Monoculture caused a gradual decline of soil conditions, while nematodes and salt accumulation stimulated the growers to choose alternative practices, such as soilless cultures, which proved their value in Western Europe. Exact statistics are lacking, but estimates deal with approximately 300-400 hectares of vegetable on rock wool, whereas othe...r substrates of soilless culture may multiply this number. Real perspectives are attributed to the forced production of pepper, tomato and cucumber.
Vegetable production in greenhouses may impair the ecological balance of the environment substantially as far as being uncontrolled. Soilless cultures especially should be handled thoughtfully. A fraction of the nutrients administered, more than 25-30%, is doomed to be lost in an open system, and the resulting ecological risk is accompanied with increasing costs of the production.
In Hungary, the quantity of nutrient elements in drainage water is unknown, et all. Connecting the production results with chemical analysis, we gain more information about it.
You can see a mathematical method for evaluation of nutrient and water conditions in tomato hydroponics production.
We use Moodle at the University of Debrecen, Business- and Agricultural Department since January 2007. Moodle is an open source Learning Management System.
Learning Management System (or LMS) is a software package that enables the management and delivery of learning content and resources to students. Most LMS systems are web-based to facilit
Moodle has more and more function at our Department in education. At present, we work to introduce Moodle in our Faculty. Therefore, we took lessons for the tutors about the usage of the Moodle. Our aim to develop such a learning system, which is an integral part of educational process.
We use the Moodle at the University of Debrecen, Businessand Agricultural Department since January 2007. The Moodle is an open source Learning Management System. Learning Management System (or LMS) which is a software package, which enables the management and delivery of learning content and resources to students. Most LMS systems are web-based... to facilitate „anytime, anywhere” access to learning content and administration. LMS tracks student progress in a course and indicates completions. At the least, learning management systems
track individual student progress, record scores of quizzes and tests within an online learning program, and track course completions. The Moodle has more and more function at our Department in education. In January we worked to introduce Moodle in our Faculty. Therefore, we took lessons for the tutors about the usage of the Moodle. Our aim was to develop such a learning system, which is an integral part of educational process,
to improve the efficiency of agricultural higher education.
Arsenic contamination of the fields and groundwater is a global problem. Alföld is the most affected area in Hungary. Irrigation witharsenic contaminated water, and crop production on the contaminated soil can cause a food safety problem, because arsenic is easy taken up by the cell of the plant roots. To prevent this, very important to monito...ring the arsenic content of soils and plants. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a fast, easy method to determined the concentration of minerals in the case of plant and soil samples The analytical methods can give reliable, results if the analytical process, including the sample preparation method, is the best. The objective of this study was to compare 3 type of sample preparation method which was dry ashing, wet digestion in open system, and microwave digestion. As a result of our experiement shows the microwave digestion is the appropriate method to determined the arsenic content of soil samples. In the case of plant samples we can use wet digestion in open system or microwave digestion as a samle preparation method.
Spatial problems and spatial decisions are decisive in agricultural-environmental informatics systems and the solutions require systems that can collect, evaluate and display spatial data. The distinctive features of spatial informatics systems therefore have to be considered when establishing integrated spatial informatics systems.
The demand for the recognition, identification and introduction of measures aimed at improving organizational culture and the efficiency of management and leadership plays a crucial role in the life of every organization, including the law enforcement bodies as well. The tasks and responsibilities of the Hungarian Police Force have changed cons...iderably both in terms of quantity and quality since Hungary’s accession into the European Union first, and since the country’s joining the Schengen Zone. We are now facing problems formerly unheard of (e. g. the integration of the police force and the border guard, joining the Schengen Zone, the emergence of new forms of crime). As border control within the Union stopped, organized crime has become more powerful. The changes are by no means over: in order to improve the subjective sense of security of the population and to advance organizational efficiency, a number of changes are being implemented at present. For the internal security of the member states of the Union and for the improvement of the efficiency of police work in the member states, the use of consciously coordinated management methods is indispensable. These efforts are the subject of this essay.
A police force is an partially open system, the work of which is influenced by a number of external processes and factors. The organizational culture of a police force is determined by its traditions on the one hand, and by the demands to develop its functions as an authority and a service provider on the other. It is undeniable that any conscious effort in shaping and developing the organizational culture of the police requires special competences and commitment from the leaders of the organization. Furthermore, it is also necessary to modernize the management tasks. It applies to all the levels of leadership, from the head of a patrol to the supreme commander of the police force.
The organizational scheme of the police force is that of a functional, linear system. Such an organization is characterized by a relatively high degree of inflexibility, a slow and cumbersome reaction to external changes. All these may adversely influence organizational efficiency. It therefore appears to be necessary to examine the present structure of police, and survey the possibilities of modernization. Modernization does not necessarily mean a change in the structure; it may be restricted to changes in organizational culture, the creation of an atmosphere favourable for reforms, and the coordination of diversified structures. In this paper I wish to demonstrate some of the possibilities of improving organizational culture and organization development, based upon the findings of a specific survey.
In the growing season of 2019, we analysed stress resulting from climatic factors on maize hybrids of different genotypes, with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the physiological responses of each hybrid, which might support the elaboration of a cost-effective irrigation plan.
Our experiments were carried out at... the Látókép Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen on calcareous chernozem soil in a small-plot long-term field trial with strip plot design. In the scope of the experiment, N-fertilizer doses were applied as basic fertilizer and top-dressing in addition to the non-fertilized (control) treatment. The 60 and 120 kg N/ha doses applied as basic fertilizers in the spring were followed by top-dressing in the V6 phenophase with a +30 kg N/ha dose. Measurements were carried out with the involvement of the Renfor early (FAO 320) and Fornad (FAO 420) late maturity hybrids-
The stomata of the plants became more and more closed with the progression of the phenological phases; their stomatal conductance decreased. However, the hybrids responded differently to environmental stress. In the case of the Renfor hybrid, the highest conductance (669 mmol/m2-s) was recorded in the V12 phenophase with the 150 kg N/ha treatment. The stomata were more open due to the high turgor pressure, allowing plants to evaporate properly. The plant was in its worst physiological condition on 2nd July, at the time of the appearance of the last leaf in the case of the 120 kg N dose (224 mmol/m2-s). The value measured in the V12 phenophase has already shown that the stomata were closing due to the self-regulating system of the plant. It would have been necessary to dispense irrigation water following the measurement. This confirms the finding that water stress can be prevented by measuring stomatal conductance.
In the case of the Fornad hybrid, stomatal conductance was the highest on 12th June (630 mmol/m2-s) in the 90 kg N/ha treatment and it was the lowest (183 mmol/m2-s) in VT (emergence of the last leaf) phenophase in the 60 kg N/ha treatment. In this case, the appropriate time for applying irrigation water would have been early July, when the conditions for the plants were still adequate. Subsequently, the stomata began to close due to a reduction of the water resources available to them.
There was a significant correlation between soil moisture and stomatal conductance, as well as between temperature and stomatal conductance.
Nanotechnology is highly interdisciplinary and important research area in modern science. The use of nanomaterials offer major advantages due to their unique size, shape and significantly improved physical, chemical, biological and antimicrobial properties. Physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of metal nanoparticles have received much a...ttention of researchers. There are different methods i.e. chemical, physical and biological for synthesis of nanoparticles. Chemical and physical methods have some limitations, and therefore, biological methods are needed to develop environment-friendly synthesis of nanoparticles. Moreover, biological method for the production of nanoparticles is simpler than chemical method as biological agents secrete large amount of enzymes, which reduce metals and can be responsible for the synthesis and capping on nanoparticles.
Biological systems for nanoparticle synthesis include plants, fungi, bacteria, yeasts, and actinomycetes. Many plant species including Opuntia ficus-indica, Azardirachta indica, Lawsonia inermis, Triticum aestivum, Hydrilla verticillata, Citrus medica, Catharanthus roseus, Avena sativa, etc., bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis, Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Lactobacillus sp., Klebsiella aerogenes, Torulopsis sp., and fungi, like Fusarium spp. Aspergillus spp., Verticillium spp., Saccharomyces cerevisae MKY3, Phoma spp. etc. have been exploited for the synthesis of different nanoparticles. Among all biological systems, fungi have been found to be more efficient system for synthesis of metal nanoparticles as they are easy to grow, produce more biomass and secret many enzymes. We proposed the term myconanotechnology (myco = fungi, nanotechnology = the creation and exploitation of materials in the size range of 1–100 nm). Myconanotechnology is the interface between mycology and nanotechnology, and is an exciting new applied interdisciplinary science that may have considerable potential, partly due to the wide range and diversity of fungi.
Nanotechnology is the promising tool to improve agricultural productivity though delivery of genes and drug molecules to target sites at cellular levels, genetic improvement, and nano-array based gene-technologies for gene expressions in plants and also use of nanoparticles-based gene transfer for breeding of varieties resistant to different pathogens and pests. The nanoparticles like copper (Cu), silver (Ag), titanium (Ti) and chitosan have shown their potential as novel antimicrobials for the management of pathogenic microorganisms affecting agricultural crops. Different experiments confirmed that fungal hyphae and conidial germination of pathogenic fungi are significantly inhibited by copper nanoparticles. The nanotechnologies can be used for the disease detection and also for its management. The progress in development of nano-herbicides, nano-fungicides and nano-pesticides will open up new avenues in the field of management of plant pathogens. The use of different nanoparticles in agriculture will increase productivity of crop. It is the necessity of time to use nanotechnology in agriculture with extensive experimental trials. However, there are challenges particularly the toxicity, which is not a big issue as compared to fungicides and pesticides.