During the rearing of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) larvae, the optimisation of the growing substrate has a particular importance. The application of the appropriate substrate is a fundamental pillar for intensive and safe production. The requirements for substrate include the lack of toxins, high nutrient and micro-macro element content. The... aim of this study was the evaluation of the effects of different substrates on the production parameters, nutrient and mineral composition of the mealworm larvae. The experiment lasted through 14 days. 5 treatments were set up at, where the variable was the substrate. The test system consisted of 25 units (5 treatments and 5 replicates). 10 mealworm larvae per unit, (total of 250 larvae) were used at the beginning of the experiment. Regarding the substrates, our study included sweet potato (SP), may turnip tuber (MT) and may turnip leaf (ML). In addition to the plant by-products, wheat flour (WF) and wheat semolina (WS) were used as control substrates. Trace element uptake and production parameters of the larvae were determined at the end of the experiment. Regarding the production parameters, it can be stated that the wheat semolina (0.081 ± 0.005 g) and wheat flour (0.069 ± 0.007 g) substrate used as control gave the best results for the final body weight. In terms of plant raw materials and by-products, sweet potatoes (0.063 ± 0.007) can only be recommended as substrate, while may turnip tuber and may turnip leaf produced significantly lower final body weight results (MT=0.034 ± 0.002 g ; ML= 0.036 ± 0.002 g). The nutrient composition of the larvae was not affected by the substrate, these results confirmed the high protein and fat content reported in the literature. The results with the production parameters were contradicted by the micronutrient content. Larvae reared on may turnip leaf (ML) and tuber (MT) showed the highest values for most of the macro- and microelements (potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper) tested.
Fulfilment of the increasing quality requirements of sugar beet production can be analysed with sampling of plants and soil at the cultivated area. Analyses of the spatial characteristics of samples require exact geodetic positioning. This is applied in practice using GPS in precision agriculture. The examinations were made in a sample area loc...ated in north-western Hungary with sugar beet test plant. According to the traditional sample taking procedure N=60 samples were taken in regular 20 x 20 m grid, where besides the plant micro and macro elements, the sugar industrial quality parameters (Equations 1-2) and the agro-chemical parameters of soils were analysed. Till now, to gain values of mean, weighted mean and standard variance values, geometric analogues used in geography were adapted, which correspond to the mean centre (Equation 3), the spatially weighted mean centre (Equation 4), the standard distance (Equation 5), and the standard distance circle values. Robust spatial statistical values provide abstractions, which can be visually estimated immediately, and applied to analyse several parameters in parallel or in time series (Figure 1). This interpretation technique considers the spatial position of each point to another individually (distance and direction), and the value of the plant and soil parameters. Mapping the sample area in GIS environment, the coordinates of the spatially weighted mean centre values of the measured plant and soil parameters correlated to the mean centre values showed a northwest direction. Exceptions were the total salt and calcium-carbonate contents, and the molybdenum concentration of the soil samples (Table 1). As a new visual analysis, the spatially weighted mean centre values of the parameters as eigenvectors were projected to the mean centre values as origin. To characterize the production yield, the raw and digested sugar contents of the sample area, the absolute rotation angles of the generated vectors were determined, which indicate numerically the inhomogenity of the area (Figure 2). The generated spatial analogues are applicable to characterise visually and quantitatively the spatial positions of sampling points and the measured parameters in a quick way. However, their disadvantage is that they do not provide information on the tightness and direction of the spatial correlation similarly to the original statistical parameters.
The selenium is an essential trace element with antioxidant effect, constituent of many enzymes, natural component of the body of the animals. The addition to the fish feed as micro element supplementation is generally accepted. Numerous animal experiments veryfied, that the antioxidant effect of the nanoselenium is higher than other selenium f...orms. But no much information is available of the usuage at fish.
In the experiment were investigated the effects of the nanoselenium supplementation of a commercial fish feed were investigated to the production parameters and the body tissue composition. The correlation between the accumulated selenium content of the body and the treatment, and the feed conversation was also statistically analyzed beside the production parameters. Furthermore we were curious, if can be toxic the nanoselenium in higher doses.
The experimental stock was placed into 12 plastic tanks (each 70 l water vol.) in a recirculation system for larval rearing. The salinity and the water temperature was constant during the 8 week long experiment. The feeding was ad libitum, 4 times a day. Beside the control five (1, 1.5, 2.5, 5.5, 10.5 mg Se kg-1) duplicated treatment were set.
According to the results, from the production parameters only at the value of FCR and the survival was found significant difference (p<0.05) between the groups. However strong correlation (r=0.752–0.780, p<0.01) was determined between the treatment and the accumulated selenium levels. To analyzed the free fatty acid contentof the fish, we realized, that the selenium uptake significanly enhanced this level at all treatments. The greatest change was found in case of the type n-3 fatty acids.
Established by the results, the higher intake than 0.5 mg Se kg-1 was not changed significantly the production parameters, nevertheless to increase the selenium content of commercial feeds to 1.5 mg Se kg-1 could be rewarding on the rearing of red drum.
Ostrich has been reared in Hungary for decades, but we have limited information on this species. The aim of this review was to provide a concise description of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) based on international studies. We were to investigate some of the most relevant parameters, such as egg, meat and skin production. In this critical re...view we managed to sum up the most significant features and productivity parameters of ostrich and effecting factors. So as to make an accurate description of the species we have to know its morphological, behavioural and physiological characteristics. Ostrich is a very special bird with special nutritional and environmental requirements. Ostrich products, regarding egg, meat and skin are considered luxury products not only in Hungary but also abroad. Though egg has a significant nutritional value, it is mainly used for hatching chicks. In Europe we can expect roughly 40–50 eggs from a hen yearly. Ostrich has a lean meat with high protein and low fat and sodium content, moreover it is rich in minerals and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Having these advantageous qualities, ostrich meat should be part of our healthy diet. Skin production is not important in our country, but there is a special demand for high quality ostrich leather globally. In the future our aim is to conduct a research on some of the parameters. As low production rate and embryo mortality is a great deal of problem in ostrich industry, we need to investigate the incubation environment. There is an apparent disagreement among researchers on optimal slaughter age. This is also an area for further investigation. The value of skin and effecting factors on our climate as well as adaptability of the species are also worth for further investigation together with the nutrition what differs from other ostrich breeding countries. Nowadays, there is a great emphasis placed on animal welfare too.
Maize is one of the most important crops worldwide and also in Hungary, it can be utilized for multiple purposes: as a feedingstuff, for human nutrition and for industrial processing. In the last decades, the per ha yield of maize varied greatly in Hungary, between 2004 and 2006, it was 6.82-7.56 t/ha, while in 2007, it was only 3.6 t/ha. Resul...ting from this, the price of maize became 2-2.5 times higher. The high price hinders bioethanol production. The largest per ton amount of bioethanol, 387 l, can be produced from maize.
In addition to its classical utilization as feed and food, the industrial use (especially for bioethanol production) of maize is increasin.
For industrial production, a new production technology is needed. I tested and selected hybrids appropriate for this purpose and set up fertilization and plant density experiments. The experiment were set up on chernozem soil in 2007.
The applied fertilization treatment was N 120, P2O5 80 uniformly, and five different dosages of potassium: K2O 0, K2O 100 (KCl), K2O 100 (Kornkáli), K2O 200 (KCl), K2O 200 (Kornkáli) kg/ha active ingredient. The applied plant densities were 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 thousand plants/ha.
The yield of maize hybrids in the fertilization experiment ranged between 10.53 – 14.62 t/ha. Both regarding the form and dosage, 100 kg/ha Kornkáli proved to be the best potassium treatment. Regarding the inner content parameters, the highest starch content in the average of treatments was obtained for the hybrid PR36K67: 73.57%, and its yield was also the highest, so this hybrid proved to be the most suitable for bioethanol production. The highest protein content was observed for the hybrids KWS 353 (12.13%), which can be favourable for feeding purposes.
Most of the hybrids gave the highest yield at 80 thousand plants/ha plant density, however, hybrids PR36K67 and Mv Tarján achieved the highest yield at 90 thousand plants/ha.
In bioethanol production, the selection of a high-yielding hybrid with high starch content, a slight reduction of N, increase of potassium, the application of the highest plant densities of the optimum interval, harvest at full maturity (when starch content is the highest compared to protein content) are of great importance.
In Hungary, the growing area of potato area reduced dramatically in the last few decades, additionally we are lagging behind the Western European countries as regards yields and the competitiveness of production is further decreased by the great alternation in yields from year to year, the unpredictable market conditions, bad consumption habits... and many times unfortunately the lack of quality products.
The ecological and climatic conditions of Hungary are not everywhere suitable for potato, in the area of Debrecen the amount of rainfall was lower, and the monthly average temperature was higher than the requirement of potato in its growing season in 2002 and 2003.
The experiment was carried out at the experimental site of the University of Debrecen, Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. In our experiment we examined the yield and some quality parameters of 8 and 9 medium-early varieties in large parcels in 2002 and 2003 respectively. Out of the examined varieties 3 are of Dutch, and 6 are of Hungarian breeding.
The experiment was set up on 49.5 m2 parcels on calcareous chernozem soil after winter wheat as a forecrop in both years. The 9 varieties were examined in 4 repetitions in randomized blocks, out of which two repetitions were irrigated, and two were non-irrigated.
We examined the yields of the varieties, the distribution of tubers according to size and their percentages, and the changes in specific parameters of quality and inner content due to irrigation. We studied the dry matter content, the starch content, the under-water mass, the amount of reducing sugars, the colour index of frying and the element contents of tubers.
Summing up, it can be stated that among the agrotechnical year effect, variety and irrigation factors have considerable impact on potato yield quality and quantity. On the basis of our results, it can be stated that in potato production variety should be chosen in accordance with the aim of production and technology should be adapted to that specific variety.
In sustainable (wheat) production plant nutrition supply and fertilization play decisive roles among the agrotechnical elements, because of their direct and indirect effects on other agronomical factors.
In long-term experiments, we studied the roles of agroecological, genetic-biological and agrotechnical factors in the nutrient supply, fert
The optimum N-doses (+PK) of wheat varieties varied from 60 kg ha-1 (+PK) to 120 kg ha-1 (+PK) depending on cropyears, agrotechnical elements and genotypes. The winter wheat varieties could be classified into 4 groups according to their fertilizer demand, natural and fertilizer utilization, fertilizer response and yield capacity.
Appropriate fertilization (mainly N) of wheat could affect both the quantity and quality of the yield. By using optimum N (+PK) fertilizer doses, we could manifest genetically- coded baking quality traits of winter wheat varieties and reduce quality fluctuation caused by ecological and other management factors. The efficiency of fertilization on different baking quality parameters (wet-gluten, valorigraph index etc) were variety specific (the changes depended on genotypes).
Our long-term experiments proved that appropriate fertilization provides optimum yield, good yield stability and excellent yield quality in sustainable wheat production. We could this get better agronomic and economic fertilization efficiency with less harmful environmental effects.
Wheat production is significant branch of Hungarian crop production (with about 1 million hectares of sowing area). Weather anomalies resulted by climate change have increased the importance of biological basis in wheat production. Yield quality and quantity parameters of three wheat genotypes sown on chernozem soil type after maize pre-cro...p were studied in a long-term field experiment. Yield amount of the studied genotypes varied between 2894 and 8074 kg ha-1 in 2017 and between 5795 and 9547 kg ha-1 in 2018 depending on the applied treatments. Based on our results it can be stated that in both studied crop years the highest yield increment was realized by the application of the nutrient supply level of N30+PK. As the result of the application of the optimum mineral fertilizer level – in contrast to the control – resulted in significant yield increment in both crop years. The results of the long-term field experiment prove that water utilization of the studied wheat varieties / hybrids was improved by the application of the optimal nutrient supply. Furthermore, the water utilization of the latest genotypes was more favorable by both the control and the optimum nutrient supply level treatments. Analyzing the quality parameters of winter wheat using the NIR method it has been stated that the quality results of the well-known genotype (GK Öthalom) were better than those of the new genotypes. A negative correlation between winter wheat quality and quantity parameters has also been confirmed. As the result of the mineral fertilizer application protein and gluten content of winter wheat increased to a significant extent.
The environmental adaptability of crop production is basically determined by the selection of biological background (plant species and
varieties) suitable for the region and the site. The aim of our work is to parametrize the plant assimilation, its intensity, dynamics and the
most important characteristics and the relationships to the qu
site of the University of Debrecen in small parcel experiments. We measured the leaf net CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance,
intercellular CO2 level, the transpiration, the leaf temperature and the air temperature by the LICOR LI-6400 portable photosynthesis
system in field trials on the nutrient supply. The soil of the experimental area is calciferous chernozem with favorable water regime.
We have examined the photosynthetic activity, the productivity and yield stability of winter wheat varieties. We have compared the yield
results, at similar agrotechnical conditions in seven cropyears. We also determined the quality parameters of the winter wheat varieties.
Then we valued the yield stability of genotypes with the help of analysis of variance and linear regression equations. We have defined the
connections between assimilation parameters, the yield stability and quality parameters of wheat varieties.
In the last few decades a new intensive milking stock has developed as a result of breed-converter crossing in Hungary. Beside this reproduction biology of the population was affected adversely by the keeping-, and feeding technology. Serviceable lifetime has shortened and service period has lenghtened. Whereas profitable milk production needs...cows with longer productive life, larger life-time production. In our work we analysed the productivity-, and reputation parameters of the 200 highest lifetime-productivity cows of Hungary. We found that inheritance has not got important role in the serviceable lifetime. Adaptability and good constitution of Holstein-friesian is proved by the fact that cows with large life-time production are reared in large plants, some of them in large stocks, industrial environment. We found during the analysis of reputation parameters that these prominent cows mostly have deeper body, higher dairy form, higher rear udder, smaller foot angle. We found some weak connection between the milk production and the reputation. Loose correlations between useful material content and some linear traits were found.
The common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is the most important fish species in Hungary, it is more than 70% of the total Hungarian fish production. The common carp production is important not only just in Hungary but in Middle-East Europe, as well as Southeast Asia. Majority of the production comes from fishpond culture. If the production secto...r wants to meet the increasing customer demands, there is need to intensify research on the intensive fish production opportunities for example all-female common carp technologies. The all-female technology is one of a genom-manipulation technology. Its production showed better growth rate than mixed-sex population in pond culture. Our experiment combined the recirculation aquaculture system (RAS) and the all-female common carp stocks intensification technologies. The reason for the experiment, is that there are no result about the growth of all-female common carp growth in RAS.
The experiment used the „Tatai grey scale type” common carp stocks. We propagated two all-female stocks (T2 and T3) and a control group (TK). Due to technological characteristics of RAS, the water quality parameters were the same for all treatments and corresponded to the technological tolerance of common carp.
The experimental period was from July 10, 2019 – November 20, 2019. Result of growth performance showed that the growth of mixed-sex stock was significantly higher than all-female stocks; (Control=3692.0±590.5g, T2=3438.8±415.4g, T3=3294.1±659.1g). Feed conversation ratio (Control=1.3±0.1 T2=1.5±0.2 T3=1.6±0.5) and SGR% (Control=0.8±0.0 T2=0.7±0.1 T3=0.7±0.1) were similar.
By the results it can be said the all-female common carp technology has neither advantages nor disadvantages compared to the mixed-sex stock. The all-female technology can be beneficial if the consumers need female common carps. It is worth continuing the experiment and examine how the stocks will perform above 3kg body weight.
For crop production and agricultural production, the most important natural resource is the soil that can optionally renew. Paralelly with this, soil plays a major role in the geological and biological cycle of elements. As a result of the big (geological) and small (biological) element cycles, the elements and combines neccessary for organisms... can accumulate in the soil creating suitable living conditions for plants and other organisms. Soil is a heterogenous system both horizontally and vertically, and soil constituents show great variety in all the three dimensions, in addition, most of the parameters can also change between two examination dates. When talking about the factors influencing plant production, one should take into account this variation and heterogenity in time and space. When making fertilization recommendations, these factors should all be considered. In any consultation system, most of the mistakes and errors made are due to the unsatisfying soil testing and the negligence of soil heterogenity. In the practice of fertilization the biggest mistake is the improper soil sampling, then comes the methodical mistake of soil testing, which is followed by the inaccuracy of instrumental analysis and the subjectivity of result evaluation, but the latter two are negligible compared to the others. Under normal, i.e. production conditions, the quantity and distribution of nutrients in the soil are greatly dependent upon the applied technology, the amount and form of the applied natural and artificial fertilizers and the quality of fertilization.
Fertilization recommendations are needed because in the layer which is accessible for plant roots only a part of the nutrient content is available for plants in a specific production cycle. An illustration of this is that though the upper 1 m layer of an average chernozem soil contains more than 5000 kg N, 12000 kg K2O and 1500 kg P2O5 (form of expression mostly used in Hungary), the application of fertilizer doses which are just fractions of these quantities is essential. This is due to the fact that the available amount of the total nutrient content depends from the quality of soil, the environmental factors (the physical and chemical qualities of the soil) and the specific nutrient’s qualities (solubility, adsorption). Knowledge of these processes and the examination of the factors influencing the actual nutrient content are vital for working out a fertilization practice, which does not put more strain on the environment than neccessary.
All of the above mentioned should be considered when applying inputs in the fields. In a well-functioning practice that considers the economic and environmental conditions (unfortunately the present production and economic conditions do not enable an appropriate level and degree), three nutrients are supplemented generally (and were supplemented in the last decades): nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium.
Studying the nutrient balance of the Hungarian field production’s last hundred years, we can draw some interesting conclusions.
The nutrient balance became positive for nitrogen and potassium in the second half of the 1960’s, while for phosphorus it was positive from the first half of the 1960’s and this period lasted until the end of the 1980’s.
Neither before the 1960’s, nor since the 1990’s has the amount of nutrients supplemented in a specific year reached the amount of the nutrient uptake of the same year.
Nowadays producing jams is considered a traditional way of plum processing in Hungary. Plum jams without added sugar can be stored
This research aimed to analytically determine which quality parameters of the jams and to what extent they change during storage. Furthermore, this study intended to find out whether a concious consumer can...presume any difference between varieties or the year of harvest, or wheather a one-time customer should suspect differences in quality parameters of the different products. This study focused on those differences or alterations in the parameters that occur in the jams made from several different plum varieties produced in different years.
I analyzed the classic chemical parameters (dry matter content and ash content) and physiologically important nutritional components (phenolic and flavonoids antioxidants and vitamin C). In this research I used jams which were produced from 6 varieties grown in 2009 (President, Tophit, Bluefre, Elena, Presenta, Stanley), 4 varieties from 2010 (President, Bluefre, Elena, Presenta) and 6 varieties from 2011 (President, Tophit, Bluefre, Elena, Presenta, Stanley). Jams were produced with traditional technology in cauldrons without added sugar. Jars were placed into a relatively dark and cool place and were stored there until the analysis.
Having regard to the results, when consumers choose between the different products they also choose quality since the processed plum variety, and the year of production/processing determine the nutritional value of the specific product. This could be used for market positioning and promotion of the product, however further research is needed to gain more information from the differences that derive from the varieties, year of harvest or other factors. This way fruit and jam producers could turn these informations into market advantage.
The effect of extended drought conditions on soil, the unfavourable cultivation technologies and the application of chemicals have been enhancing the processes of physical and biological soil degradation, so the fertility of soil is gradually declining.
The effects of two cultivation methods – traditional ploughing (TP) and conservat
chernozem soil were examined in a long term experiment. Different parameters of the biological activity of soil were determined. These are
the numbers of total bacteria, microscopic fungi, aerobic cellulose decomposing bacteria, as well as the activities of some important soil
enzymes and CO2 production.
Conservation tillage seemed to be a more favourable cultivation method for the majority of microorganisms, the activities of urease and
dehydrogenase enzymes and CO2 production, compared to the traditional ploughing system. These parameters increased significantly,
especially in the upper layer of conservation tillage plots. Concerning the plant cultures, the majority of microbiological parameters were
higher in the soil of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) depending on the cultivation methods, so involving the pulses to the crop-rotation seems to be
very important in this soil type.
According to the ninth year’s results, the importance of conservation tillage as a means of protecting the soil biological activity in meadow
chernozem (Vertisols) can be established; it was proven by microbiological investigations.
During the industrial production of broiler chicken, a large amount of manure is produced, of which easily contained nitrogen content (without pre-treatment) is released into the atmosphere as an air pollutant. In our experiments, we aimed to prepare compost tea, also known as water extract of compost, from pre-treated poultry manure in order t...o create a product can be utilized as liquid nutrient supply. The poultry manure source was the Baromfi-Coop Ltd. located in Nyírjákó, Hungary, where it was treated by composting. As a result of this pre-treatment of the poultry manure, its nutrient parameters improve and nitrogen is present in a form that is better utilized for plants. Furthermore, this product is suitable for further utilization and also can be the base material for a brand-new product. For this reason the effects of compost/water ratio, incubation time, low oxygen level, and extraction time on the parameters of the resulted product were studied in the frame of developing new soil-life enhancing microbial product, so-called compost tea.
Chemical parameters of the compost used as base material strongly determined the properties of the resulted compost tea, especially the ratio of the various nitrogen forms, their concentration and the salt content. It was found that adding water at a higher rate that means 1/40 and 1/50 mixing ratios results in more cost-effective production. In the experiment the compost tea were held under oxygen-poor conditions, therefore pH of the extractions decreased, which influenced the quality and quantity of their nutrient content.
The use of microbial inoculums is a part of sustainable agricultural practices. Among various bioeffectors, the phosphorus-mobilizing bacteria are frequently used.
The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of some industrial biofertilizer inoculums, of containing P-mobilizing bacteria on the quantity and some quality para...meters of tomato fruits. Spore-forming industrial Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 (Rhizovital) as single inoculums and combinations with other Bacillus strains (Biorex) were applied on Solanum lycopersicon Mill. var. Mobil test plant. Soil microbial counts, phosphorus availability, yield and fruit quality, such as total soluble solids (TSS) content and sugars (glucose, fructose) were assessed. The results found that single industrial inoculums of FZB42 product had positive effect on P-availability and fruit quality in the pots. Fruit quality parameters, TSS content, soluble sugars were significantly improved (p<0.05). Such better fruit taste was correlated significantly by the most probable number (MPN) microbial counts. Use of such bioeffector products is supported by the positive interrelation among measured soil characteristics and inside healthy quality parameters of tomato fruits.
Aquaponics is the combined culture of fish and plants in recirculating aquaculture systems, an ecologically sustainable horticultural production technique with long traditions.
The objective of this study is to compare flood-and- drain, and the water crossflow system and examine the differences in the water quality, fish yi...eld and plant growth parameters for Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and basil (Ocimum basilicum). During the study, water quality parameters of two treatments were compared in temperatures, pH, EC and NO3¯N were significantly different (p <0.05). Leaf area of the basil plants grew to an average of 20.37 cm2 (± 9.02 cm2). The plants’ biomass production was significantly different (p< 0.05) in the two systems. The biomass production showed lower yield, 458.22 g (± 214.59 g) in the constant flow system that in the flood- and- drain system 692.9 g (± 175.82 g). Fish Growth parameters were better in constant flow system (FCR 5.48 g/g ± 0.19). However, the specific growth rate (SGR) demonstrated that fish grew faster in flood- and- drain system 1.38 %/day (± 0.29).
Within our experiment, we studied the combined effect of live food application and feed training on the production parameters of carp larvae. In addition, we examined whether there is a difference in the growth rate and survival rate of the specimens of Szeged mirror landrace reared in similar stocking density but with different treatments....
Specimens of Szeged mirror landrace from induced propagation were placed into 12 pieces of 40-liter aquaria. For the 4 different treatments, (K, A3, A6, A9), live food (Artemia salina) was fed, as well as feed training was applied.
We also sought to find an answer as to how our feeding and rearing conditions can affect the production parameters of common carp fries and what impact these conditions may have on their survival rates. At the end of the 2-week experiment we determined the individual weight gain of the carp fries, their survival rate and the biomass growth. The purpose of the study is to examine the optimum timing of shifting from live food to feed for carp larvae.
During our research we aimed at finding an answer as to what extent the different concentrations of 17-alpha methyl testosterone incorporated in the diet of common carp fries can influence the production parameters of the species, as well as how efficient their sexreversal can be with the use of this method. To this end, an aquarium experiment...was conducted in the course of which four different hormone treatments were set and monitored. The fish feed was enriched with 17-alpha methyl testosterone in 50 ppm, 75 ppm, 100 ppm, 500 ppm dosages.
The obtained figures revealed that the hormone treatments had no influence on the production parameters and conservation of the common carp fries. Further on, our team is to determine the sex of the fish through the examination of gonads during autopsy when they reach the 500 g average weight.
Furthermore, a male specific test method which was supposed to be of great help in our attempt to select the sex-reversed specimens in the subsequent processes was also put to the trial. During the experiment the DNA-isolation of different sample types (muscle tissue, fin, mucus) of common carp with identified sex was successfully carried out. The extracted PCR product was examined with agarose gel. Our results indicated that the ccmf2 marker was applicable, however, the obtained figures were not reliable.
Agriculture has traditionally an important role in Hungarian economy and rural development. About 75 % of Hungary’s total territory
is under agricultural land use. Because of ecological conditions and production traditions cereals (wheat, maize etc) have the greatest
importance in Hungarian crop production. In the 1980’s the country-a
crop production-model). In the 1990’s the yields of wheat dropped to 4,0 t ha-1 because of low input-using and wide application of the issues
of environmental protection and sustainability. Winter wheat production for quality has a decisive role in certain regions of Hungary
(eastern and middle-parts).
The quality of wheat is complex and different. Three major growing factor groups determine the quality of winter wheat: genotype,
agroecological conditions and agrotechnical factors. In wheat production for quality the selection of the variety is the most important
element. Our long-term experiments proved that the quality traits of a variety means the highest (maximum) limit of quality which could not
be exceeded in fact. During the vegetation period of wheat the different ecological and agrotechnical factors could help or on the contrary
could demage the quality parameters of wheat.
The agrotechnical factors determining the baking quality of wheat can be divided into two groups: the first group means the factors with
direct effects on quality (fertilization, irrigation, harvest); the second group contains the elements with indirect effects on quality (crop
rotation, tillage, planting, crop protection).
Appropriate fertilization could help to manifest the maximum of quality parameters of a wheat genotype and could reduce the qualityfluctuation
in unfavourable ecological and agrotechnical conditions.
The authors carried out an examination on two Saanen goat farms during four months from May to August 2008. The body condition score and milk production of the goats were measured. In data processing analysis of variance was used to compare the data of the studied farms. They tried to find the answer for the question how the body condition scor...es and milk production change in each month. The changes observed in each farm were examined separately then they compared the values of the two farms.. On one of the farms the nutrition was proper therefore with an ideal, intermediate body condition (average 2.73) the goats produced a good amount of milk (2.5 milk-kg/mother/day). On the other farm the nutrition was not proper, therefore the body condition of the goats was weak (average 1.88). Their milk production decreased significantly from month to month (average 2.35 milk-kg/mother/day). The authors could conclude considering both farms that the more milk the goats produced, the lower their body condition score became. The two parameters showed negative correlation.
The treatment and utilization of plant and animal waste and by-products from agriculture is very diverse. Traditional environmental management practices for waste management have been retained through soil conservation and the applied of recycle degradable organic substances in soil. The management o...f by-products from agriculture (animal husbandry) is important because a closed loop can be created to utilize by-products (manure, feathers) from the production of the main product (eggs, meat, milk) and to form a raw material for a new product. It is important to treat the resulting by-products, especially deep-litter manure, as it has served as a basis for compost-treated manure to develop an organic-based, soil-conditioning product line. Poultry manure by itself is not suitable as a substrate for aerobic decomposition, so it has to be mixed with other substances (zeolite, bentonite, soil), because of its high nutrient capacity, it is an acidifying substance.
The aim of this study was to compost the mixture of poultry manure and hen manure by the addition of zeolite and to monitor the composting process. It was also our aim to statistically determine the effect of the zeolite on parameters describing the composting process.
The windrow composting experiments were set up in the composting area of the University of Debrecen, Institute of Water and Environmental Management. The composting experiment was 62 days long, during which the main parameters describing the composting process were continuously monitored: temperature (°C), moisture content (w/w%), electrical conductivity (mS/cm), organic matter content (w/w%), examination of nitrogen forms (w/w%). In this study, three factors were investigated: temperature, humidity, and pH. For statistical evaluation, R software and RStudio user interface were used. We developed a repeated measurement model, in which the fixed and random effects were determined for our parameters under study, and the resulting relationships were shown on interaction plots.
Based on our results, the temperature of the prisms has become independent of the ambient temperature and the composting stages can be separated in both the control and the zeolite treated prisms. In the repeated measurement model, we proved that treatment, time and treatment: time interaction were significant at both temperature and pH.
Lambing frequency of three different genotypes was evaluated in the breeding stock of Babolna c.o. Szendrő. Ile de France, Suffolk and Babolna TETRA breeding ewes gave the data for the further evaluation. The main aim of this research was to find out if there is any significant effect of selected parameters (registration class, lambing season,... lambing type and the years) on the lambing frequency, the period between consecutive lambings. Production parameters of 9,471 Ile de France, 1,244 Suffolk and 7,618 Babolna TETRA ewes were collected and processed. The analysis covered the period between the years 1989-1999. It was concluded that not all of the evaluated parameters had a significant effect on lambing frequency. Not all of the genotypes showed significant differences, according to the examined parameters.
Nitrogen is a key element for the living organisms and influence not only for the quantity but for the quality of the yield, considerable. Availability of nitrogen from the soil is influenced by several microbiological processes of the Nitrogen-cycle. Among the intensive agricultural production the herbicide application cannot be omitted more i...nformation needs therefore about the inhibitor effect of herbicides on the different microorganisms.
An experiment was set up on calcareous chernozem soil under maize culture. Effect of four different herbicides (Acenit, Frontier, Merlin, and Wing) was investigated. The effect of herbicides was measured to four microbiological parameters of the Nitrogencycle (abundance of nitrifying bacteria, nitrate solubilisation, biomass nitrogen and urease enzyme activity). There were singledouble- and five times of recommended doses of herbicides applied for two onsecutive vegetation periods.
From the results of the different doses of herbicides, the following can be stated:
– The Acenit has a stimulating effect on nitrifying bacteria in general. The Frontier and Merlin also influenced the quantity of nitrifyers, however in certain cases decreased in another cases increased the number of bacteria.
– The double doses and five times doses of herbicides was found to be increasing the nitrate content of soil, -especially in 2006.
– The quantity of microbial biomass nitrogen increased in the 60% of treatments and decreased in the 40% of the treatments.
– Except of the result of Wing in 2006 and Merlin in 2005, the effect of simple dose herbicides was the smallest on the urease enzyme activity. According to the results the effect of Merlin was positive; the effect of Wing was negative on the soil enzyme’s activity.
Regarding the application of four different herbicides in three different doses on the microbiological parameters of soil (at two consecutive years-) in 39% of the treatments has resulted a significant inhibitory effect, 28% of the treatments, however have significant stimulating effect on the parameters measured. More than 50% of the inhibitory effect was measured in case of the Wing, at more than 50% of the Frontier the microbiological parameters have not changed.
The homogeneity of a study area of 20x20 m used for beetroot production in North-West Hungary was analysed with geo-statistical methods on the basis of measured plant and soil parameters. Based on variogram calculations (Equation 1 and 2), the yield surface showed homogeneity in North-South direction. Considering the results, decrease of sampli...ng distance to 17 m can be suggested. The direction of the variability of yield (Figure 1) could be modelled with a direction variogram based on analysis of the variogram surface. In the study, developed methodological processes are presented for the analysis of spatial relationship between measured production and soil parameters. 5 spatial evaluation methods for yield surface were compared (Table 1). On the basis of the analysed methods, it can be stated that different methods (LP, RBF) should be used when the reasons for locally extreme yields are in focus than in case when the yield surface of the whole area is estimated (IDW, GP). Using adequate parameters the kriging method is applicable for both functions. Similarly to the results of an ordinary Pearson correlation analysis, spatial correlation analysis was shown using soil pH and Cu concentration data. The results of cross variogram analysis (Equation 2) and the North-South direction of the variogram surface showed negative correlation (Figure 3). Based on simulation calculations, decrease of 30% in sampling points resulted in increase of 12% in error for the total sample number considering Cu concentration. The method provides a tool to decrease the cost of sampling and sample analyses of spatially correlating features, and to increase the reliability of spatial estimation using a better sampling strategy with the same sample number.