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Comparative examination of a bacterium preparation (BACTOFIL® A10) and an artificial fertilizer [CA(NO3)2] on calcareous chernozem soil
Published November 3, 2010
75-80

In a small-pot experiment a bacterium preparation, Bactofil® A10 and an artificial fertilizer containing Ca(NO3)2 in different dosages were studied on calcareous chernozem soil, concerning the readily available nutrient content of soil (nitrate-nitrogen, AL-phosphorus, ALpotassium content of soil, some soil microbial char...acteristics (total number of bacteria and fungi, cellulose-decomposing and nitrifying bacteria, CO2-production of soil), and the amount of the plant biomass.
The readily available nutrient content of the calcareous chernozem soil increased due to the treatments, except for the change in the soil nitrate-nitrogen content, which did not measure up to the control due to the effect of high-dosage Bactofil.
The treatments also influenced the examined microbial characteristics of the soil positively. The artificial treatments significantly increased the total number of bacteria and the number of cellulose-decomposing and nitrifying bacteria. The low-dosage Bactofil significantly increased the number of cellulose-decomposing bacteria and both Bactofil dosage significantly increased the number of nitrifying bacteria. The measure of the soil respiration grew in all treatments, but significantly only in Ca(NO3)2 fertiliser treatments.
The quantity of the plant biomass was grew in a low-dosage Bactofil and significantly in the artificial fertiliser treatments. The highest plant biomass quantity was measured in the high-dosage artificial fertiliser treatment.
In the correlation analyses we found some medium positive correlation between the soil chemical, microbiological parameters examined, and the plant biomass in the case of both treatment-forms. 
Based on our results Ca(NO3)2 artificial fertiliser treatments on calcareous chernozem soil proved to be more stimulating regarding the
examined soil characteristics and the amount of the plant biomass, but the low-dosage Bactofil also positively influenced the majority of the
soil characteristics examined in terms of nutrient supply.

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Influences of different organic fertilizers on nutrients of humic sandy soil and on the growth of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)
Published October 24, 2016
23-28

A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to compare the effects of manure with different origin (horse, cattle), various bedding materials (straw, sawdust) and diverse doses (30 t ha-1, 60 t ha-1) and the impact of food waste compost on the plant growth and the available plant nutrient content of soil. The study was condu...cted on humic sandy soil and consisted of 9 treatments in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was grown as the test crop. The treatments were: 1. unfertilized control; 2. horse manure with straw (30 t ha-1); 3. horse manure with sawdust (30 t ha-1); 4. cattle manure (30 t ha-1); 5 food waste compost (30 t ha-1); 6. horse manure with straw (60 t ha-1); 7. horse manure with sawdust (60 t ha-1); 8. cattle manure (60 t ha-1); 9. food waste compost (60 t ha-1). Plant growth was monitored for 4 weeks. Shoot and root weights per pot were measured, total biomass weight per pot were counted.

On the basis of the results it can be concluded, that among treatments the application of horse manure with straw enhanced spinach growth most significantly compared to other treatments and to the non-treated control, resulted the highest weights of leaves and roots of spinach. At the same time even small dose (30 t ha-1) of this fertilizer caused increased plant available nitrogen and phosphorus of soil and the higher dosage further increased these values. The horse manure with sawdust applied in lower dose did not alter the leaves and roots weights, but higher portion (60 t ha-1) caused significantly decreased plant biomass. The results proved that the bedding material may significantly alter the composition of manure and may change the plant nutrition effect of organic fertilizer. Cattle manure and food waste compost in both applied doses enhanced plant growth. Both fertilizers increased the plant available nitrogen forms and phosphorus content of soil, but cattle manure caused higher increase.

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Harvesting system established for the utilisation of Miscanthus sinensis ‘tatai’ “energy cane” in biomass power plants
Published March 23, 2016
143-150

The increasing demand for energy worldwide and the resulting environmental impacts of fossil fuels forced many countries to turn to renewable energy resources as a clean and sustainable alternative. More than a third of Europe’s binding renewable energy source target of 20% by 2020 will come from solid biomass for electricity and heating acco...rding to the National Renewable Energy Action Plans submitted by member states of the European Union (EU) to the European Commission. To achieve this goal long-term yield studies in renewable energy plants are important to determine mean annual biomass and energy yield, and CO2 emission. Field experiments worldwide and also in Europe have demonstrated that Miscanthus, a fast-growing C4 rhizomatous grass can produce some of the highest biomass and energy yield per hectare of all potential energy plants. Miscanthus is a plant that originates from the southern slopes of the Himalayas. It was bred for the Hungarian climatic conditions in 2006 under the name of Miscanthus sinensis ‘Tatai’ (MsT). The species has high frost and drought tolerance and high energy value. This is why there is growing demand for the biomass (lignocellulose) produced by growing this plant. The biomass, produced from the high yield energy reed, can be transported to power plants in large quantities, in forms of bales. Its household consumption is not yet significant. This study presents the external features, characteristics, propagation and plantation process of MsT energy reed. The study also demonstrates the harvest technology of the species worked out between 2009–2012 in Tata, Hungary and the options of supplying to biomass

power stations.

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The application of bentonite and zeolite for soil amelioration in acidic sandy soil
Published November 2, 2009
131-137

In a pot experiment, we have studied the effect of bentonite and zeolite in different dosages [control; 5; 10; 15; 20 g kg-1] on acidic (pHH2O=5.65) humus sandy soil. The experiment was set up in 2007 and 2008 in the greenhouse of the UD CASE Department of Agrochemistry and Soil Science. As a test plant, perennial ryegrass... (Lolium perenne L.) was used. 
In laboratory examinations, pH(H2O), pH(KCl), hidrolytic acidity, nitrate-N content, readily available phosphorus and potassium content were determined. Among soil microbial parameters, the total number of bacteria, the cellulose-decomposing bacteria, the carbon-dioxide production, the microbial biomass-C content of soil, and the saccharase enzyme activity were measured. In the experiment the biomass of the test plant was determined.
The effect of bentonite and zeolite in different dosages can be summarized as follows:
− The pH increased under the effect of low dosages. With the increasing of the pH the hydrolytic acidity - at the bentonite treatments significantly – decreased. 
− Regarding the readily available nutrient content of the soil, low and medium dosages proved to be effective. High dosages of bentonite treatments reduced the nitrate-N content, the readily available phosphorus, and potassium content of soil, by zeolite treatments the high dosages reduced the nitrate-N content of soil. 
− Regarding the measured soil microbial parameters in both treatments low and medium dosages proved to be also effective, but the high dosages didn’t cause decreasing at the total number of bacteria, and by zeolite treatments the biomass-C content of soil.
− Also the bentonite and zeolite treatments enlarged the biomass of the test plant. We experienced significant increasing by bentonite treatments by the effect of medium and high dosages, while in zeolite treatments only the high dosage caused significantly increasing in plant biomass. The largest dosages decrease the plant biomass. 
− Under the statistical analysis we found many medium and tight correlation between the studied parameters. 

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Alternatives of the multiple use of Virginia mallow (Sida hermaphrodita L. Rusby) as a shrub-replacing mallow in the temperate climate zone
Published May 16, 2012
51-56

In the seventies of the previous century, Dr. Zoltán Kováts set two directions in the research of mallows. One of the directions was the biotechnology of the mallow species and the other direction is using the mallow species as biomass material. In order to do this he brought mallow mother spawns of ornamental and biomass sorts from botanical... gardens abroad and tested many of them, including the a Sida hermaphrodita kind. Fourty years later, for the second time this plant, known as the „energy mallow” got back to Hungary again, right into the sight of hungarian biomass business with the help of László Balogh and his associates using help from Poland. This genus got into the center of our research, because of it’s valuable attributes. The latest experiments are about using it as an energy plant, without examining genetic details. The plant grows up to more
than 3 meters, has high growing rate and produces big amount of green mass. We don’t have any hungarian data about whether the plant continues the sufficient growing rate or not, after cutting it back.
We have to explore the potentials in the Sida’s sublimation. The plant is mostly suitable for ornamental and energy utilization, so further sublimation should be aiming for these aspects. During my research period, we are willing to get to know these potentials and the best possible use of them.

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The effect of different bacterial fertilizers on the AL-soluble P2O5 content of soil, and the biomass of the rye-grass (Lolium perenne, L)
Published December 16, 2012
93-98

In pot experiment the effect of different bacterial fertilizers on some soil properties, and the amount of plant biomass were studied. The
experiment was set up in 2010 at the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, in a three replications in a random block design. The ryegrass (Lolium perenne, L.) was used as a test plan...t. The studied soil type was calcareous chernosem soil from Látókép. In our laboratory AL-soluble P2O5 content of soil, the phosphatase enzyme activityof soil, the dry weight of rye-grass, and the phosphorus content of rye-grass were determined.
The results of the study were the following:
– The bacterial fertilizers - by basic treatments NPK - had significant positive effect on the AL- soluble phosphorus content of the soil.
– The soil phosphatase enzyme activity was increased in all cases strongly by the microbial preparations used, the greatest impact was the Bactofil A bacterial fertilizer.
– The plant educed P values significantly increased by the effect of microbial products, in addition to the fund NPK. In this case, the EM-1 and Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer were the effective.
– In case of the rye-grass biomass none of the bacterial preparations used caused any significant changes, either alone or when used them with straw treatment.

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Effect of arsenic treatments on the element content of green peas
Published May 16, 2017
203-208

The agricultural environment is contaminated with heavy metals and other toxic elements, which means more and more threats. One of the most important toxic element is the arsenic (As).
The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of As-treatments on the element content of the different parts of the green peas (root,stem, leaf, po...d, pea) in the 4. phase of the plant development. Plants were grown in green house. Arsenic was applied in a form of arsenate (As[V]) and the plants were treated with 0, 3, 10, 30, 90 and 270 mg kg-1 arsenic.
According to the results the Ca content of root and pod was increased in the case of the 3 mg kg-1 As-treatment, after that decreasing tendency was observed. In the case of the 270 mg kg-1 As-treatment, the Ca content in the root was increased, because some element is able to concentrate in the lower biomass. The Ca-content of stem and leaves was reduced when the plants were treated with more than 30 mg kg-1 As. The lowest As-treatment (3 mg kg-1) increased the Na content in the root, stem and leaves, however in the case of the higher As-dose, decreasing tendency was observed. In the case of the generative plant parts the 3 mg kg-1 As-treatment also increased the Na content, nevertheless in the case of the higher As-treatments lower Na content was measured, however in the case of the highest As-treatment (270 mg kg-1) the Na content was increased in the generative plant parts, probably the Na was concentrated in the lower biomass. In the case of the 90 and 270 mg kg-1 As-treatment the Mo-content also was increased in the generative plant parts. The 270 mg kg-1 As-treatment caused a similar tendency in the case of the generative plant parts as a result of the lower biomass. In the case of the pod and leaves, the lower As-doses did not cause significant changes.
The Mo content was increased in the root and pea when the plants were treated with 3 mg kg-1 As, but in the case of the higher treatments it was decreased. In the case of the stem it was reverse, the lowest As-tretament (3 mg kg-1) decreased, nevertheless the further As-doses increased the Mo content.

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The effect of biopreparations in pot experiment
Published March 20, 2013
45-49

In pot experiment the effect of Amykor and Organic Green Gold bioproducts and their combinations with NPK fertilizer on some soil properties (chemical parameters) and on the biomass of testplant were studied. The experiment was set up in 2012 at the Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, in a three replications, in a random block... design. The studied soil typein the pot experiment was humus sandy soil from Debrecen-Pallag with onion (Allium cepa) test plant. At the end of the experiment (after 4 week) in our laboratory the samples of soil and plant were determined. The nitrate-nitrogen, AL-soluble phosphorus and potassium content of soil, the weight of green onion leaves, the wet weight of bulb and root of onion and biomass of onion. The results of the study were the following: – The treatments influenced positively the nitrate-nitrogen, the AL-soluble phosphorus and potassium content of soil. – The most effective treatments were the artificial fertilization (NO3-N) and the NPK+ simple dose of Amykor (AL-P2O5 and Al-K2O). – The NPK fertilization and the NPK+OGG (sprinkle in every 10 days) combinations had significant positive effect on the weight of green onion leaves. – The biofertilization and the straw+biofertilizer combinations stimulated the AL-soluble potassium content of soil occasionally. – The OGG treatment (sprinkle in every 10 days) had significant effective impact on the wet weight of bulb and root of onion. – The biomass of onion was increased by the artificial fertilization and OGG (sprinkle in every 10 days) treatment.

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Deproteinized plant juice as part of circular economy: A short review and brief experimental data
Published December 1, 2020
23-26

As the population of the Earth is constantly growing it generates an unmet demand for protein, which is an urgent problem. The protein extraction process is a potential solution, which offers high-quality plant protein suitable for animal and human nutrition at a favorable price. The process used within our project produces green juice from... the green alfalfa biomass through pressing. After the coagulation of protein from this green juice, the by-product is called DPJ (Deproteinized Plant Juices) or brown juice. Our preliminary results match the international literature, namely that brown juice take up as much as 50% of the fresh biomass in weight. To utilize this by-product is a crucial part of the process to make it environmental-friendly and financially viable as well. The examined brown juice samples came from a small-scale experiment of alfalfa varieties carried out in the experimental farm at the University of Debrecen. According to our preliminary results, brown juice has high macro- and micronutrient values, furthermore, it has a potentially high amount of antioxidant compounds. The study highlights that brown juice is suitable as an ingredient in microbiological media, in plant nutrition as a supplementary solution, for feedstock and for preparing human food supplements or functional foods. The potential utilization of all biorefinery products makes it a very appropriate technology for today’s challenges.

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The effect of sulphur and nitrogen supply on the growth and nutrient content of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Published June 30, 2018
65-70
Sulphur is an essential element for plants. Decreasing sulphur deposition from the air, and the use of more concentrated phosphate fertilizers, which contain no sulphur, has led to reports of sulphur deficiencies for wheat. Sulphur deficiency significantly affects yield and also the quality of wheat. The pot exper...iment was set up on calcareous chernozem soil at Látókép, Hungary, test plant was spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Seven treatments were used where nitrogen and sulphur were supplied as soil fertilizers in increasing rates (NS1, NS2, NS3) and in foliar fertilizer as well (NS1+fol., NS2+fol., NS3+fol.). Plant aboveground biomass production was determined in samples taken in the stages of development BBCH 29-30, 51-59, 61-69, 89. The nitrogen and sulphur content of straw and grain were measured. N/S ratios of grain and straw were calculated. The weights of grain were ranging between 8.6–16.1 g/pot. NS2 and NS2+fol. treatments produced the highest values. Foliar fertilizer had no further effect on grain. Analysing the values of the straw, it was observed that tendencies were similar to values of grain. The NS2 treatment produced the highest weight of straw and the NS3 rate already decreased that amount. The obtained results show the unfavourable effect of excessively high rate applied in NS3 treatment. The supplementary foliar fertilizer had no significant influence on the weight of straw. Both N and S-uptake of plant was very intensive at the stem elongation stage, then the N and S-content of plant continuously decreased in time in all treatments. The N-content of grain ranged between 2.215–2.838%.
The N-content of grain slightly increased with increasing of nitrogen doses. In the higher doses (NS2, NS3) foliar fertilization slightly increased the nitrogen content of grain, although this effect was not statistically proved. The N-content of straw varied from 0.361 to 0.605%. The growing dose of soil fertilizer also considerably increased the nitrogen content of straw. Foliar fertilization further increased the nitrogen content of straw. The S-content of grain ranged between 0.174–0.266%. The lowest fertilizer dose (NS1) significantly increased the sulphur content of grain. The further increasing fertilizer doses (NS2, NS3) did not cause additional enhance in sulphur content of grain.
The foliar fertilizer also did not change the sulphur value of plant. The increasing amount of soil fertilizer and the supplementary foliar fertilizer had no effect on the sulphur content of straw. The treatments influenced the N/S ratios of grain and straw. On the basis of experimental results it can be concluded that the examined nitrogen and sulphur containing soil fertilizer had positive effect on the growth and yield of spring wheat grown on the calcareous chernozem soil. The soil fertilizer application enhanced the grain nitrogen and sulphur content. The highest rate of fertilizer (600 kg ha-1) proved to have decreasing effect on the yield. The sulphur and nitrogen containing foliar fertilizer did not have significant effect on the yield parameters but slightly increased the nitrogen content of plant.
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Microbiological preparations affecting the soil nutrient availability and growth of ryegrass in a pot experiment
Published March 11, 2014
49-53

The effects of different bacterial fertilizers and their combinations with NPK fertilizer and wheat straw were investigated on some soil properties (chemical parameters) and on the biomass production of testplant. The applied quantities of the bacterial fertilizers were the double of the recommended dose. The experiment was set up in 2013 at th...e Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, in a three replications, in a random block design. Calcareous chernozem soil; originating from Debrecen (Látókép) was used with ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) test plant. At the end of the experiment (after 8 week) the samples of soil and plants were determined for nitrate-nitrogen, ALsoluble phosphorus and potassium content of soil, the weight of green biomass of ryegrass per pot, the dry matter and moisture content of ryegrass. Straw treatment resulted better water and available nutrient content of soil in general. Inoculation however was not improving the biomass production over the fertilizer treatment. Interrelation with the recommended dose could be further studied.

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The effect of dissolved oxygen on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) in the aquaponics system
Published June 1, 2021
89-96

Aquaponics is an integrated system that combines fish farming (aquaculture) and hydroponic plant production. The objective of this study was to examine how the level of dissolved oxygen with or without an air pump affects water quality, fish output and plant growth parameters for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and basil (Ocimum... basilicum).

Ebb – and flood aquaponics systems (with automatic syphon) was used. Two treatments were set in this experiment, one of which was the aquaponics system without air pump (unit I), where water of the plant bed was pumped two directions, one falling back to the fish tank oxygenating the water the other was pumped to the hydroponics unit. The other system (unit II) was designed with an air pump.

In the course of the study, water quality parameters, such as oxygen saturation, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC) and nitrite were significantly different (p<0.05). Total basil biomass was higher in unit II. (5367.41 g). The final biomass of common carp were
2829.45 g ± 79.24 and 2980.6 g ± 64.13 g in unit I and unit II respectively. Weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) showed no significant differences (p>0.05) between the treatments. 

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The role of green manure crops in Hungarian plant production
Published June 30, 2018
49-53

According to the data of KSH (Hungarian Central Statistical Office), the sowing area of cereals in the crop year 2016 was over 2.56 million ha, on which winter wheat and maize were produced in a rate of around 50–50%. Regarding these data it is obvious that the domestic cropping structure has been simplified and become unilateral. This unfavo...urable crop rotation system causes several problems. The number of Hungarian livestock decreased in the past decades. The amount of manure was 24 million tons in 1960, but only hardly 4.5 million tons of organic manure was applied in 2016. Therefore, the importance of other possibilities, alternatives for organic matter recovery have become enhanced. This is especially important from the aspect of sustainable plant production. The fact that the European Union has introduced new directives for subsidiaries in 2015 has to be noted as well.

The objective of the set experiment is to find new technological solutions that are suitable for the execution of sustainable plant production by inadequate crop rotation, organic substance recovery conditions or under more unfavourable climatic conditions.

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Caliometric characterisation of crop production byproducts
Published February 25, 2014
55-58

By the decreasing tendency of the fossil energy resources more emphasis put on the usage of renewable energy resources. The consideration of environmental protection and the efforts of the European Union make current the widespread usage of renewable energy within biomass energy. One of the determinative trends of biomass energy is the direct c...ombustion of biomass. Characteristically woody stocks are produced for this aim, but there is a considerable potential in several byproducts of growing herbaceous plants or of other processes.

In our study three byproducts of plant production have been investigated which appeared at the harvest. The Higher Heating Values of wheat, maize and sunflower byproducts have been determined by an IKA C2000 Basic adiabatic calorimeter. According to the statistical analysis of the measured data the HHV of the byproducts are different, and these values are in a negative correlation with the amount of ash in % (R2=0.873) appeared by the combustion.

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Plant production possibilities on a heavy metal contaminated soil with the purpose of biorefinery
Published October 5, 2010
215-222

Significant part of not cultivated area of Hungary is not suitable for agricultural utilization because of industrial
pollution. Technologies of biorefinery make reutilization of contaminated areas possible. Biomass of plants
produced on polluted soils can be raw material of valuable products. Applicability of biorefinery was tested on a<...br>heavy metal polluted soil, where the contamination originated from previous mining activity. Complete biomass
utilization was aimed to obtain cosmetic ingredients, pharmaceutical agents, and precursors. During our research
work 88 plant species and varieties were produced and tested for potential utilizable components. Levels of
possible contaminants in these plants were monitored, and amounts of carbohydrates, protein, organic acid and
cellulose were determined as well. Different plant extracts were tested as potential sources of biologically effective
components or as raw materials for lactic acid fermentation. Our results show that biorefinery is a real possibility
for utilization of polluted areas. Numerous plants could be cultivated on contaminated areas without increased
levels of contaminants in their tissues, thus they can be sources of valuable compounds.

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Effect of different sources and doses of sulphur on yield, nutrient content and uptake by spring wheat
Published June 1, 2021
109-115

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of two sulphur forms (sulphate and tiosulphate) in combination with three different N:S ratios on the yield of spring wheat and total N- and S-content and uptake by the aboveground biomass on chernozem and sandy soil. In the greenhouse experiment, the effects of two sulphur forms wer...e compared: sulphate (SO42-) and thiosulphate (S2O32-). The sulphate was applied as potassium-sulphate (K2SO4) and thiosulphate as ammonium-thiosulphate ((NH4)2S2O3). Increasing doses of both sulphur forms (24, 60, 120 kg S ha-1) were used with the same nitrogen dose (120 kg N ha-1) which caused three different N:S ratios background (1:0.2, 1:0.5, 1:1). Nitrogen was supplied in the form of monoammonium-phosphate (MAP), ammonium-nitrate and ammonium-thiosulphate. Plant samples were taken in three different development stages of spring wheat based on the BBCH scale: at the stage of BBCH 30–32 (stem elongation), BBCH 65–69 (flowering) and BBCH 89 (ripening). The total nitrogen and total sulphur content of plant at different development stages and also wheat grain were measured by Elementar Vario EL type CNS analyser. The nutrient uptake by plant and grain was calculated from the yield of spring wheat and the N and S content of plant.  The grain yield on chernozem soil ranged between 6.31 and 12.13 g/pot. All fertilised treatments significantly increased the grain yield compared to the control. The highest yield was obtained in the case of the application of 120 kg N ha-1 and 60 kg S ha-1in sulphate form. The grain yield on sandy soil varied from 2.53 to 6.62 g/pot. The fertilised treatments significantly enhanced the yield compared to the control. The highest yield was observed in the case of the application of 120 kg N ha-1 and 60 kg S ha-1 in thiosulphate form. On chernozem soil the increasing doses of sulphur (24, 60, 120 kg S ha-1) with the same N dose (120 kg N ha-1) increased the N-content of spring wheat at all development stages and in the grain. The treatments with different sulphur sources did not cause further changes in the N-content. On sandy soil in the most cases the N-content did not change significantly as a result of increasing sulphur doses. The treatments with sulphate form basically resulted higher nitrogen-content than treatments with thiosulphate form. The treatments with increasing sulphur doses resulted higher S-content on both of chernozem and sandy soil in the case of all development stage. Comparing the effect of the applied sulphur sources on the S-content it can be stated that at the stage of BBCH 30–31 and 65–69 the treatments with sulphate form resulted higher sulphur-content. At the stage of BBCH 89 there was no significant differences in S-content of grain as a result of different sulphur-sources.

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Allelopathic effect of invasive plants (Eriochloa villosa, Asclepias syriaca, Fallopia x bohemica, Solidago gigantea) on seed germination
Published June 30, 2018
179-182

The aim of this study was to determine the allelopathic potential of invasive species woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa), common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), bohemian knotweed (Fallopia x bohemica), and giant goldenrod (Solidago gigantea Ait.) on germination crop (Lepidium sativum L.). Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions to... determine effect of water extracts in petri dish bioassay. Water extracts from fresh biomass (leaves and stem) of invasive weeds in concentrations of 4 and 8 g/100 ml were investigated. All invasive plants showed allelopathic effect on germination. In giant goldenrod stem water extract experiment, allelopathic effect was less pronounced.

The cress germination was greatly suppressed with the woolly cupgrass, common milkweed and the giant goldenrod. The experiment showed that the seed germination depended on the concentrations and the plant material used (leaves and stem).

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Comparison of the technological background of aquaponic systems
Published May 20, 2020
47-52

Aquaponics is the combined culture of fish and plants in recirculating aquaculture systems, an ecologically sustainable horticultural production technique with long traditions.

The objective of this study is to compare flood-and- drain, and the water crossflow system and examine the differences in the water quality, fish yi...eld and plant growth parameters for Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and basil (Ocimum basilicum). During the study, water quality parameters of two treatments were compared in temperatures, pH, EC and NON were significantly different (p <0.05). Leaf area of the basil plants grew to an average of 20.37 cm2 (± 9.02 cm2). The plants’ biomass production was significantly different (p< 0.05) in the two systems. The biomass production showed lower yield, 458.22 g (± 214.59 g) in the constant flow system that in the flood- and- drain system 692.9 g (± 175.82 g). Fish Growth parameters were better in constant flow system (FCR 5.48 g/g ± 0.19). However, the specific growth rate (SGR) demonstrated that fish grew faster in flood- and- drain system 1.38 %/day (± 0.29).

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Some basic problems concerning world animal production at the beginning of the XXI century
Published November 13, 2012
77-80

The author summarizes the main new challenges facing animal agriculture: growing GDP in many countries increasing animal protein demand, bioenergy industry as a new player using potential food or feedstuffs, increasing demand, Growing water and land scarcity, weaking the position of plant agriculture, feed production. Forecasts are summarized r...egarding the magnitude of meat consumption increases, and the possible plant biomass quantities required additionally in the next 20 years to cover the needs of food, feed and biofuel on a global scale.
Efficiencies of various animal production sectors, poultry, pork, beef, mutton meat, milk and eggs and their environmental footprints are compared, summarizing the most important research  results concerning UK, USA, OECD evaluations. Intensive systems using highly productive plant and animal population will play an even more important role in the future especially in poultry, pig, milk and aquaculture production system being efficient users of resources (feed, water, land) and the environmental foot print is smaller per unit product.

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The analysis of the fair data of a solar energy power plant with SPSS
Published May 23, 2006
60-63

The use of fossil energy sources greatly damages the environment. Moreover, the quantity of these energy sources is limited. Therefore, it is important to increase the share of renewable energy sources (solar, wind, water and biomass) in energy generation.
Huge amounts of energy (1100-1300 kWh/m2 per year) arrive at the earth from the sun, a...nd are utilized in passive and active ways. One of the active applications is photovoltaic current production, in the course of which electricity is produced directly with PV – panels. This can be fed into a grid. At the University of Debrecen is a solar energy power plant from September 2005 in operation. The electricity performance of the incorporated PV-panels (Kyocera, Dunasolar, and Siemens) are 8.64 kW. The are of PV – panels is 110 square meter. With the aid of the data storage, the tension, current, temperature of the PV-panels, global radiation, air temperature, wind speed, wind direction and the achievement is measured by the ac network.
The effect of the shading on the performance of the PV – panels and the solar energy power plant is examined. The analysis and the graphic representation of the experiment results are carried out with SPSS per grief. We produced per grief.

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Changes of relative chlorophyll content at maize smut inoculated hybrids
Published May 16, 2017
55-58

The leaf chlorophyll content analysis is important for several reasons. The natural or anthropogenic stressors directly effect on the chlorophyll content. Through the measurement of the chlorophyll content it is possible to obtain data concerning the physiological status of the plant, moreover the chlorophyll content is closely related to the n...itrogen content, so it is linked to photosynthesis and the photosynthetic activity which determine biomass production.
One of the most common symptoms of plant diseases is the larger and smaller interveinal chlorotic areas. These might be local, or expand to the whole plant. There are multiply reasons of chlorosis such as reduction of chlorophyll content, unfavorable effects on the chlorophyll content,disorders regarding function of chloroplasts or ultimately destruction of the chloroplasts. Although such a chlorotic deviancy can contribute to significant losses in photosynthesis; however the underperformance photosynthesis of the sick plants is a more complex process.
As we unambiguously experienced during our investigations on common smut that the infected maize plants most common accompanying symptom was chlorosis on the leaves, so it is especially important to examine how the infection influenced on the chlorophyll content of different hybrids.

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Changes of some soil chemical and microbiological characteristics in a long-term fertilization experiment in Hungary
Published September 5, 2018
253-265

Agricultural management practices – directly or indirectly – influence soil properties.

Fertilization rates and crop rotation can strongly affect soil pH, soil nutrient supply and soil organic matter content due to the changes of microbial processes. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of different fertilization d...oses in monoculture and tri-culture of maize (monoculture: only maize grown since 1983, tri-culture: it is a three-year crop rotation system: pea – winter wheat – maize) on selected soil characteristics. The long-term fertilization experiments were set up in 1983 in Eastern Hungary. These experiments are situated west of Debrecen in Hajdúság loess region, on calcareous chernozem (according to WRB: Chernozems).

The test plant was maize (Zea mays L.). One-one pilot blocks were selected from monoculture and tri-culture of the long-term experiments. The observed soil samples were taken in the 30th year of the experiment, in 2013. The doses of NPK fertilizers increased parallel together, so the effects of N-, P- and K-fertilizers cannot be separated.

With the increasing fertilizer doses, the soil pH has decreased in both crop production systems and, in parallel, the hydrolytic acidity has significantly increased. A close negative correlation was proved between the pHH2O, pHKCl and hydrolytic acidity. An increased nutrient content in soil was recorded in every NPK treatment and the available phosphorus and nitrate content increased in higher proportion than that of potassium. Of the measured parameters of C-and N-cycles, fertilization has mostly had a positive effect on the microbial activity of soils. Besides the effects of fertilizer doses, correlation were looked for between soil microbiological properties. Evaluating the ratios among the measured parameters (organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon, OC/MBC ratio; carbon-dioxide and microbial biomass carbon; CO2/MBC proportion), the fertilization rate seems to be favoured by the increase of amounts of organic compounds

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Impact of ammonium nitrate and Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer on dry matter accumulation of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)
Published November 3, 2010
35-39

Pot experiment was performed to investigate the effects of increasing NH4NO3 doses with or without Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer
application on dry matter production of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Experiment was set up on calcareous chernozem soil of Debrecen-Látókép and on humus sandy soil of Őrbottyán. The bi-factorial trials w...ere arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Grass was cut three times. Dry matter production was determined and the sum of biomass of cuts was calculated as cumulated dry weights. Analysis of variance was carried out on the data in order to provide a statistical comparison between the treatment means. The least significant difference (LSD5%) test was used to detect differences between means. On the basis of our results it can be concluded, that the dry weights of ryegrass cultivated on chernozem soil were higher than on sandy soil. With increasing nitrogen supply the dry matter production of grass significantly increased in both types of soils. In case of sandy soil the increasing effect was more expressed, but dry weights of this soil never reached the appropriate values of chernozem soil. Application of Microbion UNC had positive effect on dry matter production of ryegrass grown on both two types of soils but the effect was more expressed on chernozem soil. Finally it can be concluded that the increasing effect of NH4NO3 on biomass weights was more expressed in both types of soils, the biofertilizer application also increased the dry weights of plant in a small degree. 

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Nutrient Uptake of Miscanthus in vitro Cultures
Published May 12, 2002
23-24

The large biomass production and the low necessary input fertilizer make Miscanthus an interesting, potential non-food crop with broad applications, e.g. for fuel and energy, for thatching, fiber production, for the paper and car industries, as well as for ethanol production.
Axillary buds of Miscanthus x giganteus were placed on a shoot ind...ucing nutrient solution (modified Murashige and Skoog, 1962), basic medium supplemented with 0,3 mg l-1 6-Benzylaminopurin. After 40 days of culturing, the axillary buds produced three times more shoots than could normally be harvested. The nutrient content (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) was measured several times during culturing. The results showed that, after 35 days, nitrogen and phosphate were nearly completely taken up. From that time, shoot growth was not observed.
After shoot propagation, the plants were transfered into a nutrient solution for root formation (modified Murashige and Skoog, 1962), basic medium supplemented with 0,5 mg l-1 Indole- 3-Butyric acid, and could be potted in soil after about 14 days.

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Sensitivity study on Virginia fanpetals (Sida hermaphrodita (L.) RUSBY) cv PETEMI to different herbicide agents
Published November 10, 2010
89-92

The cultivation of Virginia fanpetals (Sida hermaphrodita (L.) Rusby) is a relatively new phenomenon in Europe. On the basis of the biology of the plant and the practical work implemented, it has been stated that the traditional field practice does not provide the appropriate conditions of biomass production for energetic purpose. The developme...nt of the proper weed control is inevitable for the healthy stand, as in the early phenophases the plant is growing slowly and it is exposed to weeds. 
Our objective was to test some herbicide agents as no previous relevant data had been published.

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