The constat growth of the Earth’s population brings with itself a higher demand for food and protein not only in human nutrition but also for the feeding of livestock. Currently, the feed industry is mainly built onseed-based protein, wherethebaseplant is soybean, which is large lycovered by imports in Hungary, similar toother European countries. However, the long-term economically sustainable lifestock breeding demandschanges which has also worked out strategies. An alternative protein sources could be green leafy plants.
In current work the Jerusalem artichokes as an alternative source of protein was studied, compared to alfalfa as a valuable protein plant. Our results indicate that fiber fraction ofJerusalem artichoke shootswas 34 to 37% after pressing in the autumn period while alfalfa slightly lower values were obtained (30%). On the other hand extracted green leaf protein concentration was higher in alfalfa than in Jerusalem artichoke. Along with this higher protein content could be measured from the leaf protein concentration of alfalfa and almost each amino acids were more, as well comparing to Jerusalem artichoke.
Overall, the alfalfa proved to be advantageous as expected both in leaf protein extraction efficiency, both regarding the content of the protein in the Jerusalem artichoke. However, considering aminoacid composition and green biomass production, Jerusalem artichokecould be a promisingplant species asplant protein sourceinthefuture.
The principle, development and importance of the SDS-PAGE method are presented in this article. The SDS-PAGE method has become one of the basic methods of molecular biological research, because it is widely applicable and its sensitivity is excellent in the separation of wheat storage proteins.
We have shown the application of this method with a concrete example. It was also tested whether, it was possible to obtain a better baking quality product from a large amount of poor quality less valuable wheat by fractioning the flour according to particle sizes after grinding. We studied the rheological properties of flours with different particle size fractions from the original flour. The baking quality of the original flour was B2. The 125-90 and 90-63 μm fractions have significantly better baking quality (B1) than the original flour. The protein contents of these flour fractions were also significantly higher than the protein content of the original flour. We had a question: what has influenced the baking quality: the protein content or other factors? We searched for an explanation on these results in the protein composition of the flour samples. We studied the distribution of glutenin-fractions by SDS-PAGE method and evaluated them. We found with correlation analysis that the amount of LMW-Glutenin D-group (52-60 kDa) is in a strong, negative correlation to the baking quality (r = – 0.855*). Therefore, the baking quality of flour samples was influenced by this glutenin fraction.
Wheat, one of the most important cereals, is grown on the largest area in Hungary. During hydration of storage proteins of wheat – gliadin and glutenin – the gluten complex is evolved. The gliadin is responsible for the extensibility of gluten complex as well as the glutenin for the strength of gluten. The structure, composition and rheological properties of gluten proteins influence significantly the baking quality. The gliadin/glutenin ratio and the quality and structure of glutenin fraction play the most important role in evolving gluten complex. Changes in the steps of breadmaking technology also have effect on the quality of product. Several tests proved that the higher glutenin content increases the strength of dough while the higher gliadin content increases the extensibility of dough and decreases maximum resistance to extension. The monomer gliadins play a great part in plasticity of glutenin polymer. The quality of glutenin fraction significantly influences the evolving gluten complex, because of the spiral structure of glutenin which deforms under stress conditions, then the β-spiral structure resumes their original conformation by releasing from stress.
The final quality of product evolves as a result of complex characteristics of wheat proteins, so detailed knowledge on the roles of different protein compounds is the base of the quality oriented product development.
Milk plays an important role in the human nutrition as an important protein and energy source. Β-casein is the most abundant casein fraction in the goat milk. The β-casein gene has at least 9 polymorphism in goat breed (A, A1, B, C, C1, D, E, 0 and 0’). The most important alleles are the zero (0) and zero’ (0’) alleles, because they decrease the quantity of β-casein protein in milk. The lower quantity of the β-casein changes the properties of the coagulation and the allergenin milk. This review is about the β-casein gene polymorphism in goat breed.
The measurements started in 2005, the author used the milk of 3 types of Tsigai Sheep that are suitable for milking, they examined the milk composition, the possible differences between the milk types, the coagulation characteristics, cheese processing, yielding characteristics and the transfer of solid content into cheese. From the large number of measurements, the results of milk composition examinations are described.
During the research the author examined the milk coagulation property of three types of Tsigai Sheep QTS 25 is a substance investigating instrument, and its primary mission is the analysis of the substance profile. The advantage of this instrument is the representation of the survey graphs from which the part of the substance characteristics could be directly read off. By the help of the applied mathematical and statistical operations we tried to establish connection between the congealment-hardness and the specialty of the different types of Tsigai Sheep.
In 2006 the author began the identification and qualification of the major sheep milk proteins by RP- HPLC method. She used a scientific article written by Bordin et al. The method is able to separate and quantify the seven major proteins. However Bordin’s procedure was developed using bovine milk, the author adapted it to sheep milk.
β-casein is the most abundant protein fraction in sheep milk, and has at least six different alleles (A, B, C, G, X, Y). The alleles of the β-casein gene may influence on the quality and quantity of milk. Knowing the gene polymorphism has an important role in the process of milk production. The properties of milk could be positively influenced by themolecular genetic methods.
Wheat is one of the most important cereals in the world and the bread made of its flour belongs to the everyday life of human mankind.
The Hungarian standard relating to the laboratory production of wheat flour (MSZ 6367/9-1989) does not mention the type of laboratory mill used for milling, and it only builds up some general criteria, such as: the laboratory mill should be provided with four differently nicked barrels, a sieve with appropriate hole sizes, and also with the separated collections of the pilot flour and the bran. Our study was started at this point and the answers for the following questions were aimed to be found: do the flour patterns studied and produced with different grinding and sieving
techniques, widely used in laboratory mills of the same wheat pattern show any alterations after the impact of the formula production as regards chemical constitutions and reologic parameters. Various flours and whole grains of the wheat patterns sieved with different particle sizes were studied in this experiment. In producing this pattern two different mill types of FQC 109 and CHOPIN CD 1 as well as two different grinder types such as PERTEN 3100 and type of RETSCH 200 were applied. There were 3 different corn sizes of 160; 250; 800 μms used in the partition of the fractions. To study the differences the following measurements were conducted: dry matter, ash, protein content, wet gluten content, gluten index, gluten expansiveness, farinographic value, falling number and amilographic rate.
The results this research confirm that the quality of wheat flour can be modified by different methods of pattern production. In all cases the differences can be explained by the flour-bran ratio, and in some of the cases the higher germ content of the fractions also played a role. The results show differences between the various types of mills and grinders, too.