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Integration of Transformation Technology and Conventional Plant Breeding of Cereal Plants
Published December 10, 2002
75-80

The integration of plant breeding and plant transformation is needed because we have to create a homozygous genotype of great agronomic value by conventional breeding before the application of genetic technology with which we modify it by using a gene or genome sequence. The aim of integrated plant breeding is to trigger such advantegous change...s by genetic technology which can not be achieved via conventional breeding or just with considerably weaker efficacy. By transformation, the plant’s agronomic performance, the efficiency and security of its production will improve and it will enable more versatile uses of the plant. Genetic technology is one sequence of a new plant variety’ breeding. To create a transgenic variety, the isolation of a gene or a sequence of a gene from the donor genome for tranformation, a homozygous plant or target genome that is suitable for transformation and is created via conventional breeding methods, an effective transformation technique and the establishment of the new variety from the transformed, fertile plant are needed. The transgenic plant should be made suitable for establishing a variety by conventional breeding so that it could be produced securely, its growing could contribute to the development of modern, sustainable agriculture, its seed could be produced profitably, it could meet the reqiurements of DUS and that the changes indicated by the transgene could provide such economic advantages compared to the original variety, which have real commercial value.

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13
Development of a New Maize (Zea mays L.) Breeding Program
Published May 12, 2002
25-30

Genetic manipulation may not replace any conventional method in crop breeding programs, but it can be an important adjunct to them. Plant regeneration via tissue culture is becoming increasingly more common in monocots such as corn (Zea mays L.). In vitro culturability and regeneration ability of corn decreased as homozigosity increased, which ...suggested that these two attributes were controlled primarily by dominant gene action. Pollen (gametophytic) selection for resistance to aflatoxin in corn can greatly facilitate recurrent selection and screening of germplasm for resistance at a much less cost and shorter time than field testing. Integration of in vivo and in vitro techniques in maize breeding program has been developed to obtain desirable agronomic attributes, speed up the breeding process and enhance the genes responsible for them. The efficiency of anther and tissue cultures in most cereals such as maize and wheat have reached the stage where it can be used in breeding programs to some extent and many new cultivars produced by genetic manipulation have now reached the market.

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15
14
Application of GIS, precision agriculture and unplugging cultivation in plant breeding of Karcag
Published December 15, 2019
49-56

In the last two decades, the prevailing ecological conditions and climate change have caused negative effects. Therefore, a paradigm shift is needed in the field growing of plants. The latest inventions, digital technologies, precision cultivation are not enough, the mentality of the farmers is more important. For this reason, not only big fina...ncial sacrifices, but adequate receptivity are needed on behalf of farmers. Adequate skills and continuous self-education are necessary. The yield of plant growing farms is determined by ecological conditions to a 40% extent, genetic background of the seed has a 30% share and the applied agricultural technology has a proportion of 30%. In different agroecological conditions, bred varieties of plants have bigger tolerance to unfavorable factors of the regions and significant yield stability. Farmers, who buy and sow seeds, can only contribute to the genetic potential of the seeds with cultivation technology. Plant breeding provides stable genetic background and good quality seeds. Breeding activity – choosing variety proposants, breeding them, selection work, classical breeding process for 8-10 years – must create new landraces, which can produce balance, high yield and have good quality parameters in extreme ecological conditions, yearly excursion and have higher tolerance to unfavorable factors of the region giving significant production stability for farmers. In Karcag GIS technology, precision cultivation elements and soil-friendly agrotechnical methods have been introduced which largely support the aims of breeding and can also provide optimal cultivation conditions in extreme years. Because of the specificity of breeding the main aim is not only to increase yield but to provide harmonic growing for bred materials, to decrease the number and the cost of cultivation and to be punctual. In this study, applied new methods and technologies are introduced.

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The Effect of Forecrop and Plant Protection on the Pathology Parameters and Yields of Winter Wheat
Published December 6, 2005
84-89

We carried out our experiment in the cropyears of 2000/2001, 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, on calcareous chernozem soil, at the experimental site of the Debrecen University Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. We examined the disease resistance and the yield quantity of Mv Magvas variety by adopting different forecrops and plant prot...ection technologies, at 30+30 N level and at normal cereal row spacing. We applied two forecrops (wheat and pea) and two plant protection technologies (extensive and intensive). We measured the rate of infection by population survey in the first ten days of June.
In the course of our examinations, we found, that the rate of powdery mildew infection was higher in the thicker population sown after pea forecrop in all three years, as powdery mildew is not a typical cereal disease.
The infection rate of leaf mildew and DTR (Dreschlera tritici-repentis) was higher after wheat forecrop in all examined years, because these are typical wheat diseases and infection centres in the soil promote the spreading of these diseases. However, it was possible to parry the adverse effect of forecrops by intensive plant protection.
Due to the chernozem soil, wich has good water management features, and due to the good preparation of the seedbed, the effect of forecrops on yield quantity did not appear in the examined years. The quantity of the yield was only slightly larger after pea forecrop in the cropyears of 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 than after wheat. Nonetheless, the data of technical literatures state that the yield quantity can be larger, even by 15-20%, after pea forecrop.
In the course of intensive plant protection technology, we applied systemic pesticides, while in the course of environmentally sound technology, we used contact pesticides of sulphur content. In those populations that were treated with environmentally sound plant protection technology, infection rate was higher in all three years.
Yield quantities were somewhat lower in the course of applying extensive, environmentally sound technology, because diseases appeared in these populations to the higher degree. Powdery mildew does not, but leaf mildew and Dreschlera tritici-repentis have a significant yield decreasing effect. With appropriate, well-selected fungicides, we were able to keep every leaf diseases well in hand, and the rate of infection was almost independent of the influence of the breeding year.

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Advancement of a Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Selection System
Published October 11, 2006
8-11

All the research in Hungary and other countries in Europe focus on improving the quality of crops and increasing the competitiveness of production.
In this respect, we have to advance the conventional technological elements, reduce the application of pesticides and fertilizers, and produce new varieties suitable for environmentally-sound pro...duction. In our crop breeding programs, we applied conventional and biotechnological methods (embryo rescue and double haploid methods) in order to get somaclonal and gametoclonal variations.
We produced winter wheat lines (HP-31-95, HP-82-96) by traditional way, which have high baking qualities and high nutrient efficiency. Some diseases can limit the quantity and quality of a wheat crop. We examined several wheat diseases in our winter wheat candidates, and we found that our progenies have resistance to leaf rust.
With respect to a serious problem was the small quantity of applied fertilizers and the other externals, our research focused onto advance a common wheat selection system, with the help of it, we can handle these problems. We have summarized that our selected progenies can compete with the registered varieties with quality and environmental respect.

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14
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Comparison of Variability among Irradiated and Control Inbred Maize Lines via Morphological Descriptions and Some Quantitative Features
Published October 11, 2006
70-73

Knowledge of genetic diversity in breeding material is fundamental for hybrid selection programs and for germplasm preservation as well. Research has been done with nine irradiated (fast neutron) and four non-treated inbred lines. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the degree of genetic variability detected with morphological descri...ption (based on CPVO TP/2/2) in these materials, (2) to compare the genetic changes among irradiated and non-irradiated maize inbred lines (based on some quantitative features). The irradiation did not change any of the characteristics clearly in positive or negative way, which can be related to the fact that the effect of induced mutation on genetic structure cannot be controlled. From the irradiated lines we have managed to select plants with earlier ripening times and better phenotypes. We could distinguish 3 main groups by the morphological features; these results match our expectations based on pedigree data. Markers distinguishable on the phenotypic level (e.g. antocyanin colouration, length of tassels) were significant in all lines.

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10
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Comparison of RAPD and AFLP Analysis in Some Maize (Zea mays L.) Lines and Hybrids
Published October 11, 2006
3-7

The use of molecular markers to enhance plant breeding efforts is being widely studied. DNA-based fingerprinting technologies (RAPD and AFLP) have proven useful in genetic similarity studies. We estimated different maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and hybrids originated from mutant ones based on their genetic differences.
We carried out RAPD... analysis with different primers and the 707 (CCCAACACCC) and 792 (CAACCCACAC) primers with 50% similarities provided quite good DNA fragments. By applying the DNA based-AFLP technique, we had very dense DNA fingerprinting. We differentiated 15-32 polymorphic bands, the highest number of bands were found in P-T/H-CA (32). AFLP seems to be the more efficient method of comparing genetic similarities/differences among different genotypes.

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18
The examination of the agronomy, the amount of yield, and the yield stability of winter wheat varieties
Published December 21, 2008
61-72

Our research was carried out at University of Debrecen Centre for Agricultural Sciences Faculty of Agriculture Institution of Plant Sciences Látókép Research Institute through the breeding year of 2003/2004, 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 using cherrnozem soil. In our research we tested 14 chosen autumn wheat varieties during the three crop years.<...br>The different varieties showed very dissimilar ability of resistance against diseases through the three crop years. We could observe both susceptible and resistant varieties. Susceptible varieties got diseases even in favourable crop years. The observed winter wheat varieties showed higher susceptibility against helminthosporium (21.8%) and leaf rost (16.4%). Among the 14 varieties we experienced the least susceptibility in the case of ‘Gaspard’ and ‘GK Kalász’. The research showed that the disease of fusarium undoubtedly depends on the features of the crop year.
In terms of stem solidity we experienced big differences. Among all the observed winter wheat varieties the mid-late ripening ‘Gaspard’ showed the best results in the average of the three years, only 5.3% was beaten down.
The three ripening group of the winter wheat showed the following average yield in the average of three years: 7065 kg/hectare (early ripening varieties), 7261 kg/hectare (late ripening varieties), 6793 kg/hectare (mid-late ripening varieties). Among all the observed varieties the early ripening ‘Flori 2’ produced the biggest yield (7692 kg/hectare).
During the three crop years we reached very different amounts of yield which means that weather conditions had a telling affect on yield. In 2004 we reached an excellent average yield in all the tree  breeding groups because of the favourable weather conditions. In 2005 we had a moderate amount of yield because of the unfavourable weather conditions of winter. The year of 2006 showed the smallest amount of yield which is due to the fact that the plant grew less thick than usually.
There were significant differences among the observed varieties in the term of yield, which can be attributed to dissimilar biological basics.
One of he most important questions is the yield stability of the varieties. We had extremely different results at this field. Speaking in general terms we can state that both weather conditions and genetical abilities have a determining effect on yield. In the case of winter wheat varieties the rate of yield fluctuation was quite big, moving in the interval of 33.7-70.3%. Among all the observed varieties ‘Gaspard’ showed the best yield stability (33.3%). 

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Nutrient Uptake of Miscanthus in vitro Cultures
Published May 12, 2002
23-24

The large biomass production and the low necessary input fertilizer make Miscanthus an interesting, potential non-food crop with broad applications, e.g. for fuel and energy, for thatching, fiber production, for the paper and car industries, as well as for ethanol production.
Axillary buds of Miscanthus x giganteus were placed on a shoot ind...ucing nutrient solution (modified Murashige and Skoog, 1962), basic medium supplemented with 0,3 mg l-1 6-Benzylaminopurin. After 40 days of culturing, the axillary buds produced three times more shoots than could normally be harvested. The nutrient content (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) was measured several times during culturing. The results showed that, after 35 days, nitrogen and phosphate were nearly completely taken up. From that time, shoot growth was not observed.
After shoot propagation, the plants were transfered into a nutrient solution for root formation (modified Murashige and Skoog, 1962), basic medium supplemented with 0,5 mg l-1 Indole- 3-Butyric acid, and could be potted in soil after about 14 days.

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Management of phytopathogens by application of green nanobiotechnology: Emerging trends and challenges
Published June 2, 2015
15-22

Nanotechnology is highly interdisciplinary and important research area in modern science. The use of nanomaterials offer major advantages due to their unique size, shape and significantly improved physical, chemical, biological and antimicrobial properties. Physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of metal nanoparticles have received much a...ttention of researchers. There are different methods i.e. chemical, physical and biological for synthesis of nanoparticles. Chemical and physical methods have some limitations, and therefore, biological methods are needed to develop environment-friendly synthesis of nanoparticles. Moreover, biological method for the production of nanoparticles is simpler than chemical method as biological agents secrete large amount of enzymes, which reduce metals and can be responsible for the synthesis and capping on nanoparticles.

Biological systems for nanoparticle synthesis include plants, fungi, bacteria, yeasts, and actinomycetes. Many plant species including Opuntia ficus-indica, Azardirachta indica, Lawsonia inermis, Triticum aestivum, Hydrilla verticillata, Citrus medica, Catharanthus roseus, Avena sativa, etc., bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis, Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Lactobacillus sp., Klebsiella aerogenes, Torulopsis sp., and fungi, like Fusarium spp. Aspergillus spp., Verticillium spp., Saccharomyces cerevisae MKY3, Phoma spp. etc. have been exploited for the synthesis of different nanoparticles. Among all biological systems, fungi have been found to be more efficient system for synthesis of metal nanoparticles as they are easy to grow, produce more biomass and secret many enzymes. We proposed the term myconanotechnology (myco = fungi, nanotechnology = the creation and exploitation of materials in the size range of 1–100 nm). Myconanotechnology is the interface between mycology and nanotechnology, and is an exciting new applied interdisciplinary science that may have considerable potential, partly due to the wide range and diversity of fungi.

Nanotechnology is the promising tool to improve agricultural productivity though delivery of genes and drug molecules to target sites at cellular levels, genetic improvement, and nano-array based gene-technologies for gene expressions in plants and also use of nanoparticles-based gene transfer for breeding of varieties resistant to different pathogens and pests. The nanoparticles like copper (Cu), silver (Ag), titanium (Ti) and chitosan have shown their potential as novel antimicrobials for the management of pathogenic microorganisms affecting agricultural crops. Different experiments confirmed that fungal hyphae and conidial germination of pathogenic fungi are significantly inhibited by copper nanoparticles. The nanotechnologies can be used for the disease detection and also for its management. The progress in development of nano-herbicides, nano-fungicides and nano-pesticides will open up new avenues in the field of management of plant pathogens. The use of different nanoparticles in agriculture will increase productivity of crop. It is the necessity of time to use nanotechnology in agriculture with extensive experimental trials. However, there are challenges particularly the toxicity, which is not a big issue as compared to fungicides and pesticides.

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The Effect of Drought on the Yield of Winter Barley Lines in the Great Cumania Region
Published May 4, 2004
127-129

Winter barley is the third most important fodder plant in Hungary after winter wheat and maize.
Its accommodation to the changing climatic conditions – mainly to drought in Great Cumania, the driest region of our country is of great importance from the point of view of plant breeding and growing.
The vegetation period of 2002/2003 can b...e considered to have been very droughty with 247.5 mm precipitation.
According to our results six- rowed barley lines have better drought tolerance than two-rowed lines. The average yields of the six-rowed barley lines were 12-25 per cent higher than the yields of the two rowed lines.
Due to the joint effect of delayed sowing and drought, significant yield depression was detected both in the case of the early and the medium maturity group, and assessable data could be gained only from 35 per cent of the total territory.

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Agrobotanical Analysis of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Equilibrium Populations Suitable for Regional Land Cultivation
Published May 11, 2003
148-152

The local bean landraces maintained at small-scale farming level should have importance as complementary source for completion of plant genetic resources with potential role in local land cultivation. Also, they should be used as primary material in breeding activities targeted on improving the foodstuffs quality. In the research were used espe...cially landraces collected in Nyírség, Körös-mellék and Tápióvidék region. Our main objective was to reveal the relationship between the adaptation ability of landraces and the distance from their original collecting place. For that reason the location of the experimental plots was choosen by taking into account that they must be checked in each region, on it’s original region and similarly in other two different regions. On the base of the recorded agro-morphological traits we can get answers on the shaping of adaptation ability, and in the same time by a general chemical characterisation we should know more about the variation of qualitative parameters with a potential economical role. In the designing of experiment a main importance had the conditions where the research is taking place. All activities related to the maintenance of experiment were done in frame of a low input agricultural system to emphasize as much as possible the natural endowments of regeneration places.

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The possibilities of biomass utilization in the field of spatial development
Published July 16, 2007
59-63

By joining the European Union, Hungary made a commitment to increasingly utilize renewable energy sources. Keeping in view the agricultural circumstances of Hungary, we can state that biomass utilization has, overall, the greatest range of possibilities to use its products as ‘energy sources’. Biomass raw materials are useful in meeting emi...ssion control regulations for environment protection and to reduce climate change. The role of biomass production in spatial and rural development and in rural employment, and also in the decrease of Hungary’s energy dependence, supports development in biomass energy use. My aim in studying biomass utilization is the creation of a micro-regional level, decentralised, agro-energetic system-model for the use of plant and animal biomass for energy purposes, whether naturally or by anthropogenic activity, on agro- and sylvicultural areas, and on animal breeding farms. This model simulation method serves as a planning base for policy-makers during the spatial planning processes. The examination is presently in the stage of data collection. The collection of the basic data of the examination area and the purchase of the necessary equipment, materials and maps has already started. Contact has been made with local stakeholders, municipalities, municipality associations and micro-region managers.

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Increase of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Resistance to Leaf Rust (Puccinia tritici) via Gene Transformation
Published December 15, 2010
127-129

Leaf rust is one of the most significant fungal disease of wheat not only in Hungary but also in other parts of the world. For improving leaf rust resistance of winter wheat variety (Hajdúság, 2003) produced by conventional breeding methods, verified by results of variety tests, showing outstanding results in the aspect of the most important ...economic values, integration of tissue culture technics, genetic engineering and traditional
methods may provide facilities. Building the gene(s) responsible for resistance into the determined genome can improve the resistance in a way that changes other features of the plant slightly or not at all. In the course of genetical transformation of the variety Hajdúság we applied one of the wheat’s own effecient green-tissue specific insurer genetical regulator, the promoter of ribulose carboxylase 1-5 bisphosphate (RuBisCo) ‘s small
subunit to control the expression of the gene cmg1.

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Examination the effects of different herbicides on the soil microorganisms of a calcareous chernozem
Published November 3, 2010
121-126

Pesticides play a key role in fighting weeds, pests and parasitic fungi. According to surveys, pests reduce the yield of agricultural crops by 35% worldwide. Pests, fungi and weeds account for 14%, 12% and 9% yield loss, respectively (Gáborjányi et al., 1995). Chemicals have contributed to increasing and maintaining the yields of crop product...ion for decades. Today, agricultural production (in spite of many efforts) is unthinkable without the use of pesticides (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides). On the other hand, these chemicals contribute to the pollution of the atmosphere, surface and underground waters, and agricultural soils, especially if they are applied improperly.
The sustainable agricultural production pays attention to environment-friendly cultivation-technologies; but at the same time it makes an effort to produce good quality and economical products. The examination of the herbicides’ secondary effects, fits into this chain of idas namely, how the herbicides affect – stimulating or inhibiting – the soil microbiological processes, prevention of soil fertility.
In the course of the experimental work the effect of herbicides on soil biological properties were examined in different maize (Zea mays) cultures. We wanted wished to know that how the herbicides affect the quantity change of soil microorganisms, the life of different physiological groups of bacteria and the activity of microorganisms. A small pot experiment was set up in 2008 with the application of two herbicides - Acenit A 880 EC and Merlin 480 SC – in the breeding house of the Department. The moisture content and nutrient supply were at optimal level in the experiment.
On the basis of results the following can be stated: 
1. It can be stated that the two herbicides and all their doses affected negatively the number of total soil bacteria, the
inhibiting effects were significant. The quantity of microscopical fungi increased by the effect of Merlin 480 SC and decreased in the treatments of Acenit A 880 EC.
2. The Acenit A 880 EC had stimulating effect on the nitrate mobilization. The CO2-production was stimulated by the basic doses of herbicides; the other treatments did not influence the CO2-production significantly.
3. The quantity of microbial biomass-carbon –except for only one treatment- decreased significantly by the effect of herbicides. Besides it, the quantity of microbial biomass-nitrogen increased significantly in the treatments of Acenit A 880 EC.
4. The biomass of test plant decreased in the treatments of herbicides, their quantities were smaller than in the control. In the pots treated by Merlin 480 SC, parallel with the increase of doses decreased the quantity of plant-biomass.

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Effects of combined nutrient supply treatments on some physiological parameters of autumn wheat
Published September 5, 2018
241-251

The Fleischmann Rudolf Research Institute in Kompolt is not only famous for plant breeding but the institute also surveys the effects of different nutrient supply methods since 1918. In 2017, we joined this research supported by EFOP 3.6.1 project. Our aim was to investigate photochemical processes – which is one of the most determinant in ca...se of yield – of crops by in vivo field measurements. We measured the chlorophyll content of leaves using Minolta SPAD 502. We used miniPAM fluorometer to determine actual photochemical efficiency and non-photochemical quenching of PSII during natural light conditions and also to evaluate the pigment (chlorophylls and carotenoids) and water content of leaves we applied field spectrophotometer (ASD FieldSpecPro 3). We utilized these methods by various treatments (1. treatment with soil bacteria + head and base fertilizer; 2. treated by only head fertilizer; 3. treated by only base-fertilizer) in field experiment of autumn wheat (4.1–2.43–1.19 ha) in June, 2017. The difference between treatments was clearly detectable. In the case of the first treatment, physiological processes were more intense and the ripening occurred earlier. The obtained yield was the highest in the case of the area treated by soil bacterial. Based on the results, the first treatment can be recommended in practice.

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Anaerobe degradation of maize infected by Fusarium graminearum
Published July 18, 2012
57-61

Last year intense rainfalls and moisture conditions were beneficial for the Fusarium sp. in Hungary. Fusarium strains decrease cereal quality (for example maize), furthermore may cause yield loss. Due to the toxin production, the fungi have a dangerous animal and human pathogen effect (Placinta et al., 1999).The effects of the Fusarium infectio...n and its mycotoxin production haven’t been perfectly eliminated. Fusariumgraminearum
is the most common agricultural pathogen in Hungary. The utilization of infected maize as an alternative biogas raw material may be an efficient and environmentally friendly disposal method. In this case, Fusarium-, and mycotoxin-content of the maize have to be analyzed as well as the impact of these factors’ on the biogas production process. Our experience was based on the raw material basis of a biogas plant. Different amount of Fusarium free and infected maize grits have been added to the regular raw material mixture. The detection of Fusarium fungi has been analyzed
in experimental digesters throughout the different stages of mesophilic digestion. In the biogas liquid end product the Fusarium was detected by breeding and by microscope. According to our results, the Fusarium sp. was not detectable in the liquid end product after 30 days.

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Gene resources for improvement of drought tolerance and yield quality in dry pea breeding
Published November 15, 2007
105-111

The effectiveness of selection for improved drought tolerance and consumption quality in the progeny of crosses between pea cultivars with semi-leafless (afila) and normal leaves and different origins, respectively, were investigated. After single crosses, parent cultivars and F1, F2 and F3 generations were grown under non-irrigated conditions ...in the same trials. We created a colour scale from 1 to 9 to measure statistically the shade of seed colour. The tolerance of genotypes against high temperature was measured by the number of pods per plant. The 3:1 segregation
observed in the F2 generation of crosses between semi-leafless and conventional cultivars indicated that the semi-leafless character is determined by a recessive gene. In contrast, the ratios of conventional (Af) and semi-leafless (af) genotypes were 7:1 and 9:1 ratio in the progenies of crosses of Af × af. The genetic progress was effective for improving the seed quality in F3 generation from crosses Af x af where we found that multiple
dominant alleles controlled the orange colour of cotyledons and its high heritability (h2 A=0,63). Selection is more effective in producing the genotypes with high yield and normal leaves if the crosses were made between the western European cultivars such as semi-leafless Profi and Delta used as maternal cultivars and conventional Auralia cultivars. In this case, there were decreases in the consumption quality, such as seed size and shade of colour. The selection based on the seed weight of single plants for increasing drought tolerance seemed to be more effective in F4
strains with normal leaves originated from Czechoslovakian maternal cultivar Y228; however, the genetic progress in the improvement of seed size and colour quality was slow. 

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Phenometric studies on stalk juice and sugar contents of silo sorghum types
Published December 21, 2008
41-49

Bioenergies (among them e.g. bioalcohol) can be solutions for the replacement of fossil fuels. For its production, plants with high sugar or starch content can be used. Juice pressed from the stalk of sugar sorghum has high sugar content (14-17%) that makes it suitable for bioethanol production. During our experiment, we examined 53 restorer ma...le lines; among them 22 were silo type sugar sorghum. We studied the following traits: plant height, breeding time, level of foliation, stalk diameter, characteristics of stalk medulla, juice content of stalk, sugar content of stalk juice. According to examined characteristics, we selected six restorer male lines for studies in the forthcoming years: RL 1, RL 2, RL 3, RL 4, RL 5, RL 9, RL 12, RL 15, RL 18. Their stalk medullas were wet, stalk diameters were medium-thick, sugar contents of juices varied between 17 and 24% at the end of milk mature. Harvest was made in September, they can be classified into early maturation group. Male sterile female lines were the following: SL 1, SL 2, SL 3, SL 4, SL 5. The maintainer male lines were: CL 1, CL 2, CL 3, CL 4, CL 5. In Hungary, there are only a few male sterile female
lines, so we will use these lines for hybrid production during the next years. 

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Leaf protein analyses in order to utilise the leaf shoot of artichoke
Published February 3, 2016
43-47

The constat growth of the Earth’s population brings with itself a higher demand for food and protein not only in human nutrition but also for the feeding of livestock. Currently, the feed industry is mainly built onseed-based protein, wherethebaseplant is soybean, which is large lycovered by imports in Hungary, similar toother European countr...ies. However, the long-term economically sustainable lifestock breeding demandschanges which has also worked out strategies. An alternative protein sources could be green leafy plants.

In current work the Jerusalem artichokes as an alternative source of protein was studied, compared to alfalfa as a valuable protein plant. Our results indicate that fiber fraction ofJerusalem artichoke shootswas 34 to 37% after pressing in the autumn period while alfalfa slightly lower values were obtained (30%). On the other hand extracted green leaf protein concentration was higher in alfalfa than in Jerusalem artichoke. Along with this higher protein content could be measured from the leaf protein concentration of alfalfa and almost each amino acids were more, as well comparing to Jerusalem artichoke.

Overall, the alfalfa proved to be advantageous as expected both in leaf protein extraction efficiency, both regarding the content of the protein in the Jerusalem artichoke. However, considering aminoacid composition and green biomass production, Jerusalem artichokecould be a promisingplant species asplant protein sourceinthefuture.

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