The measurements were carried out after the harvest of the barley, thus root respiration was excluded. For the spatial delimitation of the measuring area a newly developed frame+bowl set was used. Based on measurements, significant differences between cultivation systems can be recognized due to the soil structure changes and its effects

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Assessment of Environmental Susceptibility/Vulnerability of Soils
Published December 10, 2002
62-74

Soils represent a considerable part of the natural resources of Hungary. Consequently, rational land use and proper soil management – to guarantee normal soil functions – are important elements of sustainable (agricultural) development, having special importance both in the national economy and in environment protection.
The main soil fu...nctions in the biosphere are as follows: conditionally renewable natural resource; reactor, transformer and integrator of the combined influences of other natural resources (solar radiation, atmosphere, surface and subsurface waters, biological resources), place of „sphere-interactions”; medium for biomass production, primary food-source of the biosphere; storage of heat, water and plant nutrients; natural filter and detoxication system, which may prevent the deeper geological formations and the subsurface waters from various pollutants; high capacity buffer medium, which may prevent or moderate the unfavourable consequences of various environmental stresses; significant gene-reservoir, an important element of biodiversity.
Society utilizes these functions in different ways (rate, method, efficiency) throughout history, depending on the given natural conditions and socio-economic circumstances. In many cases the character of the particular functions was not properly taken into consideration during the utilization of soil resources, and the misguided management resulted in their over-exploitation, decreasing efficiency of one or more soil functions, and – over a certain limit – serious environmental deterioration.
Soil resources are threatened by the following environmental stresses:
– soil degradation processes;
– extreme moisture regime;
– nutrient stresses (deficiency or toxicity);
– environmental pollution.
Environmental stresses caused by natural factors or human activities represent an increasing ecological threat to the biosphere, as well as a socio-economic risk for sustainable development, including rational land use and soil management.
The stresses are caused by the integrated impacts of various soil properties, which are the results of soil processes (mass and energy regimes, abiotic and biotic transport and transformation and their interactions) under the combined influences of soil forming factors. Consequently, the control of soil processes is a great challenge and the main task of soil science and soil management in sustainable development.
The efficient control of these processes necessitates the following consecutive steps:
• registration of facts and consequences (information on land and soil characteristics, land use, cropping pattern, applied agrotechnics, yields, with their spatial and temporal variability);
• evaluation of potential reasons (definition and quantification of soil processes, analysis of influencing factors and their mechanisms);
• assessment of the theoretical, real, rational and economic possibilities for the control of soil processes (including their risk-assessment and impact analysis);
• elaboration of efficient technologies for the „best” control alternatives (best management practice).
Scientifically based planning and implementation of sustainable land use and rational soil management to ensure desirable soil functions, without any undesirable environmental side-effects, require adequate soil information. In the last years such data were organized into a computer-based GIS soil database in Hungary, giving opportunities for the quantification, analysis, modelling and forecasting of the studied environmental stresses and for the efficient and scientifically based prevention, elimination or reduction of environmental stresses and their unfavourable ecological and economical consequences.
Special attention was paid to the assessment of various soil degradation processes, as: (1) soil erosion by water or wind; (2) soil acidification; (3) salinization and/or alkalization; (4) physical degradation (structure destruction, compaction); (5) extreme moisture regime: drought sensitivity and waterlogging hazard; (6) biological degradation; (7) unfavourable changes in the plant nutrient regime; (8) decrease of natural buffering capacity, (9) soil (and water) pollution.
The actions against undesirable environmental stresses and their unfavourable consequences are important elements of sustainable, efficient, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound crop production and agricultural development. These are joint tasks of the state, decision makers on various levels, the land owners, the land users and – to a certain extent – of each member of the society.

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The settlement structure-related characteristics and social processes of Hajdúböszörmény after the millennium
Published July 18, 2012
49-56

The spatial structural position of Hajdúböszörmény (ease of access) and its economic and social endowments which are more favourable than those of its surroundings make the town more desirable as a target of migration. These endowments are rather advantageous on their own, but the specific settlement structure of the town results in the fac...t that concentrated, unmanageable and majorly segregated social crisis points have developed in some easily circumscribable parts of the settlement which could lead to a social explosion.

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