The earth's population is growing steadily, currently accounting for about 7.3 billion people. Population growth causes food demand to rise, approximately 36 million people die each year due to starvation or related diseases. One solution to this problem is the continuous examination and development of the agricultural economy. In this study, m...atrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI -TOF MS) were used to analyse of sunflower, soybean and hemp. In order to analyse the protein of maize, this method has already been applied. However, for sunflower, soy and hemp, it is necessary to develop a sample preparation method. Choosing the optimal matrix solution for ionization the traget molecule is an essential part of developing the method. Our aim is to compare two different matrix solutions (α-HCCA, SA matrix), based on the properties (intensity, noise ratio, value of spectra) of the spectra.
Economically, one of our most important crop is the sunflower. Regarding its production it is essential to use top quality seeds. As the conditions of seed certification and the certification parameters are regulated by laws and ordinances, it is highly important to farmers and seed producers to detect seeds of low quality or dubious origins....r>Nowadays, the examination of the cultivar homogenity of sunflower is based on a reference method of the International Seed Testing Association Rules International (ISTA), Chapter 8. This standard reference method uses ultrathin poliakrilamid isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis (IEF-UTL, or simply IEF). With this work we have set out to compare the results of MALDI-TOF to the test results – used as reference results – achieved by this reference method. The aim is to develop a new, quick, cheap and reliable method. In this article I summarized the results of some of the experiments that will provide basis for my further work.
During our previous experiments we have concluded that out of four extracting agents we can get the most protein markers using NaCl acid buffer, 1 propanol buffer.
Seed remains of medieval millet, recovered from a 15th century layer (King’s Palace, Budapest, Hungary), showed reddish yellow grain color after rehydrating on tissue culture medium that was close to grain color of modern cultivar Omszkoje. aDNA of medieval c. millet was extracted successfully, analyzed and compared to modern common millets b...y ISSR, SSR, CAPS and mtDNA. Analyses of fragments and sequences revealed
polymorphism at seven ISSR loci (22 alleles) and at the 5S-18S rDNA locus of mtDNA. CAPS analysis of the 5S-18S rDNA fragment revealed no SNPs in the restriction sites of six endonucleases TaqI, BsuRI, HinfI, MboI, AluI and RsaI. Sequence alignments of the restriction fragments RsaI also revealed
consensus sequence in the medieval sample compared to a modern variety. Morphological characterization of twenty common millet (Panicum miliaceum L., 2n=4×=36) cultivars and landraces revealed four distinct clusters which were apparently consistent with the grain colors of black, black and brown, red, yellow, and white. In the comparative AFLP, SSR and mtDNA analysis modern millet cv. ‘Topáz’ was used. AFLP analysis revealed that extensive DNA degradation had occurred in the 4th CENT. ancient millet resulting in only 2 (1.2%) AFLP fragments (98.8% degradation),
compared to the 15th CENT. medieval millet with 158 (40%) fragments (60% degradation) and modern millet cv. ‘Topáz’ with 264 fragments (100%). Eight AFLP fragments were sequenced after reamplification and cloning. Microsatellite (SSR) analysis at the nuclear gln4, sh1, rps28 and rps15 loci of the medieval DNA revealed one SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) at the 29th position (A to G) of rps28 locus compared to modern millet.
Mitochondrial (mtDNA) fragment (MboI) amplified at the 5S-18S-rDNA locus in the medieval millet showed no molecular changes compared to modern millet. The results underline the significance of survived aDNA extraction and analysis of excavated seeds for comparative analysis and molecular reconstruction of ancient and extinct plant genotypes. An attempted phenotype reconstruction indicated that medieval common millet showed the closest morphological similarity to modern millet cultivar Omszkoje.
Our examination was carried out in the 103 ha apple orchard of the Kasz-Coop Ltd.. The plantation works with modern varieties standing on M9 root stock, planted in a tree density of 2500 tree/ha and treated with professional integrated technology. The date of harvest is defined by a combination of several ripening analyses methods. The orchard...has its own ULO-system warehouse.
Used in the experiment were four apple varieties: ’Idared’, ’Golden Reinders’, ’Jonagold’ and ’Braeburn’.
While under ULO-storage, we took 20-25 piece samples 6 times regarding the four varieties, from which 5-5 pieces were kept under three weeks’ shelf life, measured on a weekly bases. In our research, we analysed the dynamics of the flesh firmness and the refractometric value under ULO-storage and three weeks’ shelf life, and the standard deviation dynamics of the refractometric value under ULO-storage.
Analyses were based on the following measurements: flesh firmness, refractometric value and number of mature seeds.
We looked for morphological and morphological-quality correlations.
Through these we described the dynamics of the flesh firmness and the refractometric value under ULO-storage and three weeks’ shelf life for each variety. We referred to the stability of these attributes and to the dynamics of their change. Later, with the help of these, and also considering our practical experience related to the measurements, we characterised the four varieties.
We found a positive correlation between the seed number and the flesh firmness in the case of the ‘Idared’, ‘Jonagold’ and ‘Braeburn’ varieties, but no correlation was found in the case of ‘Golden Reinders’ in this concern. We visualized the standard deviation dynamics of the refractometric values under ULO-storage. This allowed us to categorise the varieties.