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Effects of ingredients and processing conditions on the quality frozen dough bread made from diferent wheat flour
Published October 5, 2010
115-120

A laboratory scale no-time frozen dough procedure that approximates Romanian commercial practice has been
developed and used to study the effects of ingredients and processing conditions on the bread quality of a straight
grade wheat flour during prolonged storage (2 days to 26 weeks). All treatments (baking absorption level, mixing
en...ergy input, mixer type, fermentation and intermediate proof times, removal of oxidant and/or dough
strengthening conditioners and partial freeze-thaw cycles) had significant effects (P<0.05) upon bread quality (loaf
volume and/or bread score). In general, these effects were more pronounced with extended frozen storage time.
High baking absorption, undermixing, bulk fermentation (> 1 h) and removal of oxidant and/or surfactants had
the most dramatic effects. Addition of a very strong flour at 30% to strengthen the wheat flour had no significant
effect (P>0.05) upon bread quality under optimum conditions.

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Relationships of Fruit Production and Regional Development in the Northern Great Plain Region
Published December 6, 2005
181-187

The role of retaining population in agriculture is stronger and more significant in the long run in the North Great Plain Region compared to other regions. The region has a significant processing industry along with a good basis for producing raw materials, developed food processing capicity and high quality agricultural products typical of the... region. The GDP in agriculture, forestry and game management is somewhat higher than the national average.
Variety is of cardinal importance when establishing the quality of horticultural products and determining the product value. The Hungarian breeding results of apple, quince, apricot, cherry, raspberry, red and black currant are promising.
The regulation system of EU the vegetable and fruit market is based on Retail Cooperatives Producers. With the establishment of national vegetable- and fruit production and retail organizations, the market regulation, production and quality development issues of the sector can be handled and solved. Reaching EU standards in fruit production can only be achieved with up-to-date plantation systems and breed selection. A key issue in development is establishing the required financial resources for investments and updating production. In order to reach these standards, significant state subsidies and good credit conditions are needed. By solving these tasks, the sector is expected to become self-financed without government help.
The pursuit of safer production, improving quality and increasing yields require the establishment of up-to-date irrigation systems. The improvement of family farms, motivating land concentration is necessary for increasing average size of plants. Establishing the above mentioned conditions is important since the vegetable-fruit sector is of great significance in the employment of rurally based population, improving their living conditions and executing rural development programs.

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Effects of Site on Winter Wheat Quality 2002/2003
Published October 3, 2019
100-107

The demand of modern societies for high food quality is evident. Thus, it is important for agriculture to produce row materials that are valuable for nutrition and have favourable characteristics for food processing. For this we need a knowledge about the factors which determine the quality of products. One of the main features of plant product...ion is the “immobility”. This way the characteristics of the field influence the quality of the product, like example winter wheat, which is the main cereal in Hungary and Europe.
The Concordia Co. has charged the Central Laboratory of Debrecen University, Agricultural Centre with laboratory testing of the 2002/2003 winter wheat crop. The samples consist of thirteen winter wheat varieties from six different sites under the same cultivating conditions. Therefore, the important wheat quality factors were analysed solely against site conditions with the use of Győri’s “Z” index, which contains these parameters.
Soils were tested first. In this experiment excepting the negligible differences between the sites, there were no linear relations found between quality factors, productivity and soil features. The case is the same with the relation between precipitation, temperature and quality parameters. However, it must be noted that additional soil analyses are required to interpret the extreme results obtained from Karcag.
The calculated Győri’s Z-index shows relative stability concerning certain varieties, although considerable deviation can be found in varieties related to the sites. According to these results, it can bestated that winter wheat quality was not linearly influenced by soil and weather in the 2002/2003 vegetation period. As the same cultivation technology was used in the experiment, the index was determined by genetic features. It must be noted that these findings are relevant only to this experiment.

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Coherence and connection between the good pond culture practice and the environment conscious management
Published April 11, 2007
60-73

According to the data indicating the decline and restructuring during the past decade, as well as the trend in the European Union member states, it can be expected that the role of traditional agriculture and fish production in direct rural employment decrease further. This also values those strategic directions for restructuring that will lead... fishculture from quantity driven to quality production along with sustainable development (i.e. environmental conscious production) and multifunctional farming. This way the economic and social tensions caused by the concentration of the production and labour output can be mitigated.
It is laid in the 1257/1999 Act on rural Development that farmers that enrol the agri-environmental scheme should follow the “Good Agricultural Practice” on the whole managed area. In case of agri-environmental schemes this is a precondition for which no grants are given.
The adaptation of “Good Agricultural Practice” in fishproduction,where it is called: “Good Pond Culture Practice” is considered important on the basis of the above mentioned. This programme is undertaken in co-operation with the Research Institute for Aquaculture, Fisheries and Irrigation, University of Debrecen, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development and the Association of Hungarian Fish Farmers and Product Council.
The European Commission proposed the formulation of the European Fisheries and Aquaculture Fund (EFAF) for the period 2007-20013, which will replace the Financial Instruments for Fisheries Guidance (FIFG), but it also consists of several new elements and will be working differently, too. According to the proposal the budget for the Fund will be nearly 5 billion EUR (4963 million EUR). The development level of aquaculture and fisheries and the social and economic significance in the given member state will be considered when distributing the Fund between the Member States.
According to the plan the Fund is organised along five priority axes, of which the most important for the Hungarian fisheries sector is No. II: Aquaculture and the processing and marketing of aquaculture and fisheries products. The main measure areas are the followings:
1. investment support for aquaculture;
2. support for aquatic-environmental schemes;
3. environmental- and animal health issues;
4. investments in processing and marketing
In case of accessing support under measure area No. 2 farms are obliged to meet the requirements of the scheme beyond the “good management practice” for 5 years, which is to be supervised by the approved body of the Member State. For this reason our work is considered to be substantial.
Approval of the application of “Good Pond Culture Practice” is based on two elements: first the prevailing environmental and nature conservation regulations, as well as the list of controllable conditions in the new agri-environmental agreements are to be met. “Good Pond Culture Practice” are to be conducted on the whole farm area. Its main elements are:
- nutrition management,
- feeding,
- pond maintenance,
- stocking,
- harvesting,
- animal welfare (storage and over-wintering).

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Effect of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPRS) on yield and quality of processing tomato under water deficiency
Published December 1, 2020
19-22

Chlorophyll fluorescence was measured of H1015 tomato hybrid with different bacterial treatments (B0–B1–B2–B3) and three irrigation treatments: regular irrigated (RI), deficit irrigated (DI) and non-irrigated conditions (I0). The aim of the experiments was to show the effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on the yield, dry m...atter and vitamin C content of processing tomato during different irrigation treatments, and measuring the chlorophyll fluorescence during the ripening and development stages. According to the results, none of the bacterial treatments had a statistical effect on the quantity and quality of the tomato and on the chlorophyll fluorescence, only the irrigation. Further studies are needed.

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The Natural, Social and Economic Conditions and Opportunities for Development of Balmazujvaros, Especially in the Case of the Co-operative Kvaliko
Published May 12, 2002
77-85

Balmazujvaros as a settlement near Hortobagy has to cope with both advantages and disadvantages. Its natural and social conditions are mainly given, the agricultural characteristic is dominant, and the number of the employed is the highest in the agricultural firms and processing industry. Developing the third sector, including hosting, tourism..., eco-tourism, thermal-tourism, may be an opportunity for the city. The subsidy for rural development relating to the SAPARD-programme may contribute to this, as the city is the member of the Association of Hajdu Towns.
The agriculture plays an important part in Balmazujvaros in which production and marketing of vegetables and fruits excel. Several farmers realised this opportunity and founded the Marketing Co-operative of Vegetable Producers in Eastern Hungary, that is the Kvaliko. This PO works in a Corporation form and is constantly developing, spreading and expanding its choice making use of the local natural, social and economic conditions and applications for realising its investments. This PO may set an example for the other entrepreneurs and farmers of Balmazujvaros to co-operate and it may be considered as an already realised opportunity.

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Identification of the Slovak traditional cheese “Parenica” microflora
Published September 5, 2018
227-239

Numerous studies have demonstrated the higher accuracy, faster time-to-results and lower costs provided by MALDI Biotyper systems compared to classical methods. In this study, the culturable population of total count of bacteria, enterococci, coliforms bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and microscopic fungi and yeasts from cow’s dairy prod...ucts was identified using the MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper. Altogether, 50 samples of the Slovak cheese “Parenica” were examined. Total numbers of bacteria were cultured on Plate count agar at 37 °C for 24–48 h, aerobically; enterococci were cultured on Enterococcus selective agar at 37 °C for 24–48 h, aerobically; coliforms bacteria were cultured on Violet Red Bile lactose agar at 37 °C for 24–48 h, aerobically. The LAB were cultured on MRS (Main Rogosa agar), MSE and APT agar at 30 °C in microaerophilic conditions. The microscopic fungi and yeasts were cultured on Malt extract agar at 25 °C for 5 days, aerobically. Isolated strains (total 669) were subjected to identification by the MALDI-TOF MS. Among total count the identified bacteria mostly were Acinetobacter baumannii, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus warneri. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae were the most abundant coliform bacteria representatives identified. Coliform bacteria included Citrobacter, Hafnia and Klebsiella. Altogether three genera belonged to the LAB – Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Leuconostoc were identified with Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus coryniformis, L. fructivorans and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were considered as the dominated LAB species in dairy products. Among yeasts, Kluyveromyces lactis, Candida zeylanoides and Yarrowia lipolytica were among the most isolated.

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The Role of Organic Farming in Hungary and in the Northern Plain Region
Published December 6, 2005
273-276

In 2003, the area, which was monitored according to the requirement of organic farming, was 116 thousand hectares in Hungary, and included almost 1700 works, which produce organic products. This is some 2% of the cultivated land of Hungary. The increase of organic farming areas has slowed down in recent years. In these conditions the optimal 30...0,000 hectares cannot be achieve in 2006.
In 2003, the area which was cultivated according to the regulations of organic farming was more than 33 thousand hectares in the North Great Plain Region, and monitored 250 enterprises the associates of the monitor organization. The challenge of the coordinators of the organic farming in the region are to fortificate the processing industry. The goal is to increase the added value of the products.

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New Possibilities of Brown Bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) Farming
Published May 11, 2003
55-57

The brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) has been settled in Europe at the end of Century XIX from North America. In Hungary it has been brought in 1902. The naturalization of this species was successful because the brown bullhead found adequate conditions for its life and reproduction in Hungary. But it was unsuccessful because lost its excell...ent growth.
In inland water habitats-and that’s why also fishponds-extraordinarily multiplied, but because of its slight growth this species is undesirable for the native farmers. The brown bullhead is concurrent for domestic fish species, on the other hand its weight not more than 150-200 g. Occasionally it was exterminated, but multiplied again and again.
In 1999 we placed out black bullhead offspring in a pool of a new intensive fish farm, in order to breed at least 300-350 g weight for the customers. The accidental trial was surprisingly successful. Consequently, the black bullhead prefers the artificial food, and produces excellent growth parameters and specific feed-live weight conversation ratio.
On the 20th of September 1999 there was placed 23 300 pieces of brown bullhead offspring, with 28 g average weight and 625 kg gross weight. When we sold them on the 22nd of February 2000, the gross weight was 3387 and the live weight gain was 2735 kg. The gross weight of the feed was 3041,8 kg, and the feed-live weight conversation ratio was 1,11 kg/kg.
Because of this successful trial the managers of the farm wanted to start systematic experiments to work out the details of the intensive farming of brown bullhead. We undertook to help to find the right place of the species in the Hungarian fish processing because of the increasing native and foreign demand.

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Differences in Regional Development in the Northern Great Plain Region
Published December 6, 2005
170-180

An important ambition of EU regional politics is the reduction of disparities. An important strategical objective of the Commission is to terminate underdevelopment and to ensure the development of the regions based on the principles of solidarity, equity and justice. The commission has dedicated forty percent of its common budget to achieve th...ese goals. The differences in development are significantly influenced by the economic characteristics of the specific region, the quality and quantity of human resources, the accessibility of the region and factors influencing local quality of life.
The new spatial structure has been formed by the processes of the change of regime, the events of nineties and the economic renewal based onforeign capital investments parallel with crisis phenomenon. The economic, political and social consequences of the transformation have significantly transformed spatial structure and increased disparities. New disparities have formed, which strengthened due to the formation of east-west slopes and local crisis zones. The outstanding improvement of the capital resulted in great regional development differences, which can be detected when examining regional distribution of gross domestic product. The Eastern part of the country was most heavily affected by the collapse of heavy industry and agricultural mass production based on the Eastern markets.
It is of key importance for the region to strengthen regional competitiveness, which requires the application of consistent development-politics. Economic development is the most important, which can also draw the possibility of establishing welfare infrastructures. It is important to develop the processing industry, the supply networks and to ease the lack of capital it is also important to involve foreign capital. Developing agriculture plays an important role in transforming the structure of the economy. Since the conditions of the region, its traditions and long-term competitive advantages are favorable, thus can represent a greater ratio in the economy than the EU average. The modernisation of the agricultural sector can be promoted by supporting marketing, quality agricultural development and producer-retail cooperation. It is also highly important to promote development in transportation and informatics infrastructure and human resources.
In the future – based on the strength of the region – it is necessary to achieve such a consistent regional development politics, which by validating the principles of regional politics, serves the interest of utilizing regional development supports most efficiently and prevents the irreversible underdevelopment of the region and promotes fast development.

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Analysis of sweet corn nutritional values using multivariate statistical methods
Published June 1, 2021
103-108

Processing large amounts of data provided by automated analytical equipment requires carefulness. Most mathematical and statistical methods have strict application conditions. Most of these methods are based on eigenvalue calculations and require variables to be correlated in groups. If this condition is not met, the most popular multivaria...te methods cannot be used. The best procedure for such testing is the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test for Sampling Adequacy. Two databases were examined using the KMO test. One of them resulted from the sweet corn measured in the scone of the study, while the other from the 1979 book of János Sváb. For both databases, MSA (measures sampling adequacy) was well below the critical value, thus they are not suitable e.g. for principal component analysis. In both databases, the values of the partial correlation coefficients were much higher than Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Often the signs of partial coefficients did not match the signs of linear correlation coefficients. One of the main reasons for this is that the correlation between the variables is non-linear. Another reason is that control variables have a non-linear effect on a given variable. In such cases, classical methods should be disregarded and expert models better suited to the problem should be chosen in order to analyse the correlation system.

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The effect of water supply for yield formation of processing tomato
Published November 13, 2012
165-168

The effect of irrigation on tomato yield depends on the actual weather conditions, basically the air temperature and precipitation (quantity and dispersion). The irrigated plants gave a significantly higher yield, and rainfed plants showed a yield loss. The optimum water supply treatment gave a significantly higher proportion of lycopene than t...he control (rainfed) treatment (89% and 80% respectively) in case of Brixsol F1 variety. In spite of this we have not found significant difference in case of Strombolino F1 (cherry type). Content of total poly-phenols measured in Strombolino F1 (cherry type) was significantly higher than that found in the Brixol F1 (normal type). The optimum water supply treatment resulted in a significantly lower content of total polyphenols in both years. Tomato fruits are rich in polyphenols the largest amount of which is rutin from among the identified components.

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Regional Development Differences in Hungary and the Northern-Great Plain Region
Published March 4, 2005
62-71

The most important endeavour of European Union’s regional policy is to moderate disparities. An emphasised strategic objective of member states, based on the principle of solidarity, fairness and justice, is to develop regions and almost forty percent of the common budget is devoted to achieving this objective.
Hungary, as a full EU member... state, will get a new chance for underdeveloped regions, especially for the Eastern-Hungarian as well as the North Hungarian and North Plain Region.
The differences in development among the regions are significantly influenced by the economic characteristics of the specific region, quality and quantity of human resources, accessability of the region and other factors influencing local quality of life beside natural conditions.
The new spatial structure was formed by change of regime, processes of the nineties, primarily the economic renewal based on foreign capital investments and the crisis phenomena in parallel with these. The economic, political and social consequences of the transformation significantly changed spatial structure and increased disparities. New disparities formed which were further aggravated as a consequence due to the formation of the eastern-western slope and local crisis zones. As a result of the outstanding development of the capital, the long term differentiation of regional development differences can also be detected when examining the regional distribution of Hungarian gross domestic product. The collapse of heavy industry and agricultural mass production based on the eastern markets primarily affected the north-east counties in the eastern part of the country.
Strengthening regional competitiveness is of key importance for the region, which requires the application of consistent development policy. The most important is economic development which, if it operates well, also infers the possibility of establishing welfare infrastructures. Drawing in external sources to ease the significant lack of capital is important for the processing industry and the development of supplier networks. Agricultural development also plays an important role in transforming economic structure, since the characteristics of the region, its traditions and long term competitive advantages are favourable, therefore it is going to represent a higher ratio within the economy than the EU average. The modernisation of the agricultural sector can be promoted by supporting market accession, quality agricultural production and stimulating producer-retailer cooperation. The development of transportation and informatics infrastructure as well as human resource development plays a significantly important role in the development of the region.
In conclusion, the implementation of such a consistent regional development policy is required in the future, based on the strengths of the region, that serves the most efficient utilisation of regional development funds through the implementation of regional policy principles and prevents the irreversible decay of the region while promoting rapid development.

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