Micropropagation of Leuce-poplar clones and its role in selection breeding43-48Views:144Leuce-poplars (mostly white poplar and its natural hybrid grey poplar) are native tree species trough Hungary. They are covering more than 4.0 per cent of the Hungarian forested area (77 000 ha). The white (grey) poplars play a significant role in the forestation under sandy soil site conditions as well as they are of importance from nature conservation point of view as well.Long-term selection breeding work is going on at the National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre Forest Research Institute (NARIC FRI), involving selection of fast-growing Leuce-poplar clones under dry site conditions.Micropropagation technology is relatively quickly spreading in forestry. In vitro multiplication of trees is applied mainly in fruit growing in Hungary, in case of forestry it is used mainly for selection breeding.This paper presents a short overview on the micropropagation trials with different Leuce-poplar clones and the early evaluation of the seedlings growing of the micropropagated clones/varieties.
Ecological value of wood energy plantations in the support of some animal groups143-148Views:21
Today, some environmental problems have reached such severe proportions that it is no longer enough to recognise them, but environmentally friendly solutions must be used to reduce them. The reduction in the area of natural forests of native species is causing problems in several ways.
This research aimed to highlight how environmental, conservation and economic interests can be reconciled. In addition to natural forests, wood energy plantations are becoming increasingly important. Energy import dependency is a problem for most countries, for which wood energy plantations can partly offer an alternative. Native forests can be protected, and their area increased where possible. Meanwhile, energy plantations can be established in areas with low agricultural productivity.
In this experiment, I studied a plantation of Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur), a Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) and a Paulownia (Paulownia Shan Tong). I selected burrowing birds and ground-dwelling arthropods as indicator groups. I did this by establishing a nesting colony and soil trapping. I wanted to demonstrate that, in addition to natural forests, wood energy plantations have a role not only in economic terms but also in maintaining certain animal groups. Soil trapping tests were carried out in all three tree plantations.
The obtained results showed that in the Paulownia plantation, the occupancy rate of nest boxes was almost 100%, while in the Black Locust plantation it was around 30%. Among the species that occupied the nesting sites, the Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) and the Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus) were more abundant, while Great Tit (Parus major) was present in the Black Locust plantation. These are opportunistic species for which nesting opportunity is the most important factor, since their feeding area (in the case of the Common Starling and the Eurasian Tree Sparrow) is not typical of the nesting area. The soil trap investigations show that there are no significant differences in the composition of the arthropod group (beetles, spiders) in the study areas.
Host plant preference of Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) (Hemiptera: Flatidae) in the north of Hungary84-95Views:211
Citrus flatid planthopper, a native insect to North America had for a long time a scarce economic importance there. However, being polyphagous made little damage on citrus trees and some ornamentals. In 1979 it was introduced to Italy where it established and spread quickly. It is now an invasive alien species continually spreading in South and Central Europe causing considerable damage in fruit crops and various ornamentals. Present study shows the results of a series of observations carried out from 2011 to 2015 at a number of habitats in north of Hungary. The pest could be found at each habitat but the hedge, the tree row, the gardens and the orchard/vineyard were the most infested. Frequency and population density of Metcalfa pruinosa were considerable on Asteraceae, Cannabaceae, Fabaceae, Juglandaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Sapindaceae. Typical vegetation could be functionally classified as ornamental plants, trees/shrubs, fruit plants, weeds and feral plants. Feral plants – some of them also invasive alien species – were found at each habitat. Plant species native to America were among them the most populated. As the hedgerows were neglected, and most gardens, orchards and vineyards abandoned, these are excellent conditions for the quick and long-lasting establishment of the pest as well as they may be reservoirs to infest cultivated fruit crops and ornamentals. The hedgerow was situated along a railway line. The length of similar hedges can be merely in Pest county several hundred km, which means M. pruinosa has plenty of opportunity for spreading along the railway and infest agricultural and ornamental cultures. On the surveyed alfalfa and maize fields, accidentally very few nymphs and adults were observed. Although, the population density of M. pruinosa was considerable on many hostplants, economic damage or yield losses could not be detected. Economic or significant damage was observed only on roses, raspberries and stinging nettle. This later is cultivated in Germany and Finland. The applied horticultural oil was efficient.