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Preliminary data on the effect of semi-synthetic baits for Noctuidae (Lepidoptera) on the non-target Lepidoptera species
Published June 2, 2015
71-80

Noctuidae are one of the most important Lepidoptera groups containing dangerous pest species. Monitoring and detection of these pest species is routinely performed by traps baited with sex-pheromones. Baits that attract both males and females were developed for improved pest management. First the effectiveness of different synthetic compounds w...as evaluated. We also tested semi-synthetic baits that contained both synthetic and natural components (wine and beer). These were more attractive for moths considering species richness and abundance. Disadvantage of this increased effectiveness is that the traps catch more non target, rare and even protected species. In this study we analysed the effect of semi-synthetic baits developed for Noctuid moths containing wine on other non-target Lepidopterans. In the six sampling sites traps caught 17158 individuals of 183 Lepidoptera species. The number of Noctuidae species was 124, while their proportion was 84.4%. The traps caught 813 individuals of 9 protected and 20 valuable species, which was only 4.7% of all Lepidopterans. In contrast the mean proportion of 33 dangerous and potential pest species was 31.3% (5375 individuals). Number and abundance of both protected and pest species were affected by landscape structure. The risks of catching non-target species was higher in species rich natural and semi-natural landscape. In homogenous arable lands the number and proportion of valuable Lepidopterans was not significant.

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Pest species of Macrolepidoptera in the Game Reserve of Velyka Dobron’ (Transcarpathia, Ukraine)
Published June 2, 2015
58-64

The Game Reserve of Nagydobrony extends on a marginal area of a former peatland and is covered with extended hardwood gallery forests and oak-hornbeam forests and is surrounded by a mosaic-like agricultural landscape. Due to its richness of nature-like and semi-natural habitats it supports a diverse insect assemblage. By light and bait trapping... 383 species of macro-moths were recorded from which larvae of 85 species are feeding either on forest trees and scrubs or on cultivated plants thus these can be considered as potential pest species. Thirteen species (mostly Geometridae and Erebidae: Lymantriinae) have a special significance for forestry due to defoliating activity in gradation periods. Considering the habitat connections, the composition of moth assemblage is dominated by generalist species with broad spectrum of ecological tolerance but the species connected with humid forested habitats are also richly represented. The bulk of species consists of widely distributed Euro-Siberian species, but also some Holo-Mediterranean species with more southern character and Mediterranean-Subtropical migrant species were registered. The bait trapping provided significant results on the phenology of the dominant species. The faunistically significant and/or protected species were observed in a low number of individuals only, thus the applied trapping methods did not damage the faunal composition.

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The importance of predator species in the population dynamics of the Brown hares (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778) – Literature review
Published August 29, 2017
43-49

One of the conditions for successful small game management is the good management of predator species. The predator species play an important role in the sustainable utilization of the domestic brown hare populations. A portion of these species are under nature protection and with the rest of the species can be utilizing by the wildlife managem...ent professionals. Important prey species of brown hares: perspective are red fox, domestic dog and domestic cat. Based on latest date of the National Game Management Database in hunting bags increasing every year the number of the European badger, the stone marten and the golden jackal. In Hungary the brown hare’s most important predator bird species are common buzzard, marsh-harries and goshawk. The human race is not only as a top predator affects the number of the population of brown hares with the wildlife management but indirectly with traffic, (soil cultivation, mowing, and pest control) as well. The control of predators is absolutely necessary for successful small game management, but without sufficient habitat size and habitat development it is hardly sufficient.

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114
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Distribution and relative abundance of the economically important click beetles (Elateridae: Agriotes sp.) in Hungary
Published November 10, 2010
53-60

Click beetle (Elateridae: Agriotes sp.) species of 24 sites in different regions of Hungary were studied in 2010. A. brevis, A. sputator, A. obscurus, A. lineatus, A. rufipalpis and A. ustulatus were sampled by pheromone traps in maize fields. During the study more than 80000 beetles were caught. The three most common species were A. ustul...atus, A. sputator and A. rufipalpis. The distribution of the studied species was uneven. In south Hungary A. ustulatus, A, rufipalpis and A. sputator were the three most abundant species. In the Transdanubia A. sputator was the most abundant. A. ustulatus reached higher abundance in only three sites (3/12). A. obscurus occurred only in west Hungary (Transdanubia). In eastern Hungary the abundance of studied species was higher. In this reason we have to monitor the populations of these pests and if it is necessary we have to take actions against them. In Transdanubia the abundance were generally lower but in many cases reached the threshold of significant damage. Beyond that 13 additional species were sampled so the total number of sampled species was 19.

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Pest-fauna of grasslands and seed-grass varieties
Published November 2, 2014
56-59

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The present paper deals with various herbivorous species living in grassland ecosystems. The research focused not only on the complexity of pests in grasslands but also on individual pest species; their biology and the severity of damage, with special regard to seed feeders of some frequent herd’s grass species. The observed pests are showed in two ways, both taxonomically and according to their localization on the crop that is where they cause damage. An attempt was made to present the results being easily understandable for practitioners.

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Study on distribution and relative abundance of click beetle pests (Elateridae: Agriotes sp.) in Hungarian maize fields
Published October 30, 2011
107-113

Click beetle pests (Elateridae: Agriotes sp.) of 24 sites in different regions of Hungary were studied in 2011. A. brevis, A. sputator, A.
obscurus, A. lineatus, A. rufipalpis and A. ustulatus were sampled by pheromone traps in maize fields. During the study 65895 beetles were
caught. A. ustulatus and A. sputator were the most abundant sp...ecies. Beyond that 23 additional species were trapped so the total number of sampled species was 29. The distribution of the six studied species was uneven. In east Hungary A. ustulatus were the most abundant, while
in the Transdanubia A. sputator was dominant in the most studied sites. A. obscurus occurred mostly in Transdanubia (western Hungary), and it occurred only in one site of eastern Hungary. 
The abundance of one or simultaneously two species reached the threshold of significant damage in 14 sites. Additionally there were three sites where the total abundance of the two most dominant species reached the threshold. There were only six sites where we should not expect significant damage. In this reason we have to monitor the populations of these pests and if it is necessary we have to take actions against them.

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Arthropods assiciated with the stinging nettle in Hungary
Published October 30, 2011
97-103

Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica Linnaeus) (Urticaceae) is a well known medicinal plant cultivated in some European countries for a long time. Because of its multiple usability (food, medicinal plant, feed, fiber), adventageous agrotechnical qualities and low demands for plant protection, its more extensiv utilization can be expected. However, du...ring cultivation from time to time little damages can be occurred on it. The aim of this paper is to show and estimate the most important arthropods (pests and natural enemies) of stinging nettle. Under the pests characterized in the paper according to the references the peacock and the small tortoiseshell are the most important species living on stinging nettle. Their individuals from time to time propagated can cause an important damage on nettle leaves in cultivated nettle stands or assemblages. On the base of a 12 year observation period (Gödöllő, Debrecen, 1998-2010) the following species have been observed: Psylliodes attenuata, Chrysomela fastuosa, Phyllobius pomaceus, Pleuroptya ruralis, Inachis io, Aglais urticae, Microlophium evansi, Microlophium carnosum, Aphis urticata, Dasineura urticata, Tritomegas sexmaculatus. Inachis io has been the only species which during the observation period did danger the stinging nettle stand. The other pest species have not threated even timely either the stinging nettle stand or a single plant. The number and diversity of natural enemies was rather low: running crab spiders (Philodromidae), tangle-web spiders (Theridiidae), crabbing spiders (Thomisidae), lacewings (Chrysopa perla, Chrysopa formosa), coccinellids (Coccinella septempunctata, Propylea quattuordecimpunctata, Adonia variegata), hoverflies (Episyrphus balteatus), earwigs (Forficula auricularia), scorpionflies (common scorpionfly (Panorpa communis) and European paper wasp (Polistes dominula) predominated. 

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Studies on the development of food attractants catching noctuid mouths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Published November 2, 2014
86-91

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The monitoring of the most dangerous noctuid pests (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) can be performed by species specific pheromone traps. Recently the development of traps catching female moths became the main objective of the studies. We studied the synergistic effect of vine and beer as natural additive on the effectiveness of baits containing isoamyl alcohol and acetic acid in Forró and Debrecen-Ondód. The addition of vine and beer had positive effect on catches and it was significant in case of two dangerous pest species Agrotis segetum and Lacanobia oleracea. The synergistic effect was also significant with regard to the number of detected species especially in case of lower abundances and rare species.

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Host plant preference of Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) (Hemiptera: Flatidae) in the north of Hungary
Published June 2, 2015
84-95

Citrus flatid planthopper, a native insect to North America had for a long time a scarce economic importance there. However, being polyphagous made little damage on citrus trees and some ornamentals. In 1979 it was introduced to Italy where it established and spread quickly. It is now an invasive alien species continually spreading in South and... Central Europe causing considerable damage in fruit crops and various ornamentals. Present study shows the results of a series of observations carried out from 2011 to 2015 at a number of habitats in north of Hungary. The pest could be found at each habitat but the hedge, the tree row, the gardens and the orchard/vineyard were the most infested. Frequency and population density of Metcalfa pruinosa were considerable on Asteraceae, Cannabaceae, Fabaceae, Juglandaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Sapindaceae. Typical vegetation could be functionally classified as ornamental plants, trees/shrubs, fruit plants, weeds and feral plants. Feral plants – some of them also invasive alien species – were found at each habitat. Plant species native to America were among them the most populated. As the hedgerows were neglected, and most gardens, orchards and vineyards abandoned, these are excellent conditions for the quick and long-lasting establishment of the pest as well as they may be reservoirs to infest cultivated fruit crops and ornamentals. The hedgerow was situated along a railway line. The length of similar hedges can be merely in Pest county several hundred km, which means M. pruinosa has plenty of opportunity for spreading along the railway and infest agricultural and ornamental cultures. On the surveyed alfalfa and maize fields, accidentally very few nymphs and adults were observed. Although, the population density of M. pruinosa was considerable on many hostplants, economic damage or yield losses could not be detected. Economic or significant damage was observed only on roses, raspberries and stinging nettle. This later is cultivated in Germany and Finland. The applied horticultural oil was efficient.

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The distribution of brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys (Stål, 1855); Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in the Northeast part of the Carpathian Lowland (West Ukraine)
Published May 26, 2022
191-194

Halyomorpha halys (Stål, 1855) spread rapidly during the last five years and became common and abundant in Central Europe, especially in the urban environment. In the Carpathian basin, the West Ukrainian Transcarpathia county was the last region where this species has not been found yet. The first specimens of this invasive pest were sampl...ed in Velyka Dobron’ in 2018 and in 2019 it was found in another neighbouring village and cities of Chop, Berehove and Uzhhorod. The data provided here is the first for West Ukraine and the second for the country following the published record from Odessa (SE Ukraine). Although H. halys is still less abundant and occupied mainly urban habitats, it will certainly cause nuisance for peoples and damages for farmers in the near future.

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Occurrence and damage of the alfalfa root longhorn beetle (Plagionotus floralis Pallas, 1773) in old alfalfa stands in Hungary
Published November 10, 2010
82-88

The alfalfa root longhorn beetle is a pest of small importance in old alfalfa stands. It is rarely cited in the international, national literature, or even mentioned in specialized manuels. Plagionotus floralis is common in Hungary but its population density is low. It is a polyphagous species but it has importance - regarding the references ... only in alfalfa. This paper analyses data gained in old alfalfa fields at two different regions of the country (Máriabesnyő, Debrecen). Damage of P. floralis was 56% in the roots of an 8-year-old stand in Máriabesnyő. Lenghts of tunnels were between 3 and 22 cm. In spite of the tunnels the alfalfa plants were viable. There was no root longhorn beetle in the 15-year-old Debrecen stand, however it has been found former in the region. The reason for the important density of P. floralis in Máriabesnyő could be the considerable diversity and covering of flowering weeds around the field. Adults of P. floralis feed on flower pollen and nectar. As to the Debrecen area,weeds were cut regularly, so the edge vegetation was poor. Present conditions (no pest control on alfalfa fields, overuse of old and failing alfalfa stands, many untrained growers) favour the reproduction and possible damage of alfalfa root longhorn beetle. 

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An unimportant insect pest with characteristic symptoms: Halticus apterus (Miridae)
Published June 14, 2017
19-23

Halticus apterus, a tiny mirid bug with jumping hind legs has not been taught in agricultural entomology courses in Hungary. However, the most detailed agricultural entomology text book, the “Handbook of Agricultural Entomology” briefly presents the pest. Although, it is common in Hungary, its damage is insignificant because of the low dens...ity; it can cause quality loss in feed crops only. Nevertheless, its special symptom – spottedness – is worth taking into consideration. The author has been studying pests and natural enemies of alfalfa for a long time (at least ten years), so he focused attention on this species. Occurrence of H. apterus was only sporadic in the alfalfa field, but it showed characteristic and frequent symptoms at a density of averagely three individuals per alfalfa plants in mixed plant associations at the studied field edge. By presenting the damage appearance and form, it was possible to make a more accurate description of H. apterus’symptoms, and with evaluating relevant European references, also the detailed entomological characterisation, economic importance and assessment of future risks have been achieved. As a difference to former descriptions, the special leaf spottedness of H. apterus does not consist of homogenous round spots but rather of spherical conglomerations of tiny whitish dots caused by the piercing and sucking mouthparts and the injected saliva

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What has Harmonia axyridis to do with Dante's Divine Comedy
Published November 10, 2010
82-88

The multicoloured Asian ladybird beetle (Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773)), a former successful biological control agent in the USA and Western Europe became an invasive alien species threatening the diversity of native aphidophagous insects through competition and praying, a horticultural pest consuming various fruits and adversely affecting t...he wine quality and a human nuisance when occurring at high densities in buildings. Due to this dubious fame, attention has been paid to it also at national level which made inevitable to find for it a fitting name in different languages. In some cases and countries a version of the English name has been chosen however, regarding the meaning of this translated term in Hungarian, the try cannot be called fortunate. The objective of this contribution is to stress the function of common animal names in the Hungarian Sprachraum and to find a right and proper alternative with the help of etymology, mythology, classical literature, art (painting) and the experiences of Hungarian fruit and grape growers.

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Inhibition of the spread of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in aquaponics
Published May 26, 2022
5-8

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which causes white mold, is a widespread pathogen. In 2020, a new host plant of this fungus, the watercress (Nasturtium officinale) was identified in Hungary in an aquaponic system. During the cultivation of watercress S. sclerotiorum was detected on the plant, the fungus caused a 30% yield loss. Fungicides should ...not be used against fungi in aquaponic systems. Non-chemical methods of integrated pest management should be used. These include biological control (resistant species, predators, pathogens, antagonist microorganisms), manipulation of physical barriers, traps, and the physical environment. In the aquaponic system, the removal of the growing medium (expanded clay aggregate pellets) solved the damage of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum 100%. By removing the expanded clay aggregate pellets, the environmental conditions became unfavorable for the development and further spread of the S. sclerotium fungus.

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