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Regulation in Hungary of the Use of Waste Water and Sewage Sludge in Agriculture
Published May 4, 2004
143-149

Regulating the use of waste water and sewage sludge in agriculture in such a way as to prevent harmful effects on soil, vegetation, animals and man.
In European Union there is a Council Directive (86/278/EEC) on the protection of the environment, and in particular of the soil, when sewage sludge is used in agriculture.
In the enlargement ...process of the European Union the Hungarian Government created a new rule (50/2001. (IV. 3.) Government regulation) which regulate using of waste water and sewage sludge in agriculture. This Hungarian rule is legal and reconcilable with the Council Directive.
The Regulation lays down limit values for concentrations of heavy metals in the soil, in waste water, in sludge and for the maximum annual quantities of heavy metals which may be introduced into the soil.
Waste water, sludge and soil on which it is used must be sampled and analysed.
Sewage sludge must be treated for six months before being used in agriculture.
The use of waste water and sludge prohibited on grassland, on nature reserved areas, in ecological farming, and soil in witch fruit and vegetable crops are growing, with the exception of fruit trees.
The states soil conservation authority must keep records registering the following:
– the quantities of waste water and sludge produced;
– the composition and properties of sludge;
– the type of treatment carried out;
– the names and addresses of the recipients of the sludge and places where the sludge is to be used.
The Government every four years must prepare a consolidated report on the use of sludge in agriculture, specifying quantities used, criteria followed and any difficulties encountered. This report must be forwarded to the Commission.
Last but not least in the light of Member States reports, the Commission will if necessary submit appropriate proposals for increased protection of the soil and the environment.

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Changes in toxic elements content of soil after sewage sludge treatment in energy willow plantation
Published May 16, 2012
7-10

The primary purpose of our experiment was the solution of municipal excess sludge treatment by a renewable energy resource used willow (Salix viminalis L.) plantation. Tests were carried out to state whether the applied sewage sludge has caused any accumulation of the toxic elements in the studied soil layers, and - based on the results –to s...ee whether the plantation is suitable for the treatment of municipal sewage sludge.
The excess sludge (sludge before dewatering) is beneficial for the willow, because it contains a 3–5% dry matter and therefore, a lot of water, too. This high water content ensures the high water amount needed for the intensive growth of the willow. On the other hand, the wastewater treatment plant can save the dewatering cost which corresponds to about 30% of the water treatment process costs. The amounts of the sprinkled sewage sludge were calculated on the basis of its total nitrogen content. Treatments were the followings: control, 170 N kg ha-1 year-1 and 250 N kg ha-1 year-1. The mean values of the toxic element concentrations in the sewage sludge did not cross the permitted limits of the land  accommodating.

The measured toxic element values of the soil were compared to the limits of the 50/2001. (IV.3.) Government Regulation.The  sprinkled sewage sludge on the bases of the total N content did not cause accumulation of heavy metals in the soil and the treated plants were also healthy without any signs of toxicity. 

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The applied mechanical equipments for wastewater treatment in the észak-Alföld region
Published May 16, 2017
171-178

In this study we presented the results of a survey research, which was performed during 2015 at 34 sewage treatment works, operating in Észak-alföld region (Hungary). The survey focused on applied mechanical equipment and works of art of the sewage treatment establishments.

The results of the survey showed that the majority of the exa...mined sites (approx 65%) are working with capacity utilization of 50–100%,merely the 12% of plants was overload. It was found analyzing of specific energy consumption of the sites that the largest value (1.1 kWh per m3) was at the plants with smaller capacity (0–1000 m3 per day). It was clear during the questionnaire processing of the survey that almost all of the works applied activated sludge for sewage treatment The sludge treatment of the sewage plants is conducted by two methods; aerobic- and mixed (anaerobic and aerobic) sludge stabilization. We suggest for the plants with small capacity to use deep aerators, since anachronistic method used the at 3% of the settlements.

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Possible alternatives in crop nutrition
Published November 20, 2011
109-112

The protection of the environment is our common task. All pollution that exposes our soils, plants or the environment – as taken in any proper or extended sense – will appear sooner or later in the food chain and in human beings who are on the top of the food-chain pyramid. The aim of our work is to give a brief overview of the effects of s...elected industrial wastes on the physiological parameters of corn plants. Sewage sludge and lime sludge were examined. These materials contain lots of useful element for plants (e.g. iron, phosphorus, potassium, zinc). However, their aluminum, chrome and lithium contents are also considerable. The element contents in sewage sludge and the filtrates of lime sludge, as well as the dry matter accumulation and relative chlorophyll contents, were measured. The disadvantageous and advantageous physiological effects of the examined materials were confirmed. The compensation effect of the environment is excluded; however, the neutralization of environmental impacts is not infinite under natural circumstances.

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The effect of various composts on vegetable green mass on two soil types
Published May 16, 2017
179-183

Composting of sewage sludges makes easier the utilization of sewage sludge in the agriculture and the composts in good quality could increase the nutrient content of soil. Due to the composting process, the sewage sludge composts with high organic matter content can be utilized in the same way as other composts or farmyard manure.
Composts p...roduced in different ways have different effects on the physical, chemical and biological properties of different soils, although their positive effects have already proved in the literature. In our study the effects of composts from different composting processes were investigated in soil-plant systems. The different physical and chemical properties of the two examined soil types (arenosol and chernozem)strongly influenced the nutrient supply capacity of composts which could be characterized by the growth of ray-grass as a test plant in the pot experiment. In this work we examined the effects of three different composts on the green weight of plants on the fourth and eighth weeks after the treatment and sowing.

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Alternatives of sewage sludge use in the crop production
Published May 16, 2012
83-87

The produced plants reduce the greenhouse effect because they fix CO2 that contributes to the causing of the greenhouse effect with about 50%. The production of fertilizers is not only a costly process but it needs a considerable energy at the same time. Nowadays, the reduction of the proportion of the fertilizer is significant. One ...of the reasons of this is that during the production such by-products are produced in a big quantity in which the necessary vegetal nutrients can be found in a considerable measure these enrich the organic matter of soil. The latter is essential condition for the microorganisms in the soil, without which the sustainable plant cultivation can not be achieved. Besides high prices of artificial fertilizers the utilization of the wastes is economically justified. Finally the other reason for the reduction of a usage of artificial fertilizer is that the wrong use of the fertilizer may cause environmental pollutions. I examined the cultivation application of the sewage sludge in laboratory circumstances during my work.

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Product orientated sewage sludge composting technologies in the practice of AKSD Ltd.
Published October 10, 2008
33-36

In recent years the regulations of the EU unambiguously determine that the biodegradable wastes should be used for biogas production or composting. The direct use of sewage sludge in agriculture is limited by its hazardous microelement content, but it can be used effectively in composting. The limitation parameters can be extinguished with corr...ect compost-mixture and technology variants. The exact determination of the technologies and mixtures result a stable, constant quality product. The compost, as a classified product, is friable structured. The end-product is a
homogeneous mould with good water capacity, does not contain any weed seeds and pathogenic organisms. The compost does not have a acidify effect on the soil. It is an effective fertilizer thanks to its macro and microelement content.

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New methods of compost homogeneity determination in sewage sludge based compost prisms
Published October 20, 2009
49-52

There is no effective method of homogeneity measurement of compost prism. The most frequently used technology is the examination of the particle distribution. This method needs a lot of time and large number of samples. The aim of our research is establishing different effective methods to determine the homogeneity of compost prisms. During our... work, we examined the homogeneity of a prism made of sewage sludge and saw-dust mixture.
The measurements were based on the different properties of raw materials. According to this we examined the homogeneity by moisture content, heavy metal content and gas distribution measurements.
The most effective method is the measurement of gasconcentration. Although gas-concentration measurements it need special equipment it has more advantages than the other methods. The examination of gas-distribution compensates the problem of sampling because the measurement is direct. It provides the opportunity to estimate the amount of emitted toxic gases and to determine the maturity of the compost and the effectiveness of the degradation.

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The effect of wet compost extract on the root tubers of green pea
Published May 16, 2017
51-54

Nitrogen plays significant role in the life of plants, it could be the main limiting factor of plant growth. Sustainable plant nutrition pays attention to satisfy the plants’ nutrient demand without chemical fertilizers, e.g. by bounding the atmospheric nitrogen. The nitrogen fixing organizations play important role in supplying plants with n...itrogenbecause the N2-fixingbacteria can fix high amounts of nitrogen.
Many effects of the sewage sludge compost extracts is known in the literature. We studied the effect of sewage sludge compost water extract in laboratory conditions on the growth of Rhizobium spp. isolated from green pea, while in a small plot experiment thepea-Rhizobium symbiosis were studied on sandy soil in the Nyírség region. The extract was produced under aerobic conditions. The compost extract was applied before and/or after sowing. In the laboratory experiments we used the sterile version of extract, in different doses.
In our work we present the effect of compost water extract on the number of green pea roots nodules, dry weight of the plant and reproduction of the Rhizobium bacteria.

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Physiological examination of some industrial wastes under laboratory conditions
Published December 16, 2012
241-246

I would like to draw the attention to the different side-products and wastes that contain lots of organic matter, micro and macro elements, and the fact that they do not have any harmful effect. These materials can be used as micronutrient fertilizers, therefore quantity of the produced CO2 and other greenhouse gases will decrease. C...ompost, sewage sludge and lime sludge were used in our experiments. The usability of these materials in crop production was examined in crop production within laboratory conditions.

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Novel Applications of Microwave Techniques in the Food and Environmental Industries
Published March 4, 2005
29-34

During the microwave processing, despite the conventional heating, the material heats consistently inside. This property of microwave is utilized by drying and dehydration processes. The thermal sensitivity of raw materials of food industry requires development of gentle, fast and controllable technologies, which is realizable by means of combi...nation of conventional and microwave techniques. The other important application area of the microwave technique is food industrial practice is enhancing the microbial safety of products, mainly by pasteurization processes. In recent time the strict environmental regulation necessitate developing more effective treatment of wastes, waste waters and sewage sludge. Because a part of these techniques are heat and power demanded, the microwave technique may be an alternative process in execution of sludge conditioning, drying or gasification and pyrolysis.

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Application of the Collision Cell (CCT) in the ICP-MS Analytical System
Published December 6, 2005
120-125

Our laboratory has seen a sharp rise in the number of requests for the analysis of smaller and smaller concentrations of elements from foods, plants, soil, organic fertiliser, irrigation and ground water, sewage, sewage sludge, raw material of food, as well as human and animal origin samples. From the above elements the inductively coupled plas...ma mass spectrometer is capable of analysing the smallest concentration of elements. Our method of analysis is to use our ICP-MS instrument, together with a ICP-MS with Collision Cell Technology (CCT). The CCT method has better detection limit, with 1-3 magnitudes, compared to the normal ICP-MS analytical method. The CCT has better detection limits mainly for the following elements in the periodical system: analysis of arsenic, selenium, germanium, vanadium and chromium. Additionally a collision cell can be applied for the analysis of silicium, sulphur, zink, copper, iron, calcium, magnesium and potassium in smaller concentrations.

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Methodological development of the determination of the compost mixture ratio
Published December 22, 2010
29-33

The mixing rate of the compost raw materials basically determines the procedure of degradation. In most cases, in practice the real mixing ratio is not equal with the counted ratio – which based on the C/N ratio – and the check of the fulfilled mixing is not possible.
The homogeneity of the prism is also one of the fundamentals of the ef...fective degradation process. There is no available method to determine the homogeneity of the compost prism. 
During our research we examined the reflectance values of different compost mixtures where sewage sludge and rape-straw were used as raw materials.
According to our results we built up a regression model which gives the ability to determine the mixing rate (in 5% margin of error) and makes possible to check the homogeneity of the prism together with the access of immediate action. 

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Significance of biogas production in Hungary
Published February 10, 2013
127-129

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">It is known that the quantity of fossil energy sources are rapidly reducing, therefore it is necessary to determine a new direction which has to point directly to renewable energy sources. Increasingly comes into view the agriculture’s energy producing nature next to it’s traditional food producing one. The enviromental protection is connected to the energy production by the ultilization of biomass for energy purposes, within the biogas production has an emphasized importance. Quasi every organic material can be used in biogas production, such as: food processing by-products, manure, sewage sludge, hoousehold waste.

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The effect of compost application on physical properties of sandy soil
Published February 10, 2013
67-70

The sewage sludge compost is suitable to improve the colloid-poor sandy soils, which are common characteristics of poor water- and nutrientholding capacity. The general characteristics of sandy soils are the light mechanical composition, the low content of humus and mineral colloids, large pore size and a bad aggregate stability. They have a po...or nutrient supply capacity, due to its high porosity the organic matter is degraded very quickly to mineral colloids (Stefanovits et al., 1999).

By the compost application the soil is enriched mineral and organic colloids, thereby improving the soil structure. The effect of addition of compost to soil the water- and nutrient-holding capacity and porosity could be increased and the bulk density could be decreased (Martens and Frankenberger, 1992).

The aim of our experiment is to carry out physical measurements to determine the effects of compost treatment. In this study the results of the first year are presented.

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Applicability of reflectance to determine compost maturity
Published May 16, 2012
31-35

The utilisation of composts depends on their maturity and stability. A great part of the determination methods can be set in laboratory and needs complicated sample preparation. The aim of this paper was introduce an effective and fast method which based on the different reflectance of the different organic compounds.
During our research we ...examined the degradation process of compost prisms based on sewage sludge, wood-clipping and straw with temperature and reflectance measurements.
As a result, we came to the conclusion that the reflectance, measured at 645 nm or higher, is applicable to determine compost maturity if it is used with temperature measurements.

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