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Global and national economic importance of pig meat production
Published August 29, 2017
13-20

The pork production has changed significant in recent decades. Pig production fell significantly due to the need to adapt to new animal welfare rules in the sector. Furthermore, change in the meat consumption habit had also a negative effect on pig meat production. Hungarian pig sector and meat industry are in a difficult situation. Due to the ...high feed prices, the average production cost of pig farming has often exceeded the  producer prices in recent years, therefore an increase of pig population could not be realised yet. Pig market is characterised by cyclical fluctuations of supply and prices, furthermore the decreasing producer price occurred parallel with increasing feed prices.
Technology is also a critical fact in the Hungarian pig sector because there is a huge gap in the level of technology compared to that of competitive member states. With the development of production methods the efficiency of pork meat production can be improved in an environmentally friendly way.

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The role of animal breeding with special regard to native pigs of food supply and rural development in Laos
Published May 20, 2020
149-154

The present paper explored the influence of breeding native pigs on livelihood conditions and the contribution of native pigs to the rural development and rural poverty reduction in the rural areas of Lao PDR. Pig production plays an important role in meat supply for both urban and rural areas of Laos. It is clear that most of the pig produ...cts in the country come from smallholder pig farms, and more than 90 percent of those products are the native pigs mostly raised by farmers in remote areas. In general, livestock production distributed between 15–18 percent to GDP, while most of animal production still remains as the traditional methods. Rural development is always the first priority of the Laos government since its independence in 1975, however, the poverty rate in rural areas remained high at 23% in 2018. It might block the development goal of the government which will lead the country out of the least development status by 2020. The food security and malnutrition in the rural or mountainous areas are considered as the majority issue that both government and several international organizations have been thriving hard to overcome, which researchers showed that more than 45% of children under 5 years of age were stunted, and 28% of them were underweight. Inspired of more than 50 % of the households in the rural areas of Laos reported they consumed chicken and pork at least one day a week. While native pigs play an important role on meat supply, it also constituted around 9–14 % of annual income of the households in rural areas. Therefore, the increase the production of pigs and poultry is one option to promote the meat supply to households in the rural areas of Laos. This paper will be a pathway to guide and identify for the final decision to what experiment will be implemented on Lao native pig in Laos (2021–2023) to complete the comparative study on reproductive physiology and reproductive management methods of Hungarian and Lao Indigenous pig breed. Which found it still needs further afford to research and improve more about native pig performance for all areas of productive and quality management.

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Effect of sex on some composition traits of wild boar (wild pig) meat
Published December 21, 2009
25-29

The authors examined the nutrition value of the meat of shot wild boars (wild pigs) (n=66) from three wild boar enclosures with different feeding intensity and also the technological properties of the meat. Samples were taken immediately after the evisceration. Considering the storing and processing properties of game meat the samples were take...n from m. serratus anterior. As for dry matter examination results, the highest values were measured in case of semi-intensively fed wild boars, then followed the data from the samples of intensively and extensively fed wild boars. The fat content from the meat samples of intensively and extensively fed wild boars proved to be lower while in case of the semi-ntensively fed wild boars it was higher. In females the dry matter content, while in males the fat content was higher. As for the protein content there were no differences in either the feeding groups or in the genders. It was only the water holding capacity of the samples from the meat of the females from semi-intensive feeding intensity wild boar enclosure that fell in between normal values.

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Andrological examination of Hungarian Large White and Landrace boars
Published December 28, 2018
5-10

The Hungarian Large White and Hungarian Landrace pig breeds have outstanding lifetime performance, production parameters and crossbreeding ability. Nevertheless, during the recent decades, these breeds could not compete with the West European hybrid pigs concerning on production results. In this study, we made a complex andrological evaluation ...of boars in different Hungarian nucleus breeding stocks. After taking blood and semen samples, performing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge, ultrasonic and thermographic examinations were done. Laboratory tests were accomplished in reproduction labs of NARIC ABNMS. Our goal was to determine the reproductive performances of boars and collect samples for future genetic examinations, respectively.

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Pricing in the pig production
Published July 28, 2008
25-29

During my research work I will exame the state of pig production and the pigmeat trade in Hungary as well as in the EU. In this article I am looking at this branch, I plan to ask consumers about this topic. There is no point in importing pork if there is no market for it. The reality is that we like what is new, unusual and different. What lies... behind this way of thinking?
Everybody agrees, consumer habits differ culturally, and this is true in European countries as well. I find it interesting to examine what parts of the pig are favoured the most by consumers in certain countries. As habits are different we can say that certain countries prefer pork chops while on other countries’ menus pork knuckles can be found. If we follow this train of thought it becomes apparent that due to these differences the price of pork varies from country to country.
According to figures, it is clear that certain countries are able to produce pork products cheaper. Since market works on the principle of supply and demand, those who offer their products cheaper will have a greater chance of remaining in this sector. Those on the other hand who can only produce their products at a higher price will eventually disappear from the market. The price is determined by the rate of the forint to the euro. Today’s strong forint is leading to the growth in imports. Recently, pork exports have fallen, but if the rate were to be 280 forints as it has been in the past, then it would be more favourable to sell pork products.
As Hungarian prices are high, meat processing companies are forced to import from neighbouring countries, which means a cheaper source of product. This has led to a decrease in the number of pig in Hungary meaning that we are now an overall importer of pork products rather than an exporter.

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Development of an InDel marker set to establish hybridization between wild boar and domestic pig (Sus scrofa) breeds
Published May 23, 2019
21-25

Wild boar and domestic pig breeds belong to the same species (Sus scrofa), so they can easily have viable offspring. This could be a problem in preserving the genetic lines of wild boars, keeping clean the food industry from lower-grade hybrid boar meat, and „producing” ethically questionable trophies, too. The aim of our study was to devel...op a cost-efficient, fast, easy and accurate marker set which can separate the wild boars from hybrids and domestic pig breeds.

The InDel markers were developed using 59 full pig genomes of 17 different breeds (e.g. Duroc, Large White, Landrace, Mangalica, wild boar). Sequence differences between the genomes of wild boars and domestic breeds were identified in variant call files, and verified using the IGV software. Wild boar, mangalica and duroc specific primers to amplify the chosen InDel regions were designed using Primer3.

After preliminary tests five markers were chosen, three wild boar specific, one Mangalica specific and one Duroc specific one. Fluorescently labelled primers were used to make the valuation easier and more accurate with capillary electrophoresis instead of gel-electrophoresis. The markers were optimised individually and in multiplex conditions and tested in samples of 11 breeds.

In conclusion, a new, faster and cheaper set was developed to separate the wild boars from the hybrids and domestic breeds. Based on the preliminary testing on wild boars, duroc and mangalica breeds zero samples resulted false negative, so it is 100% accurate. In addition, it is a much more cost- and time-effective way than testing every single sample with STR sets.

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Effect of dietary fatty acids on the oxidative stability and the colour of broiler meat
Published May 23, 2006
25-30

The aim of our investigation was to determine the effects of increased PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) content on the colour, total pigment content, organoleptic characteristics and oxidative stability of poultry meat. The experiment was carried out with 1200 Ross-308 cock chicklings. Animals were fed with a 3 phase diet, and in each phase, ...additional fat was added to the feed. The isocaloric and isonitrogenic feed was produced as the breeder organization suggested; only the fat content differed (4 treatments: pig fat (lard), sunflower oil, soy oil, flax-seed oil).
The different fat complements did not influence broiler production. However, the fatty acid composition of meat was similar to the fatty acid composition of feed (additional fats). The analyses of meat samples, after a storage period, did not significantly prove the possible negative effects of higher PUFA content.

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Genetic polymorphism of candidate genes in pig meat production
Published November 20, 2011
37-40

H-FABP, LEPR and MC5R genes were suggested as candidate genes for fat content in pig meat. The aim of this study was to detect genetic variation in the porcine H-FABP, LEPR and MC5R genes by PCR-RFLP method in a group of pigs. Genotyping of pigs was done by PCRRFLP methods. We identified three genotypes in the set of pigs, HH (0.504), Hh (0.412...) and hh (0.084) for H-FABP (HinfI). Allele H showed higher frequency than allele h (0.710 vs. 0.290). Three genotypes were identified for the H-FABP (HaeIII) gene (DD - 0.194, Dd - 0.494, dd - 0.312). The allele D (0.441) showed slightly lower frequency than allele d (0.559). All three genotypes were identified for LEPR (HpaII) in the group of pigs (AA – 0.137, AB - 0.314, BB – 0.549). Higher frequency of LEPR gene was confirmed for allele B (0.706), as compared with allele A (0.294). We identified two genotypes for MC5R (BsaHI) in the group of pigs (AA - 0.348 and AG - 0.652), genotype GG was not found. As conforms with genotype structure, we recognize a higher frequency of allele A (0.674) as compared with allele G (0.326). 

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Influence of H-FABP gene polymorphisms on slaughter value of hybrid pigs
Published September 5, 2018
55-60

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The H-FABP gene was defined as a potential candidate gene influencing the fat deposition traits, primarily the intramuscular fat content. The aim of this study is to define whether the previously reported gene mutations are connected with the slaughter traits measured in a standard slaughterhouse. The study included data from 405 gilts and barrows from 2 different samples. The two chosen mutation (HFABP1: c. 103 T>C, HFABP2: c. 1970 T>C) were detected in one reaction with PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Lenght Polymorphism) method with HinfI restrictoin enzyme. The allel frequencies are as follows: 103T(H)=0.75; 103C(h)=0.25, 1970T=0.32; 1970C=0.68. A HFABP1 mutation has significant effect on backfat thickness and lean meat % at stable 1 (sample 1), but there were no effect at stable 2 (sample 2). The analysis of values of production traits, depending on HFABP2 genotype did not reveal significant differences. Based on this study we can’t get a clear conclusion on the impact of polymorphisms on production parameters. In the examined flock the allele frequency of mutation in 5 'UTR is identical to the literature data, i. e. the more favorable variant regarding the intramuscular fat content is predominant in the population.

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Some basic problems concerning world animal production at the beginning of the XXI century
Published November 13, 2012
77-80

The author summarizes the main new challenges facing animal agriculture: growing GDP in many countries increasing animal protein demand, bioenergy industry as a new player using potential food or feedstuffs, increasing demand, Growing water and land scarcity, weaking the position of plant agriculture, feed production. Forecasts are summarized r...egarding the magnitude of meat consumption increases, and the possible plant biomass quantities required additionally in the next 20 years to cover the needs of food, feed and biofuel on a global scale.
Efficiencies of various animal production sectors, poultry, pork, beef, mutton meat, milk and eggs and their environmental footprints are compared, summarizing the most important research  results concerning UK, USA, OECD evaluations. Intensive systems using highly productive plant and animal population will play an even more important role in the future especially in poultry, pig, milk and aquaculture production system being efficient users of resources (feed, water, land) and the environmental foot print is smaller per unit product.

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Associations analysis of production traits with leptin gene T3469C polymorphisms in pig
Published February 10, 2013
39-43

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of this study was to define the connection between the leptin (LEP) gene T3469C polymorphism and its potential association with production traits in improved hybrid pigs. The study included data from 397 gilts and barrows from 2 different sample. The polymorphism was identified by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) method with HinfI restriction enzyme. Two alleles of LEP gene were identified: T (0.93) an C (0.07). The analysis of values of production traits, depending on LEP genotype did not reveal significant (P≤0.05) differences. In the examination the loin diameter (between the 2nd and 3rd ribs), the live weight at slaughter and the averege daily gain during fattening were higher at pigs with C allele than pigs with TT genotipe. Accordingt to our data the effect of C allele was favourable in this population, because these animals had bigger bodyweight without valuable change of lean meat percent.

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Association analysis of TNNI1/XbaI polimorphism on carcass quality in hybrid pigs
Published March 24, 2015
59-62

The contractile protein, which is encoded by troponin I 1 (TNNI1) gene, is located on the thin filaments of slow fibres in striated muscle. TNNI1 protein is a part of the troponin complex which plays an important role in regulation of muscle contraction by preventing actin-myosin interaction in absence of calcium. According to biological role, ...this gene can be potential marker for meat production related traits. The aim of this study is to define whether the previously reported gene polymorphism (EU743939:g.5174T>C) is connected with the slaughter traits measured in a standard slaughterhouse of the examined four-line European hybrid. The study included data from 404 gilts and barrows from 2 different samples. The polymorphism was detected using PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) method with XbaI restriction enzyme. In this study the allele frequencies were found as follows: C: 0.84 and 0.808; T: 0.16 and 0.192. Based on result of the present study no significant impact of polymorphisms on production parameters was found.

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Brief overview of the polymorphism analysis of genes affecting pig prolificacy (LEP, PRLP, ESR BF, EGF, FSH-β, H2A.Z)
Published March 24, 2015
5-10

Researches are being performed around the world to increase swine prolificacy by using marker-assisted selection (MAS). The present study processes researches of polymorphism examinations on 7 genes. The result of the experiments showed that the leptin gene (LEP) prolactin receptor gene (PRLP), estrogen receptor gene (ESR), properdin B (BF) epi...dermal growth factor (EGF), follicle-stimulating beta gene (FSH-ß) and Z member of the H2A histon family gene (H2A.Z) and their alleles have a positive effect on reproductive characteristics of different swine breeds. In addition to this, leptin gene (LEP) influences the build, meat production and growth of body fat. Further studies are concerned with the polymorphism of an increasing number of genes, which enables a faster genetic development of swine breeding.

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