Sweet sorghum can be utilized for bioethanol production because it has high sugar content (14-17%). We determined the most important nutritional values of 5 silo type sorghum lines in waxy and full maturation. The examined restorer lines were: RL 4, RL 9, RL 15, RL 18, K 1. The following nutritional parameters were examined: dry material conten...t, refractometric total sugar content, reducing sugar content. In waxy maturation 73.85-87.37% of dry matter in stalk juice makes the total sugar. Dry material content, total and reducing sugar content of stalk
decreases from waxy mature to full maturation.
There are differences between lines in dry matter (SzD5%=0.76), total sugar (SzD5%=0.79), reducing sugar content (SzD5%=0.30). RL 4 performed a decrease in total sugar content from 10.07% to 10.02% during this period, reducing sugar also decreased from 4.01% to 2.47%. RL 9 performed a decrease in total sugar content from 11.76% to 11.08% during this period. Reducing sugar also decreased from 3.17% to 2.01% in the waxy
maturation. RL 15 showed a total sugar content decrease from 15.43 % to 15.36%. The reducing sugar also decreased from 3.23% to 1.71% in waxy maturation. In RL 18 total mean sugar content during waxy maturation was 13.78% which dropped to 13.26% approaching full maturation. Reducing sugar also decreased from 4.11% to 2.23% in waxy mature. K 1 performed a decrease in total sugar content from 9.35% to 6.15% during this period, while reducing sugar also decreased from 1.52% to 0.77%.
These lines upcoming for experiments are perspectives since having excellent stalk juice nutritional parameters they are of great or very great height and their stalks are thick-very thick, stalk medullas are wet.
Nutritional imbalances accompanied with growth retardation of crops at early growth stage were found since the last 40 years on certain arable lands in eastern Croatia. In this regard, phosphorus (P) deficiencies in maize and wheat were found mainly on acid soils of the western part of the region, potassium (K) deficiencies in maize, soybean on... the hydromorphic neutral to alkaline calcaric drained gleysols of Sava valley lowland, while zinc (Zn) deficiencies were observed mainly in seed-maize and soybean on neutral calcaric eutric cambisols of the eastern part of the region. Cold and moist spring is factor promoting P deficiency symptoms. As oasis of normal crops existed on same arable land, comparison of plant and soil composition was possible from typical sites. P nutrition disorders were in connection with the lower P and the higher aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) concentrations in the top of plants and the lower soil pH values. K-deficiency as result of strong K fixation and imbalances with high levels of magnesium (Mg) were the main responsible factors of low maize and soybean yields on some drained gleysols. Chlorosis incidences typical for Zn deficiency in maize and soybean were in close connection with the higher soil pH, the lower quantities of mobile Zn, here and there the higher mobile P in soil, the lower concentrations of Zn and the higher levels of Al and Fe in plants. Overcoming the above mentioned disorders and normalization of yields were achieved using ameliorative fertilization either by K or P fertilizers and in case of Zn by foliar spraying of crops with 0.75% ZnSO4 solution. Also, alleviations are possible by selection of more tolerant genotypes of field crops to specific types of nutritional disorders. From this aspect, some practical solutions were recommended for maize with reference to K nutritional problems.
The consumption of insect protein, as well as its use in animal feeding, has become a trend. This trend is particularly receiving a lot of attention in animal nutrition because the current protein source of the highest quality in animal feeding which is fishmeal is unsustainable, expensive and its demand is higher than supply. Insect protei...n can be of great potential in combating world hunger as the world population continues to increase. The potential of insect protein is wide-ranging, it could improve the economics of feed production, lead to cleaner production due to its low environmental footprint.
This review focuses on the need, (nutritional and environmental) advantages of insect protein in feed production, as well as previous research findings.
The unanimous conclusion of the reviewed papers is that insect protein has a great potential in feed production in terms of nutritional value, environmental implication, sustainability as well as economic implication.
However, there is a need for the intensification of research on this alternative protein source in Europe, especially in aquaculture due to the approval of 7 insect species in aquafeeds by the European Union. Another reason for the intensification is that there is still much to be done as a result of past research which shows that growth effects vary based on species and inclusion level.
The stored vegetables play a key role in the vegetable consumption. After harvesting, the storage conditions greatly affect nutritional parameters of the crop. The red beet is a root vegetable, which is manufactured mainly fresh in our county, therefore we do not have enough information about the storage. In our experiment, 5 varieties (Rubin,...Akela, Larka, Libero, Mona Lisa) were examined in prismatic structure (0–5 °C and 95–97% RH) through 5 mounths.
Our measurements proved that under the appropriate storage conditions water loss was also occurs, which increased the dry matter content (average of 0.5 g 100 g-1). The bioactive compounds, like pigments (betanine and vulgaxanthin) and the quantity of flavonoids, were significantly increased during the experiment.
The results showed that the nutritional parameters of the 5 types was positive during the prismatic structure. However, this storage method negatively affected the bioactive compounds of the Akela genotype. Further studies are recommended for proper storage parameter adjustment, which is justified by the need of the different varieties. The optimal conditions enable us to preserve and to increase the best nutritional index.
We set up experiments for improving the nutritional value of cerealbased products. Our aims were to decrease the energy content of bakery products with the mixing of plant originated raw materials and byproducts with high fibre contents, and we have evaluated the effect of sodium-chloride on the physical properties of bakery products. We found...that the apple pomace, the byproduct of juice production, is excellent for increasing of fibre content of bakery products and the further aim of investigation is to develop economical ways of hygienic byproduct handling and purification. Our experiments, evaluate the bakery use of triticale, have significant achievements and the breads made from triticale flour and whole-grain are commercially available nowadays. Our investigations included the possibilities of decrease of toxin contamination of cereals and our results can form a part of risk estimation systems after further experiments .
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of dried herbs (Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L., Salvia officinalis L.) to improve the quality characteristics and microbiological stability of Hungarian meat product, pariser. The addition of herbs did not affect the microbial properties of the product. According t...o the Decree No. 4 of 1998 of the Ministry of Health, pariser can be considered safe. The nutritional quality of the different forms of pariser was also acceptable. However, the addition of oregano, sage and thyme changed the flavor characteristics of the parisers and the higher meat content would increase the final price of the product.
Selenium (Se) is an unusual metalloid of considerable interest from both a toxicological and a nutritional perspective, with a very narrow safe range of intake. Although there are many reports about its detoxification properties, toxicity aspects of it have also been tracked for several decades. Lots of studies demonstrated that low Se is an ef...ficacious avail whereas high Se can induce toxicity and the significant toxicity of selenium emphasizes the need to assess the health risk of various selenocompounds as nutritional supplements. The toxicity of different forms and compounds of selenium is also summarized in this review.
Ostrich has been reared in Hungary for decades, but we have limited information on this species. The aim of this review was to provide a concise description of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) based on international studies. We were to investigate some of the most relevant parameters, such as egg, meat and skin production. In this critical re...view we managed to sum up the most significant features and productivity parameters of ostrich and effecting factors. So as to make an accurate description of the species we have to know its morphological, behavioural and physiological characteristics. Ostrich is a very special bird with special nutritional and environmental requirements. Ostrich products, regarding egg, meat and skin are considered luxury products not only in Hungary but also abroad. Though egg has a significant nutritional value, it is mainly used for hatching chicks. In Europe we can expect roughly 40–50 eggs from a hen yearly. Ostrich has a lean meat with high protein and low fat and sodium content, moreover it is rich in minerals and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Having these advantageous qualities, ostrich meat should be part of our healthy diet. Skin production is not important in our country, but there is a special demand for high quality ostrich leather globally. In the future our aim is to conduct a research on some of the parameters. As low production rate and embryo mortality is a great deal of problem in ostrich industry, we need to investigate the incubation environment. There is an apparent disagreement among researchers on optimal slaughter age. This is also an area for further investigation. The value of skin and effecting factors on our climate as well as adaptability of the species are also worth for further investigation together with the nutrition what differs from other ostrich breeding countries. Nowadays, there is a great emphasis placed on animal welfare too.
The aim of our research was the examination of breast-milk composition from mothers living in the Csík region and to follow their milk composition variations during lactation. In this article we present the results obtained from three mothers, paying particular attention to essential components. The breast milk samples were collected from heal...thy mothers with similar habits and age. The milk samples were collected with a hand pump at the
same time after the feeding. The sampling period was from day 5 to the 14th weeks of lactation. The nutrition of mothers was recorded on a questionnaire, completed by the mothers themselves. Comparing our experimental results with data in the literature it was concluded that the milk protein content was very similar to the milk of mothers from other European countries, and is decreased during lactation.
The total saturated fatty acid content was lower, but the palmitic acid content was slightly higher. Regarding the essential fatty acid composition the linoleic- and the arachidonic acid contents were appropriate from a nutritional point of view. The linolenic acid was present in lower amounts, but the docosahexanoic acid was almost undetectable.
The iron and manganese contents were in good agreemen with published results, but the zinc content of the breast milk was lower and its copper content was higher. These differences in milk composition can be explained by the different nutritional habits of our subjects.
Healthy nutrition is one of the major topics of our days. The occurrence of the so called “civilization diseases” is increasing continuously as a result of the changes in our nutritional habits and life-style. It was thought that folk nutrition at the beginning of the 19. Century had several beneficial effects on health. For this reason it...was decided to study the food and nutritional habits of the population of Hajdu-Bihar County around the 1930s on the
basis of literary sources to see how well they do match with modern requirements of healthy nutrition.
Nowadays producing jams is considered a traditional way of plum processing in Hungary. Plum jams without added sugar can be stored
This research aimed to analytically determine which quality parameters of the jams and to what extent they change during storage. Furthermore, this study intended to find out whether a concious consumer can...presume any difference between varieties or the year of harvest, or wheather a one-time customer should suspect differences in quality parameters of the different products. This study focused on those differences or alterations in the parameters that occur in the jams made from several different plum varieties produced in different years.
I analyzed the classic chemical parameters (dry matter content and ash content) and physiologically important nutritional components (phenolic and flavonoids antioxidants and vitamin C). In this research I used jams which were produced from 6 varieties grown in 2009 (President, Tophit, Bluefre, Elena, Presenta, Stanley), 4 varieties from 2010 (President, Bluefre, Elena, Presenta) and 6 varieties from 2011 (President, Tophit, Bluefre, Elena, Presenta, Stanley). Jams were produced with traditional technology in cauldrons without added sugar. Jars were placed into a relatively dark and cool place and were stored there until the analysis.
Having regard to the results, when consumers choose between the different products they also choose quality since the processed plum variety, and the year of production/processing determine the nutritional value of the specific product. This could be used for market positioning and promotion of the product, however further research is needed to gain more information from the differences that derive from the varieties, year of harvest or other factors. This way fruit and jam producers could turn these informations into market advantage.
Precision animal nutrition consists of meeting the nutrient requirements of animals as accurately as possible in the interest of a safe, high-quality and efficient production, besides ensuring the lowest possible load on the environment. This is facilitated by electronic feeding based on IT technology, an important but by far not the only tool...of precision nutrition. In the present paper the following most important elements of precision nutrition are discussed: diet formulation, quality control of ingredients and compound feeds, reduction of the harmful effects of heat stress in pigs with different nutritional tools, application of the recent findings of the molecular genetics in animal nutrition, the relationship between genetics and animal nutrition and reduction of the N and P excretion by nutritional tools.
Corn breeding can be successful only on a broad base of genetic material. The expansion of breeding aims includes the research of germplasm materials. In our experiments, we examined 11 blue, purple and red exotic corn varieties on two locations in Hungary. We conducted a complex study to obtain more information. We studied several morphologica...l and phenological features and determined the most important qualitative parameters (protein, fat, ash). We applied the Tassel Area Index (TAI) under Hungarian conditions and compared it with the pollen producing ability of different genotypes. Results show that there are great opportunities in exotic corn varieties. Their quality exceeds that of the yellow ones in many cases. There are significant differences in yield and nutritional parameters. The favorable nutritional composition is not coupled with great productivity. Based on their flowering time and their agronomical features, they can be cultivated under Hungarian conditions as well. They match the new breeding aims, so they can be used as functional food or energy plants. With their high pollen producing ability and TAI, they can be utilized as markers in future pollen research.
Boza is a ceral based fermented drink. Raw material of boza could be rise, millet, wheat and rye. Because of the diversity of raw materilas and the method of fermentation boza might show varied quality and nutrition value.
Nowadays healthy and conscious nutrition are playing more and more important roles in our lives. People pay an ever... growing attention to the nutrition value of products, such as protein- and sugar content, components with antioxidant properties, and the mineral content of the products. In our research we wanted to know how the protein,-, sugar-, total polifenol-, mikro- and macro element content of products change.
The aim of this study was the detection of polymorphism in the bovine growth hormone and leptin genes using the PCR-RFLP method. A
polymorphic site of the growth hormone gene (Alul loci) that results in amino acid change at position 127 of the protein chain (leucine, L to
valine, V) has been linked to differences in circulating metabolite
gene is situated in the intron between two exons, which results in an amino acid change at position 2059 of the protein chain (cytosine, C to
thymine, T). The polymorphisms were studied in a group of 58 bulls of the Slovak spotted breed. A strategy employing PCR was used to amplify 428 bp (GH gene) and 422 bp (LEP gene) products from blood samples. Digestion of PCR products with restriction enzymes AluI and Sau3AI revealed alleles: L and V; A and B for GH gene and LEP gene, respectively. The growth hormone gene is a candidate gene for body weight gain in cattle, since it plays a fundamental role in growth regulation. Leptin plays an important role in the regulation of feed intake, energy metabolism, growth and reproduction of cattle; therefore, animals with higher leptin gene expression will probably have lower daily weight gain than others with similar forage offer and nutritional condition and will also likely have longer calving intervals.
Changes in people’s lifestyles and the emergence of nutritional science have created favorable opportunities for a boom in fruit and vegetable consumption, which have been fully exploited by the adaptive fruit producer and exporter countries. Unfortunately, Hungary is not one of these countries. Affected by a number of uncertainty factors, th...e Hungarian fruit and vegetable sector has fallen behind international trends, seeking opportunities for survival (Erdész, 2007).
The impacts of the country’s accession to the EU have been more adverse than expected. While no administrative measures are used to control production and the increasing competition and import have put Hungarian producers to a loosing position. The cooperation producers, the well-organized work of professionals and the coordinated activity of producers marketing organizations may resolved some of the problems affecting the sector.
The fruit and vegetable sector can also anticipate significant changes during the new seven-years budget period of the CAP reform.
With the new drat reform of the sector, the European Commission intends to simplify the common organization of the fruit and vegetable market, improve competitiveness, increase market orientation, promote fruit and vegetable consumption and to continue the environmental efforts.
Hungary has had great expectations concerning the reform of market regulation, but the Commission proposal didn’t bear out the expectations, because the new proposal includes insignificant changes in important issues and fails to provide sufficient additional resources for the catching up of he new member states.
Nowadays the success vegetable and fruit production are unimaginable without regular nutrient management. One of the ways to supply the required nutrients in an environmentally friendly way is the application of composts, which is less widespread so far. Compost doses were applied in biological and integrated apple orchards in cooperation with...the Institute of Horticultural Science in the years 2010 and 2011. Different changes were resulted by the compost treatments in the examined parameters in case of both apple varieties (Golden Delicious and Pinova). There is no clear effect of compost on the changes of ash-, total acids, Vitamin C and the sugar content until now, because the improvement of the nutritional indicators takes more time. However significant differences were observed after one year between the apple varieties. Higher ash-, total acids and sugar content were measured in case of the apple variety Pinova, while the measurements showed higher Vitamin C content in case of the variety Golden Delicious.
The ecological characteristics and agro-ecological conditions in Hungary provide opportunities for quality wheat production. For the successful wheat production besides the favorable conditions; the proper use of expertise and appropriate cultivation techniques are not negligible. Successful cultivation affected by many factors. To some extent...we can affect, influence and convert the abiotic factors.
Today, a particularly topical issue is the question of nutrition and that the species’ genetic code can be validated using the appropriate quantity and quality fertilizer. Beyond determining the fertilizer requirements of the winter wheat it is important to align the nutrient to the plant’s nutrient uptake dynamics and to ensure its shared dispensing. In any case, it is important to note the use of autumnal base-fertilizer as complex fertilizer. Hereafter sharing the fertilizer during the growing season with the recommended adequate nitrogen dose.The first top dressing of winter wheat in early spring (the time of tillering) can be made, the second top dressing at the time of stem elongation, and the third top dressing at the end of the blooming can be justified. Determining the rate of fertilizer application depends on the habitat conditions and the specific nutrient needs of plants. In autumn the 1/3 of the planned amount of basic fertilizer should be dispensed (in case of N). During setting our experiment we used 3 doses (0 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredient; 90 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredients and 150 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredient). Application dates beyond the autumn basic fertilization are the following: in one pass in early spring, divided in early spring and the time of run up, early spring and late flowering. In addition to nitrogen the replacement of sulfur gets a prominent role as a result of decreased atmospheric inputs. The proper sulfur supply mainly affects the quality parameters. It influences positively the wheat flour’s measure of value characteristics (gluten properties, volume of bread, dough rheology.
In terms of nitrogen doses; the larger amounts (150 kg ha-1 N-1 drug), is the proposed distributed application, while in the case of lower nitrogen (90 kg ha-1 N-1 drug) in a single pass in the early spring can achieve better results. After using sulfur the quality values among the nutritional parameters that can be associated with gluten properties took up higher values than the samples not treated with sulfur.
Nowedays one of the most important issues to discuss is the healthy nutrition: feeding our bodies with high quality nutrients, which is free of chemical residues. The demand for healthy and nutritious food is increasing worldwide, that results in the growing popularity of consumption of organic food. Several studies dealing with the nutrient co...ntent of traditional and organic food have been published lately, since it became clear that eating food contaminated with chemical residues damage to health, food and the environment. Therefore it would be desirable to find out if organic food is really superior to conventional one. In our study we analyzed the dry matter, ash, macroelement and trace element content of organically and conventionally grown crops (carrot root, potato tuber and parsnip). Our results provide further information to consumers about the nutritional value of organic and conventional crops.
One of the most important indices of the population's food consumption are the quantities of the consumed foods expressed in a natural measure. In the course of my examination from the 1980 years I examined how our dietary habits changed. I was able to demonstrate it by the time series examination well, in which years and in a what kind of meas...ure these consumer changes occurred. The trend analysis was in it onto my help, that let me be allowed to depict his beat as the changes of the food consumption visual.
In his totality the Hungarian population nutritional and from his consumer customs we may relate that the present nourishment increases it unambiguous the diet pendant the risk of illnesses, furthers their development, aggravates their effect, and contributes to the population's adverse health conditions powerful.
It was over in some years, in a decade on a unfortunate manner, we lost the natural instinct of the selection of the food in a considerable part. Our diet fundamental the narrower and the customs of wider environment, his rules, the social values, beliefs define it. Because of this to feed it is necessary to study it.
The changed and the health-conscious nourishment would be important for him herding back into a upturned dietary habit correct bed with a wide circle recognizing him with the population, his role could be big for the healthy, or functional foods. The nourishment gives his pleasure likewise while we take over healthy foods.
The recognition of the changes of the demand and accompanying him with attention could be the domestic food producers' fundamental interests. The consumer types and the market segments should be mapped, that they suitable marketing a strategy can be aimed at it, and into the direction of the healthy nutrition to push away, and would be need onto an efficient informative campaign, onto an advertisement message formulated well, onto the making aware of this, that let the advertisement supply an educational function in one.
From a nutritional point of view, sheep milk is more valuable than cow and goat milk and the interest for sheep milk is increasing in many countries. However, sheep milk is easily contaminated during milking, handling, and transport and it is an ideal medium for bacterial propagation. Consequently, sheep milk spoils quite quickly. The proper, c...lean handling of milk is not only of sanitarian interest, but it also serves the farmers’ interests, because contaminated milk may not be distributed, and is unsuitable for producing good quality products. Following this technological trend, this review addresses the bacterial composition of sheep milk with and without mastitis. Even though sheep milk contains a lot of bacteria, this review article highlighted total plate count, Enterobacteriaceae, coliform, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter, Salmonella spp. and Streptococcus spp. Mastitis in sheep is a vital cause of mortality, reduction in milk production and early culling. The reported risk factors for mastitis in sheep were age, a case of mastitis, breed, husbandry systems, and location. The main priority should be implementation of programs to minimize human pathogenic bacteria and mastitis in raw ewe milk.
An increasing interest has been observed of beetroot leaf as a salad component due to recent studies focusing on their nutritional value. The randomized field experiment was carried out on lowland chernozem soil with 6 varieties, 3 replications and 2 sowing dates. Sampling was performed on 23 of August 2018 at the stage of 30 and 50 days of veg...etation, where leaf (30 and 50 days) and root (50 days) were collected. Total dry matter, folic acid and nitrate content were evaluated.
The results of this investigation show that higher total dry matter content was measured in the root (8.47–10.30%) compared to the leaf in both developmental stages (6.47–9.20%). Nevertheless, higher folic acid content was found in the young leaves of 30 and 50 days of development (58.77–113.86 µg 100g-1). Among the examined varieties, Bonel has presented great amount of folic acid not only in the leaves (99.35–113.61 µg 100g-1), but also in the root (89.99 µg 100g-1). Finally, lower nitrate content was found in Libero (316.16 mg kg-1) at 30 days and in Akela (340.41 mg kg-1) at 50 days of development. Thereby, fresh consumption of beetroot leaves are highly recommended.
The agricultural sector is increasingly exposed to both environmental and economic risks due to the phenomena of climate change and climate variability. Fruit growth and productivity are adversely affected by nature’s wrath in the form of various abiotic stress factors. Climate change and extreme climatic events are predicted to increase in i...ntensity, frequency, and geographic extent as a consequence of global climate change. It is no doubt that frequency of unexpected climatic events and their growing rate result in an increasing amount of problems for fruit growers globally. Today, climate change impacts are the most serious problems for Hungarian fruit growers as well. It can be stated that the nutrient demand of fruit trees can be supplied only under even worse conditions.
Therefore, it is so important to know and apply adaptation and mitigation strategies in horticulture to improve fruit quality and yield. In the last ten years, at the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management at University of Debrecen expanded studies have been made to prove the importance of groundcover management in horticultural applications. In this mini review paper, is presented, how the university's researches contributed to the expansion of knowledge of preservation of soil moisture and what advice we can provide for fruit growers to face the challenges of climate change.
The objective of this research was to test the influence of various natural substances on acid production, growth, and viability of characteristic microorganisms in yogurt and probiotic fermented dairy foods. Oligofructose, inulin, honey, and the dried biomass of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis were found to stimulate the growth rate and acid... production activity of the major thermophilic diary cultures tested and, in addition to this, the presence of the aforementioned substrates also improved the survival of starter bacteria in fermented milk products during storage. The reduced production time of cultured milks resulted in increased production efficiency. The stimulatory and/or protective effect of oligofructose,
inulin, honey, and Spirulina on Bifidobacterium spp. is probably the most important finding of this study because bifidobacteria do not grow well in milk and they have low survival rates in conventional fermented milks. Some of the bioactive substances tested were also capable of exerting an antifungal effect on spoilage yeasts and molds, and improving the nutritional and sensory properties of the final product, thus providing a new opportunity for manufacture of functional fermented dairy foods.
One of the most important groups of bioactive substances in apples are antioxidants, which have a health-preserving effect. The amount of these compounds varies not only during the ripening of the apple fruit, but also continuously during post-harvest storage. A growing group of health-conscious consumers are looking for apple varieties wit...h a nutritional value that satisfies their needs.
In the scope of our research, we examined 5 apple varieties originating from the Derecske horticultural site of KITE cPlc. in 2016. The plantation was planted to be suitable for intensive apple production. Samples were collected at the time of maturity (August-October) of the given variety. The 5 examined apple varieties (Gaia, Isaaq, Modí, Smeralda and Fujion) are all resistant to apple scab (fungal disease caused by Venturia inaequalis). The 2-month storage experiment was conducted at 16–17 °C, which had an aggressive effect on our stored apples. Total polyphenol (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) content as well as FRAP values of the apples were measured. Measurements were taken immediately after harvest and after 1 and 2 months of storage. Our results were evaluated by using the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 software. Our aim was to compare the antioxidant results of 5 scab-resistant apple varieties, which change continuously during storage.
The antioxidant content of our apple varieties increased during 2 months storage. The best result was achieved by the Modí apple variety (FRAP: 467.32 mg/100g; TFC: 317.76 mg/100g; TPC: 1771.97 mg/100g). Consumers may want to consume apples stored for a longer period of time if they are to absorb large amounts of antioxidants.