Hungary has a rich history of soil analyses and soil mapping. Our main tasks today are the preservation of soil fertility as well as balancing the goals of production and environmental protection. The main requirement of agricultural production is to adapt to ecological and economic conditions.
In a series of consultative meetings in the pas
In Hungary, the use of inorganic fertilizers underwent a dynamic development, which manifested itself in an almost tenfold usage growth between 1960 and 1985. This growth slowed down somewhat between 1985 and 1990 and then reduced dramatically after 1990, reaching record lows at the usage levels of the 60s. The nutrient supply has had a negative balance for the last 15 years.
The increasing and then decreasing usage trends can equally be detected in the domestic yield averages of wheat and corn as well as in the nutrient supply of soils. Yields were the largest when usage levels were the highest, and decreased thereafter. Draughts have also contributed to smaller yields. The dramatic decrease in the use of inorganic fertilizers when adequate organic fertilizers are lacking endangers our soils’ fertility.
About 50% of soils in Hungary are acidic. Acidity is mostly determined by soil formation, but especially on soils with a low buffering capacity, this acidity may intensify due to inorganic fertilizers. Sustainable agriculture requires the chemical improvement of acidic soils. According to their y1 values, the majority of our acidic soils need to be improved. This chemical soil remediation is required in 15% of the acidic soils, while it’s recommended for another 20% of these soils.
Results of the analyses conducted in the framework of the soil-monitoring system set up in Hungary in 1992 show that in 95% of the analyzed samples, the toxic element content is below the allowable limit. Cultivated areas are not contaminated; toxicity above the legal level was found only in specific high-risk sampling areas: in the vicinity of industry, due to local overload. The basic principle of sustainable agriculture is to preserve soil fertility without undue strain on the environment. The intensity of the production needs to be considered according to the conditions of the site; i.e.; nutrient management needs to be site-specific. It is recommended to differentiate three types of cultivated land in terms of environmental sensitivity: areas with favorable conditions, endangered areas, and protected areas, and then to adopt nutrient management practices accordingly. To meet all the above-mentioned goals is impossible without systematic soil analysis. Tests conducted by the national monitoring system cannot replace regular field measurements.
In this research, the purple coneflower’s (Echinacea purpurea L.) nutrient requirement was examined under different fertilization conditions in a small plot experiment. We measured the medicinal plant’s raw and dry herb and root drug mass and drying loss under different fertilization settings and meteorological factors.
From the dru...g’s raw and dry mass perspective, based on the results, in our opinion, the control setting exceeded all nutrient settings’ results in 2016. In 2017 and 2018, the N75P100K150 nutrient setting has the biggest herb yield. As for the root yield, it was also the N75P100K150 setting which produced the biggest yield.
The Pearson's correlation test was performed to investigate the connection between the quantity of the raw, the dried herbs, the different nutrient settings and meteorological factors.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Nowadays the success vegetable and fruit production are unimaginable without regular nutrient management. The animal husbandry is getting decrease, thereby there is the lack of organic fertilizer and it is suggested to find alternative nutrient supply methods. One of the ways to supply the required nutrients in an environmentally friendly way is the application of composts, which is less widespread so far, which is appropriate for the requirement of organic farming.
During our research we investigated the marigold's (Calendula officinalis L.) nutrient requirements with different fertilization treatments in small-plot trial. We measured the harvested marigold's drug's raw and dry weight on a weekly basis from July 6th until August 17th. We were using SPME (Solid phase microextraction)...and GC-MS (gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer) to examined the effects of the different fertilization settings for the herb's main active ingredients of essential oil's percentage.
It was concluded, based on the results, the N30P40K60 fertilization setting is ideal in terms of the quantity of the marigold drug. Both the raw and the dry weights' measurements of the case, this fertilization setting have the most important effect on the herb's yield. The analysis of variance didn't show significant differences between the plots with different fertilization settings. We discovered relationship between the drying loss and the increasing quantities of nutrients. We think it may be possible the Alpha-thujon's and Alpha-cadinol's production and the drying loss's data are connected, which appear to confirm the N15P20K30 treatment's data.