There is no effective method of homogeneity measurement of compost prism. The most frequently used technology is the examination of the particle distribution. This method needs a lot of time and large number of samples. The aim of our research is establishing different effective methods to determine the homogeneity of compost prisms. During our... work, we examined the homogeneity of a prism made of sewage sludge and saw-dust mixture.
The measurements were based on the different properties of raw materials. According to this we examined the homogeneity by moisture content, heavy metal content and gas distribution measurements.
The most effective method is the measurement of gasconcentration. Although gas-concentration measurements it need special equipment it has more advantages than the other methods. The examination of gas-distribution compensates the problem of sampling because the measurement is direct. It provides the opportunity to estimate the amount of emitted toxic gases and to determine the maturity of the compost and the effectiveness of the degradation.
The sewage sludge compost is suitable to improve the colloid-poor sandy soils, which are common characteristics of poor water- and nutrientholding capacity. The general characteristics of sandy soils are the light mechanical composition, the low content of humus and mineral colloids, large pore size and a bad aggregate stability. They have a po...or nutrient supply capacity, due to its high porosity the organic matter is degraded very quickly to mineral colloids (Stefanovits et al., 1999).
By the compost application the soil is enriched mineral and organic colloids, thereby improving the soil structure. The effect of addition of compost to soil the water- and nutrient-holding capacity and porosity could be increased and the bulk density could be decreased (Martens and Frankenberger, 1992).
The aim of our experiment is to carry out physical measurements to determine the effects of compost treatment. In this study the results of the first year are presented.
Nitrogen plays significant role in the life of plants, it could be the main limiting factor of plant growth. Sustainable plant nutrition pays attention to satisfy the plants’ nutrient demand without chemical fertilizers, e.g. by bounding the atmospheric nitrogen. The nitrogen fixing organizations play important role in supplying plants with n...itrogenbecause the N2-fixingbacteria can fix high amounts of nitrogen.
Many effects of the sewage sludge compost extracts is known in the literature. We studied the effect of sewage sludge compost water extract in laboratory conditions on the growth of Rhizobium spp. isolated from green pea, while in a small plot experiment thepea-Rhizobium symbiosis were studied on sandy soil in the Nyírség region. The extract was produced under aerobic conditions. The compost extract was applied before and/or after sowing. In the laboratory experiments we used the sterile version of extract, in different doses.
In our work we present the effect of compost water extract on the number of green pea roots nodules, dry weight of the plant and reproduction of the Rhizobium bacteria.
I would like to draw the attention to the different side-products and wastes that contain lots of organic matter, micro and macro elements, and the fact that they do not have any harmful effect. These materials can be used as micronutrient fertilizers, therefore quantity of the produced CO2 and other greenhouse gases will decrease. C...ompost, sewage sludge and lime sludge were used in our experiments. The usability of these materials in crop production was examined in crop production within laboratory conditions.
The mixing rate of the compost raw materials basically determines the procedure of degradation. In most cases, in practice the real mixing ratio is not equal with the counted ratio – which based on the C/N ratio – and the check of the fulfilled mixing is not possible.
The homogeneity of the prism is also one of the fundamentals of the ef
During our research we examined the reflectance values of different compost mixtures where sewage sludge and rape-straw were used as raw materials.
According to our results we built up a regression model which gives the ability to determine the mixing rate (in 5% margin of error) and makes possible to check the homogeneity of the prism together with the access of immediate action.
The utilisation of composts depends on their maturity and stability. A great part of the determination methods can be set in laboratory and needs complicated sample preparation. The aim of this paper was introduce an effective and fast method which based on the different reflectance of the different organic compounds.
During our research we
As a result, we came to the conclusion that the reflectance, measured at 645 nm or higher, is applicable to determine compost maturity if it is used with temperature measurements.
In recent years the regulations of the EU unambiguously determine that the biodegradable wastes should be used for biogas production or composting. The direct use of sewage sludge in agriculture is limited by its hazardous microelement content, but it can be used effectively in composting. The limitation parameters can be extinguished with corr...ect compost-mixture and technology variants. The exact determination of the technologies and mixtures result a stable, constant quality product. The compost, as a classified product, is friable structured. The end-product is a
homogeneous mould with good water capacity, does not contain any weed seeds and pathogenic organisms. The compost does not have a acidify effect on the soil. It is an effective fertilizer thanks to its macro and microelement content.
Composting of sewage sludges makes easier the utilization of sewage sludge in the agriculture and the composts in good quality could increase the nutrient content of soil. Due to the composting process, the sewage sludge composts with high organic matter content can be utilized in the same way as other composts or farmyard manure.