The increasing demand for energy worldwide and the resulting environmental impacts of fossil fuels forced many countries to turn to renewable energy resources as a clean and sustainable alternative. More than a third of Europe’s binding renewable energy source target of 20% by 2020 will come from solid biomass for electricity and heating acco...rding to the National Renewable Energy Action Plans submitted by member states of the European Union (EU) to the European Commission. To achieve this goal long-term yield studies in renewable energy plants are important to determine mean annual biomass and energy yield, and CO2 emission. Field experiments worldwide and also in Europe have demonstrated that Miscanthus, a fast-growing C4 rhizomatous grass can produce some of the highest biomass and energy yield per hectare of all potential energy plants. Miscanthus is a plant that originates from the southern slopes of the Himalayas. It was bred for the Hungarian climatic conditions in 2006 under the name of Miscanthus sinensis ‘Tatai’ (MsT). The species has high frost and drought tolerance and high energy value. This is why there is growing demand for the biomass (lignocellulose) produced by growing this plant. The biomass, produced from the high yield energy reed, can be transported to power plants in large quantities, in forms of bales. Its household consumption is not yet significant. This study presents the external features, characteristics, propagation and plantation process of MsT energy reed. The study also demonstrates the harvest technology of the species worked out between 2009–2012 in Tata, Hungary and the options of supplying to biomass
Due to the exhaustion of the fossile fuel reserves of the Earth, the increase of fossile fuel prices and the difficulties concerning stable fuel supply, the increase of electricity production from renewable energy sources has a special strategic importance. In this study, I am going to evaluate the circumstances of the production and use of ren...ewable energy sources in Hungary and in the European Union. I present the Hungarian economic, energy policy-related and social circumstances which make it necessary to support renewable energy production. I am going to give an overview on the related EU strategies concerning the sector and the Hungarian development plan in this field. I pay particular attention to the examination of development opportunities and the R&D activities going on in this area in Hungary, as well as the efficiency of the means used to improve renewable energy use.
In Spring 2005, the owner of the Szalka-Pig Ltd. of Mateszalka, decided to import the willow species Salix viminalis L. and to create a plantation for energy production purposes on the humid arable lands in his ownership. In 2006, he enlarged this area by 43 hectares. The owner further decided not only to plant this species on the more adherent... (KA 70), but also onto the incoherent structured sand (KA 30-35). His main argument was that the cost of coal tar derivatives as energy sources was rapidly increasing in Hungary, so he needed to find a cheaper energy source for the drying of his products and for the heating of his buildings. He also planned to change his gas and oil heating equipment.
The willow’s cropping technology is being established in our country. One of our tasks is to work out an adequate weed control plan. The professional and safe use of herbicides can increase the success of production. In our paper, we discuss the data collected on treatments applied in the pre-emergent stage. The applied herbicide combinations (terbutilazin+S-metolaklór, mezotrion+ S-metolaklór, pendimetalin+S-metolaklór, oxyfluorfen+ S-metolaklór) yielded good results in large scale experiments.
Due to the exhaustion of fossile fuel reserves, the increase of their prices on the world market and the environmental pollution resulting from their use make alternative energy sources increasingly important. In my study, I am going to present the currently known and researched renewable energy sources. Based on the results achieved from the S...WOT analysis, I provide an overview on the future opportunities of their use. After the comprehensive examination of alternative energy sources, I give insight into the factors which influence the energetic use and utilisation of biomass, as well as the theoretical background of bioenergy. In my work, I pay particular attention to the analysis of the use of biomass as an energy source, as well as the difficulties related to its utilisation.
Fuelwood, and wood wastes provide almost half of the renewable energy production of the European Union. Enhancing the use of wood in renewable energy production has more constraint than wind- or solar energy. Forests in the EU member states are sustainably used, they are increasing both in terms of area, and growing stocks. There are possibilit...ies to enhance the fallings and use more fuelwood. Short rotation coppices could fulfill the long term demand for fuelwood; because these plantations surpass the dendromass yield of forests.
This paper intends to give an overview on some results of our studies carried out on the public opinion of the above aspects (settlements’
comfort level and the use of renewable energy sources) directly or indirectly linked to the topic of climate change and possible adaptations.
These studies were carried out by applying questionnaire
Knowledge on general human perceptions related to climate change and its impacts is considered to be important as it should advance the
elaboration of adaptation and applied scientific works. They are highly required as rural areas, due to their closer relationship (dependence)
to the physical environment, are more susceptible to changes resultant from the climate change with their possibilities to adaptation also
The beauty of environment plays an important role in the settlements studied within the micro-region with more than two third of pollees
opting the environment as a factor they most proud of, especially among those residing in the villages for more than 10 years. It can be
presumed that any change in this environment would greatly impact their everyday life and emotional relationship to their home villages. The
overall picture after analysing the public opinion on the use of renewable energy source (as possible way of adaptation to the impacts of
climate change) is rather controversial. Even basic knowledge and information are limited regarding the relevant technologies calling
attention to the importance of raising environmental awareness and providing full information seems to be essential and should be
implemented, through the media and education.