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New challenges in soil management
Published September 5, 2018
91-92
Soil management represents two important tasks that are harmonization of the soil protection with demands of the crop to be grown on the given land under prevailing farming condition. Further goals are to preserve and/or develop the soil physical, biological and chemical condition and to avoid the unfavourable changes of the soil biological a...ctivity and the soil structure. Classical authors emphasised the importance of creating proper seedbed for plants. In the physical approach, tillage was believed to play an important role in controlling soil processes. Consequently, the period of several centuries dominated by this approach is referred to as the era of crop-oriented tillage (Birkás et al., 2017). The overestimation of the importance of crop requirements resulted in damaging the soils, which inevitably led to turn to the soil-focused tillage. Since the first years of climate change, as the new trends have raised concern, tillage must be turned into a climate-focused effort with the aim of reducing climate-induced stresses through improving soil quality.
The development of soil management has always been determined by the economical background. At the same time, deteriorating site conditions have contributed to the conception of new tillage trends by forcing producers to find new solutions (e.g. dry farming theory in the past or adaptable tillage theory nowadays). Győrffy (2009) recited the most important keywords were listed in 2001 and that seemed to be important in the future of crop production. These keywords (endeavours) were as follows:
− Biofarming, organic farming, alternative farming, biodynamic farming, low input sustainable agriculture;
− Mid-tech farming, sustainable agriculture, soil conservation farming, no till farming, environmentally sound, environmentally friendly, diversity farming;
− Crop production system, integrated pest management, integrated farming, high-tech farming;
− Site specific production, site-specific technology, spatial variable technology, satellite farming;
− Precision farming.
Győrffy’s prognosis proved to be realistic and the efforts mentioned above have mostly been implemented. New challenges have also appeared in soil management in relation to the last decades. The most important endeavours for the future are:
1) Preserving climate-induced stresses endangering soils.
2) Turn to use climate mitigation soil tillage and crop production systems.
3) Applying soil management methods are adaptable to the different soil moisture content (over dried or wet may be quite common).
4) Use effectual water conservation tillage.
5) Use soil condition specific tillage depth and method.
6) Adapting the water and soil conservation methods in irrigation.
7) Preserving and improving soil organic matter content by tillage and crop production systems.
8) Considering that stubble residues are matter for soil protection, humus source and earthworm’ feed.
9) Site-specific adoption of green manure and cover crops.
10) Applying site-adopted (precision) fertilization and crop protection. Considering the development in agriculture, new endeavours will occur before long.
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Department of Agrochemistry and Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environment Management, Centre of Agriculture and Applied Economic Sciences, University of Debrecen, 138 Böszörményi út, H-4032 Debrecen
Published November 3, 2010
53-59

Applying alternative soil cultivation methods based on reduced disturbance of the soil more favourable conditions can be created in order to increase the organic matter content of the soil and the availability of the nutrients for the crops. In complex soil tillage experiment – in 1997 was set on – at Karcag, as the element of the investiga...tion of soil reduced and conventional tillage systems. There is close correlation between the degree and intensity of CO2-emission from the soil and the structural state and organic matter content of the soil. In order to quantify the increased CO2-emission from soil due to soil preserving cultivation systems, in situ CO2-emission of soil was measured by means of an ANAGAS 98 infrared gas analyser. The soil type of the investigated plot is meadow chernozem solonetz in the deeper layers, a soil type that is characteristic
for the Trans-Tisza Region of Hungary. In this paper the results gained from the measurement on different stubbles are published, as we consider stubbles the most suitable state when the effects of different soil cultivation systems on the microbiological activity of the soil can be compared. Experimental data provided information about the length of the time period when CO2 emission increasing effects of soil cultivation are observable. Studying the effect of different soil cultivation methods on the CO2 emission from chernozem soil is indisputably actual and needs more efforts as it can contribute to develop a more environmental friendly agricultural production. The main goal of these measurements was to determine the effect of soil cultivation technologies and certain agrotechnical elements on the factors of the soil carbon cycle.

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Statistical comparison of soil analysing results of chernozem soils
Published October 10, 2008
93-99

The soil fertility was degraded as a result of unreasonable tillage, therefore the application of site-specific nutrient replacement is necessary. It is essential for the application of precision fertilization to know the location, extension, soil properties and nutrient-supply of the different soil types of
cultivated areas.
We collected... soil samples from 580 hectares of land in 2006. Soil samples were collected from every 5 ha in 30 and 60 cm depths during Spring from 20.05.2006 to 12.06.2006 and again in Autumn from 09.19.2006 to 02.10.2006. Soil samples were analysed at the Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science of DE-ATC.
The two examined soils are slightly calcareous, weakly saline, poor in zinc. The calcareous chernozem soil is slightly acid, the content of humus, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is medium in this soil. The meadow chernozem soil is slightly alkaline, and properly supplied with humus and potassium, and middling supplied with nitrogen and phosphorus. The meadow chernozem soil is more heterogenous in soil plasticity, lime, saline, nitrogen phosphorus and potassium content and less heterogenous in pH and zinc content than the calcareous chernozem soil.
Standard deviation of measured values in pH, soil plasticity, humus and nitrogen content significantly differ between the examined soil types. The soil plasticity, pH, humus, nitrogen and zinc content significantly differ among calcareous chernozem soil and meadow chernozem soil, but the difference in phosphorus content can be statistically proven only in case of Spring soil sampling.

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Evaluation of reduced tillage technologies in corn production based on soil and crop analyses
Published September 7, 2001
47-54

Despite new cultivation methods, the proportion of conventionally cultivated land is still very high in Hungary.
Although these technologies demand more time, labour and fuel, they are still attractive to users because they require less professional skill and simple machinery. In Hungary, conventional tillage methods usually lead to soil det...erioration, soil compaction and a decrease in organic content. These side effects have caused gradually strengthening economic and environmental problems.
The technologies for those plants which are dominant on Hungarian arable lands use (winter wheat, maize, sunflower and barley) need to be improved both in the interest of environmental protection and the reduction of cultivation costs.
The Department of Land Use at Debrecen University is cooperating with KITE Sc. to carry out soil tillage  experiments at two pilot locations to prove tillage technologies already used in the USA.
The aim of our examination is to adapt new technological developments and machinery, and to improve them on Hungarian soil for local environmental conditions. With these improved machines, the field growing of plants could be executed by less manipulation and better suited to economic and environmental needs. The most significant task is to investigate and improve the conventional cultivation replacing, new soil-protecting tillage technologies, and to apply no-till and mulch tillage systems.
On the basis of the experiments’ survey data, we established that the looseness and moisture content of the soil using reduced tillage is more favourable than after using conventional technologies. The results of no-till and shallow spring tillage are behind those of winter plough or disk ripper cultivation in corn yield and production elements.
To preserve moisture content in the soil, the ground clearing and sowing while simultaneously performing no-till method presents the most favourable results. The surplus moisture gained using no-till technology is equal to 40 mm precipitation.
Regarding the yield of winter wheat we established that the tillage methods do not affect plant yield. Both disk ripper and conventional disc cultivation showed nearly the same harvest results (5.55 or 5.5 t/ha), where the difference is statistically hardly verifiable from the no-till method. From the individual production of corn and the number of plants planted in unit area,  calculated results prove that no significant difference can be detected between the production of winter plough and disk ripper technology. Although the yield achieved with the no-till method is less than with the previously mentioned technologies, the difference is only 9-10%. We received the lowest production at shallow spring tillage.
Evaluations have shown a 1.1 t/ha (13%) difference in the yield of maize, between winter tillage and the disk ripper method, in this case the traditional method resulted in higher yield. In winter tillage, the yield of maize was 1.9-2.1 t/ha (23-25%) higher than in the case of direct sowing and cultivator treatments. No significant difference could be noted between the yields of direct sowing and cultivator treatments.
Our research so far has proved the industrial application of reduced tillage methods in crop cultivation technologies.

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Examination of the physical state of the soil under conventional and reduced tillage systems
Published February 10, 2013
183-186

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">he effect of reduced and conventional tillage systems on soil compaction and moisture content in two years with extreme weather conditions is introduced in this paper. The investigations were carried out in a long-term soil cultivation experiment set on a heavy textured meadow chernozem soil at the Karcag Research Institute. In 2010 the amount of precipitation during the vegetation period of winter wheat was 623.3 mm, 2.2 times higher than the 50-year average, while in 2011 this value was 188.7 mm giving only 65% of the average. The examinations were made after harvest on stubbles on 4 test plots in 5 replications in the case of each tillage system. Soil compaction was characterised by penetration resistance values, while the actual soil moisture contents were determined by gravimetry. The values of penetration resistance and soil moisture content of the cultivated soil layer were better in the case of reduced tillage under extreme precipitation conditions. It could be established that regular application of deep soil loosening is essential due to the formation of the unfavourable compact soil layer under 30 cm. Conventional tillage resulted in enhanced compaction under the depth of ploughing, the penetration resistance can reach the value of 4 MPa under wet, while even 8 MPa under dry soil status.

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Effects of cultivation methods on some soil biological parameters of a meadow chernozem soil (Vertisols)
Published November 3, 2010
61-66

The effect of extended drought conditions on soil, the unfavourable cultivation technologies and the application of chemicals have been enhancing the processes of physical and biological soil degradation, so the fertility of soil is gradually declining. 
The effects of two cultivation methods – traditional ploughing (TP) and conservat...ion tillage (CT) – on the biological activity of a meadow
chernozem soil were examined in a long term experiment. Different parameters of the biological activity of soil were determined. These are
the numbers of total bacteria, microscopic fungi, aerobic cellulose decomposing bacteria, as well as the activities of some important soil
enzymes and CO2 production.
Conservation tillage seemed to be a more favourable cultivation method for the majority of microorganisms, the activities of urease and
dehydrogenase enzymes and CO2 production, compared to the traditional ploughing system. These parameters increased significantly,
especially in the upper layer of conservation tillage plots. Concerning the plant cultures, the majority of microbiological parameters were
higher in the soil of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) depending on the cultivation methods, so involving the pulses to the crop-rotation seems to be
very important in this soil type.
According to the ninth year’s results, the importance of conservation tillage as a means of protecting the soil biological activity in meadow
chernozem (Vertisols) can be established; it was proven by microbiological investigations.

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Effects of Tillage Systems on Physical Status and Organic Matter Turnover of the Soil
Published November 26, 2003
42-45

The cultivation technology for those plant, that play a key role in arable land production need to be renewed in order to reduce production costs and to protect arable land. The modernisation of technologies can only be achieved by applying appropriate tillage systems. Our measurements were carried out on chernozem soil with lime deposits at th...e Látókép Experimental Station of the Center for Agricultural Sciences, Debrecen University, in long term tillage experiments set up in 1989. We examined the typical physical parameters, the albedo, field capacity, the bulk density of the soil, organic carbon content (humus %) and the measured pH-values in the water solution within the two tillage variations. We have also modelled nitrogen cycle formation in different treatments.
A significant difference occured between the albedos of the two soils, which may be the result of significant amounts of stem remaining on the surface in the case of the reduced tillage method. The yellow, waxy stem of maize reflects 21% of the sun’s rays, especially at the beginning of the vegetation period, when its decomposition has only just started. This delys the warming up in early spring, which delays the sowing time of maize and reduces evaporation. In the two tillage variations, the water management characteristics do not differ practically, the wilting point field capacity are in accordance. In reduced tillage methods, the so-called „plough-pan” can be well measured at 15-20 cm, while in winter ploughing it is at 30 cm. The humus % of the soil does not differ in the two tillage variations, but due to the difference in bulk density this means a different humus and organic nitrogen content. The organic nitrogen content is greater in the reduced tillage method. On the basis of pH value evaluations, we could not detect significant differences in the two tillage variations. The organic nitrogen content of areas where reduced tillage method was applied is higher than in areas where conventional winter ploughing was applied.

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Effect of PRPSOL soil conditioner on the physical status of the soil in conventional and reduced tillage systems
Published February 25, 2014
109-113

The effect of PRP-SOL soil conditional on soil compaction, moisture content and bulk density is studied in a long-term soil cultivation experiment from 1997 on a heavy textured meadow chernozem soil, in reduced and conventional tillage at Karcag Research Institute. Our investigations were made in the vegetation period of corn, in June and after... harvesting, on stubble. Soil compaction was measured with a penetrometer, the actual moisture content was determined by gravimetric method. The bulk density values of the regularly cultivated soil layer of 0–10 and 10–20 cm depths were defined from undisturbed soil samples. We established that after 3 years the application of the soil conditioner has positive effect on soil compaction and moisture status of the top layer in the reduced tillage system. We could not figure out this positive effect in the case of conventional tillage.

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Investigation of soils of stubbles of winter wheat and winter peas in conventional and reduced tillage systems
Published February 3, 2016
95-99

The effect of reduced and conventional tillage on soil compaction, soil moisture status and carbon-dioxide emission of the soil was studied on a meadow chernozem soil with high clay content in the soil cultivation experiment started in 1997 at Karcag Research Institute. Our investigations were done on stubbles after the harvest of winter wheat ...and winter peas after the very droughty vegetation period of 2014/2015.

We established that the soil in both tillage systems was dry and compacted and the CO2-emission was very low. The positive effects of reduced tillage could be figured out only in the soil layer of 40–60 cm in the given weather conditions of that period.

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New approach in soil tillage – bases of the precision crop production
Published November 13, 2012
123-127

A new approach is needed in soil tillage practice. The important achievements of this are the recognition of the risk – poor tillage practices, poor soil quality, soil state defects, and climate extremes etc. – the need for the development of risk reduction, prevention, remediation and maintenance of the favorable soil state. In this paper ...13 main soil state defects are listed, to which the prevention and improving tasks are also commented. In the second part of the paper the most important soil tillage tasks are summarized in 30 sections and realization of these points may promote the implementation of precision plant production.

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Impact assesment of soil conditioners on a high clay content soil
Published February 17, 2015
137-141

Our measurements were done in a soil conditioner experiment started in 2014 which was set in conventional tillage system at the Karcag Research Institute where a soil conditioner was used from 2010. Effect of two different soil conditioners on compaction, moisture content of the soil and on CO2-emission was studied. Measurements were... done after sowing of maize and millet, and on stubble after harvesting. It can be established that less degree of compaction was characteristic to the soil of the plots treated for several years with the soil conditioner during the vegetation period than in case of untreated plots. Higher CO2-emission values were observed on the plots treated for several years than on the control plots. This effect can’t be established in case of soil conditioners used for first time in this year.

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Examinations of the carbon dioxide emission of the soil in the case of different tillage methods in a field experiment
Published June 30, 2018
209-212
Today's global challenge is the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases in the air. The level of CO2 emissions may be significantly affected by the agriculture and, more specifically, the applied tillage method, even though to a lesser extent than industrial production. On a global scale, the CO2 emission o...f an agricultural area is insignificant in comparison to that of a large-scale plant in an area of the same size, but areas under cultivation, including arable land, have a large global area. In this paper, we investigated the relationship between applied soil tillage methods and carbon dioxide emissions in the case of different fertiliser treatments. In our experiment we examined four types of tillage with five different fertiliser effects. Comparing fertiliser treatments and tillage methods, it was found that their interaction significantly affected carbon dioxide emissions, the lowest value was obtained in the case of the 210 l ha-1 Nitrosol+N-LOCK – tillage radish treatment. Strip and tillage radish methods have relatively homogeneous, low value.
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Sight-specific development of the tools for the measurement of CO2-emission of the soil
Published October 10, 2008
53-58

Soil is the main source and at the same time the potential sink of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO2, CH4). Measurements were carried out in the experimental sites (soil tillage experiments and an extensive pasture) of the Karcag Research Institute of University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural Sciences to determine the CO...b>2-emission of the soil. The in situ CO2-emission of soil was measured by means of an ANAGAS 98 infrared gas analyser in plastic (PVC) chambers, but this previously applied method (cylinders) was not suitable for the soil surface covered with grass,
hence a new instrument was needed to be invented. In order to measure CO2-emission on a larger area without deep disturbance of the soil, a special metal frame was created with a matching bowl. The most problematic part was the spatial delimitation of the measurement area as the surface of the soil can be very various and proper isolation is a must. We consider the frame+bowl method we developed suitable for measuring CO2-emission of pastures as well as other crop-fields. 

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Interactive evaluation of the main agrotechnical factors in rape production
Published November 2, 2009
71-79

Our polifactorial rape research was carried out at Látókép Research Centre of Debreceni Egyetem AMTC, 15 km away from Debrecen. The aim was to study the unique effect and the interactive effect of more factors. The research factors were the following: cultivation, time of sowing and nutrient supply. Soil moisture datas proved unambiguously t...hat increasing amounts of chemical fertilizer raise the water consumption of rape, lack of water in fertilized plots were always bigger then the water deficit in control plots. The highest amount of water deficit was experienced in the case of arable plots. However, increasing amounts of chemical fertilizers raised the amount of yield proportionately. We experienced yield depression only in the case of arable plots at the highest level of chemical fertilization. In polifactorial rape research sowing of 24th August 2007 of 2007/2008 was the most optimal in point of the amount of yield. This is most-significant in the case of loosening tillage and disking tillage plots, while the plots of ploughing lag behind those two in point of average yield. We experienced the biggest differences of yield in the case of different tillage plots of sowing on 24t August 2007. Still not even the plot with the highest average reached the limit of 4 tons, which can be attributed to high rate of lodging and the harvest loss caused by this. The biggest amount of yield was experienced in the case of sowing of 24th August 2007, with the highest level of chemical fertilization at loosening tillage plot (3930 kg/ha). We can observe big differences between the tillage methods; plots of loosening show a much better average yield then plots of disking and ploughing tillage. Considering the first observed crop year we can state that alternative tillage methods do have a future in rape growing of Hungary. 

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The aggregate stability of the soil in respect to the uniform aggregate stability indicator
Published July 16, 2007
83-99

Soil structure and its quality are fundamental properties because they control many processes in soils. Tillage, crop and other factors influence soil structure. Efficient protection of it needs indication of changes in soil structure. A new Normalized Stability Index proposed by Six et al. (2000) tries to evaluate these changes, which was comp...ared with some former used indices. The most common method (wet sieving) was modified to reduce the confounding effects of different particle size distribution of different soil types and method used to the investigation. Changes in soil structure caused by tillage and crop management therefore have been made quantitative and comparable. In this paper, we review the new method and Normalized Stability Index proposed by Six et al. (2000) and present the results of our investigations.

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CO2 emission of the soil on barley stubble
Published October 20, 2009
95-102

In the last decades the physical and biological status of the soils in Hungary significantly decreased. The degree and intensity of CO2-production of the soil is in close correlation to its structural status and organic matter content. In a complex soil tillage experiment at Karcag in situ measurements have been carried out since 200...2 in order to determine the CO2-emission of the soil. Carbon-dioxide emission of the soil in the cases of conventional tillage and reduced cultivation system was analysed in a long-term cultivation experiment. The measurements were carried out after the harvest of the barley, thus root respiration was excluded. For the spatial delimitation of the measuring area a newly developed frame+bowl set was used. Based on measurements, significant differences between cultivation systems can be recognized due to the soil structure changes and its effects

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The effect of soil cultivation systems on organic matter distribution in different grain size fractions of the soil based on three years of experience
Published May 23, 2006
22-30

Changes in the physical distribution (particle size and the state stability against decomposition) of the organic carbon pool in tilled layers of Hungarian field soil under different tillage treatments were studied. Three years after starting the experiment, soil samples were fractionated (they were taken in March 2005) by their particle size a...nd density. The treatments caused well measurable, significant effects on two fractions of intra-microaggregate organic matter (53-250μm particle-sized, well and less decomposition-resistant pools) and onto their relative rate in the organic carbon pool of the whole soil.
Different tillage treatments caused different distributions in the organic matter fractions. In regularly intensely cultivated soils evolve different physical structure, particle size-distribution, which reduce the soil fertility and its resistance against outer impacts.

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Comparative examination of the tillage systems of maize on meadow chernozem soil
Published July 24, 2014
21-24

Maize production plays a major role in the agriculture of Hungary. Maize yields were very variable in Hungary in the last few decades. Unpredictable purchase prices, periodical overproduction, the increasing occurrence of weather extremities, the uncertain profit producing ability, the soil degradation processes (physical, chemical and biologic...al degradation) and the high expenses are risk factors for producers. Due soil tillage, there is an opportunity to reduce these risks. Based on the experimental database of the Institute of Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and the KITE Plc., various cultivation systems were examined with maize (Zea mays L.) as indicator plant in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok country in 2012 and 2013. The sample area can be found in the outskirts of Kenderes on a meadow chernozem soil. On the examined plot, strip-tillage, subsoiling and moldboard ploughing were performed, each on 4.5 ha, respectively.

In general, our findings show, that strip-tillage and subsoiling can be alternative tillage systems beside moldboard ploughing on meadow chernozem soils in Hungary.

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Evolution of some components of agroecosystems productivity from Vinga Plain in water stress situations
Published October 5, 2010
174-179

The researches are inscribed on line of substantiation of durable agricultural system, having main objective the prominence of
quantitative and qualitative modifications made on agro-system level under the effect of no-tillage system for wheat, maize and soybeans.
The experimental field is placed on a cambium chernozem, with a medium cont...ent of clay, dominant in the Prodagro West Arad agrocentre
and representative for a large surface in the Banat-Crisana Plain.
The passing to no-till system change the structure of technological elements, through less soil works, so the impact on agro-system is
different comparing with conventional tillage, first less the intervention pressure on agro-system ant secondly appears new interactions, new
equilibriums and disequilibriums.
Considering the evolution of soil humidity, the observations made monthly (by taking soil samples and laboratory determinations) for
the three cultures showed that in the no-till system, there are more uniform values in the soil profile, and in the variants where the deep work
of soil was made it could be observed a low increase of the water volume in the soil.

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Daily soil carbon dioxide flux under different tillage conditions
Published December 15, 2019
141-144

Over the last few years, warming of the atmospheric layer near Earth's surface is increasingly experienced and researchers have also established that concentration of numerous greenhouse gases have risen over the past two centuries value. Change is basically a legitimate process - considering atmospheric concentration as well - but the change e...xperienced during the past centuries could not have become this critical without the contribution of human activity. Due to the nature of the greenhouse effect, the result of a very fragile, complex process is experienced currently on Earth, which can be significantly unbalanced even by a slight change. Carbon dioxide emitted from the soil is involved in the global cycle and has an impact on the greenhouse effect. The rise in soil respiration may result in the further intensification of warming. In the scope of the present study, it was examined how carbon dioxide emissions of the soil evolve over a day. The results have been established based on the comparison of the effects of different parts of the day, tillage methods and irrigation.

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Evaluation of striptillage and conventional tillage in maize production
Published April 23, 2014
37-40

Tillage changes soil properties and the way how the environment affects those properties. Soil properties and environment determine the rate of water movement in liquid and gaseous form into and out of soil. Based on the experimental database of the Institute of Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology of the University of Debrecen..., Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management and the KITE PLC, various cultivation systems were examined with maize (Zea mays L.) as indicator plant in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county. The sample area can be found in the outskirts of Kenderes on a meadow chernozem soil. On the examined plot, strip-tillage, subsoiling and moldboard ploughing were performed, each on 4.5 ha, respectively. The purpose of the present study is to compare these cultivation systems according to the soil- and maize kernel moisture content and to the yield based on the years of 2012 and 2013.

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Economic questions of maize production on different soil types
Published November 13, 2012
289-292

The requirements and objective of cultivation are in constant change. For example, different cultivation systems are developed for the purpose of soil protection, the preservation of its moisture content and on soils with various precipitation supply or production site conditions. Traditionally, one of the most important cultivation aims is cro...p needs. Further cost saving in fertilisation and crop protection can only be achieved by reducing the quality and quantity of production or it cannot be achieved at all. Furthermore, the costs can be significantly reduced by means of the rationalisation of cultivation. Energy and working time demand can also be notably reduced if ploughing is left out from the conventional tillage method. The key requirement of economicalness is to perform the cultivation at the optimal date, moisture level and the lowest possible cost.
Within production costs, the cost of cultivation is between 3–17%, while they are between 8–36% within machinery costs. It is the vital condition the usability of each technological method to progressively reduce costs. Our evaluation work was carried out with the consideration of the yield data obtained from cooperating farms and the experiment database of the Institute for Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen. Three technological methods (ploughing, heavy cultivator and loosening tillage) were used on several soil types which differ from in terms of cultivability (chernozem, sandy and sandy clay soils) from the economic/economical aspect. We examined the sectoral cost/income relation of maize production as an indicator plant. The maize price during the analytical period was 45 thousand HUF per t. On chernozem soils, the production of maize can be carried out on high income level, while maize production on sandy soils has a huge risk factor. The role of cultivation is the highest on high plasicity soils, since they have a huge energy
demand and the there is a short amount of time available for each procedure in most cases.

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The Effect of Tillage Treatments on Soil Temperature at Planting and on Corn (Zea mays L.) Yield
Published December 4, 2001
40-44

The effect of soil temperature was evaluated on the yield of the Occitan corn hybrid at a depth of 5 cm. We examined this effect on the time required from planting to emergence for three average durations: five, ten and fifteen days, all calculated from the day of planting. Winter plowing (27 cm), spring plowing (23 cm), disc-till (12 cm) treat...ments and 120 kg N per hectare fertilizer were applied. As a result of our analysis, we determined the post planting optimum soil temperatures for various time periods. The average soil temperature for a time period of 15 days post planting is the most usable for determining actual yields, followed by ten days, with five days proved to be the least usable (winter plow R2 = 0.86, spring plow R2 = 0.87, disc-till R2 = 0.64).

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Weed control with herbicide incorporation in sunflower
Published November 2, 2014
73-76

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">During the last decade certificate registration of 13 active ingedients were removed by European Union from sunflower herbicide market, including the basis for the incorporating technology, the trifluralin active ingredient as well. Its relative, the benfluralin active ingredient, which include the Balan 600 WDG herbicide product in sunflower, will be sold again from 2015 spring in Hungarian pesticide market. It has a broad-spectrum and lond residue besides it has very high level selectivity on sunflower. It has very good effect against annual monocotweeds such as common barnyadgrass, foxtail species, large crabgrass and wild proso millet, dicotyledonous weeds such as common lambsquarters,and redroot pigweed. It has significant side-effect against common ragweed, black nightshade, wild buckweed and prostrate knotweed. The long effect residue provide the weed-free til harvest. Benfluralin is totally selective on sunflower, as no colouring, any deformation or growth inhibition was not observed during the entire growing season. It should be sprayed 3-4 days before sowing within 1 hour and to be incorporated into the soil in 4-6 cm depth with tillage equipment. It can be used in tank mix with fluorochloridon in incorporated technology against annual dicotyledonous weeds. After the Balan incorporation can be used postemergence timing imazamox and tribenuron-metil active substances against hard kill and deeply germinating weeds. The products can not be used in tank mix with bacterial products.

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The scientific background of competitive maize production
Published September 5, 2018
33-46

The effect and interaction of crop production factors on maize yield has been examined for nearly 40 years at the Látókép Experiment Site of the University of Debrecen in a long-term field experiment that is unique and acknowledged in Europe. The research aim is to evaluate the effect of fertilisation, tillage, genotype, sowing, plant densit...y, crop protection and irrigation. The analysis of the database of the examined period makes it possible to evaluate maize yield, as well as the effect of crop production factors and crop year, as well as the interaction between these factors.

Based on the different tillage methods, it can be concluded that autumn ploughing provides the highest yield, but its effect significantly differed in irrigated and non-irrigated treatments. The periodical application of strip tillage is justified in areas with favourable soil conditions and free from compated layers (e.g. strip – strip – ploughing – loosening). Under conditions prone to drought, but especially in several consecutive years, a plant density of 70–80 thousand crops per hectare should be used in the case of favourable precipitation supply, but 60 thousand crops per hectare should not be exceeded in dry crop years. The yield increasing effect of fertilisation is significant both under non-irrigated and irrigated conditions, but it is much more moderate in the non-irrigated treatment.

Selecting the optimum sowing date is of key importance from the aspect of maize yield, especially in dry crop years. Irrigation is not enough in itself without intensive nutrient management, since it may lead to yield decrease.

The results of research, development and innovation, which are based on the performed long-term field experiment, contribute to the production technological methods which provide an opportunity to use sowing seeds, fertilisers and pesticides in a regionally tailored and differentiated way, adapted to the specific needs of the given plot, as well as to plan each operation and to implement precision maize production.

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