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Evaluation of mineral element content of beetroot during the different stages of the growing season
Published September 5, 2018
459-537

In modern nutrition, bioactive materials of different vegetables are especially important to be researched. The experiment was carried out on March 30, 2016 (sowing date). Mineral element content (B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Zn) was evaluated on the 60th, 85th and the 105th day of the vegetation period. The data are presented as the mean of... five varieties which can give the real state of these parameters of beetroot grown on lowland chernozem soil.

In the young beetroot leaves (60 days) the mineral element content was higher than in the older ones (85 days). The calcium and magnesium content of the leaves was much more favourable (10 times higher) than in the root. The potassium content of leaves has reached the amount of 5000 mg kg-1, but at the same time more than 3000 mg kg-1 was detected in the improved root. This value is favourable for the potassium supply of the human organism.

The sulphur content (1300 mg kg-1) of the leaves was the highest on the 85th day of vegetation period. Similar tendency was detected for boron content (2.45 mg kg-1), while for iron content it was higher (28.23 mg kg-1) in the younger leaves (60 days).

Finally, it can be concluded that the increased element content of beetroot leaves will be a favourable source of mineral element supply of the human organism.

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The effect of genotype and the location of sampling on the mineral content of wool
Published March 23, 2016
157-160

Mineral supplementation is very important in high producing farm animals. The estimation of exact mineral intake is very difficult in forage eating animals, like sheep. Accessing of long term mineral status seems to be possible using wool mineral analysis. However several factors can affect the results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to t...est the effect of breed and sampling location on the mineral content of sheep wool. 20 Dorper and 20 Tsigai sheep were chosen from the same farm. Samples were obtained from 3 locations (withers, side and quarter) and tested for 8 elements: Ca, Mg, Na, Co, Cu, P, S, Se , Zn. The samples were cleaned with ethyl alcohol from organic contamination, then after adding nitric acid were mineral analized using ultrasonic cleaning unit. The samples were analysed with ICP-OES (Perkin-Elmer, Optima 3300 DV). Statistical analyses were carried out by GLM procedure of SAS statistical analyses software. Differences between means were checked with Tukey-test. Significant breed differences were detected in the case of Mg, Na, S, Se in spite of the same feeding regime. The wool mineral content were within the reference range. The sampling location had no effect on the mineral content of wool.

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Effect of weather conditions on the protein content and baking value of winter wheat flour
Published May 23, 2006
83-94

We searched for connections between weather conditions (with its sub-parameters as precipitation and average temperature) and the yearly formation of two quality parameters (protein content and baking value) on three levels of mineral fertilization, based on the results of a variety comparison experiment on chernozem soil, to select those weath...er parameters and critical periods which have significant effects on the quality of winter wheat flour.
We established that the protein content of winter wheat flour can be increased with increasing levels of mineral fertilizers. Protein content is lower and has higher deviation during non-fertilized conditions in different cropping years than on higher fertilization levels. Thus, it seems proved again that quality (as protein content) is mainly formed by the crop year, but can be improved with adequate agricultural engineering (with mineral fertilization in the present case). The higher sum of precipitation in May, and the lower average temperature after flowering, have the highest increasing effect on the protein content of flour of the examined parameters. Based on the results of the examined period, the rainier and warmer term than average before flowering and lower – average amount of precipitation and colder circumstances are favourable for higher baking values. The analysis with data of decades, proves the importance of the first half of May and the middle of June as especially important periods for quality formation. An increasing nutrient supply has different effects on the varieties; mineral fertilization increased the baking value of GK Öthalom winter wheat variety in almost every case, but the second level of fertilization decreased it in half of the examined years. Additionally, mineral fertilization played a role in the stabilization of the quality of highlighted varieties.

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Comparative examination of a mineral fertiliser and a bacterial fertilizer on humic sandy soil
Published December 15, 2010
111-116

In our pot experiment, the impact of a bacterial fertilizer, Bactofil® A10 and a mineral fertilizer Ca(NO3)2 applied in different rates was studied on some soil chemical and microbiological characteristics of a humic sandy soil (Pallag). Perennial rye-grass (Lolium perenne L.) was used as a test-plant. Samples were collec...ted four and eight weeks after sowing in each year. The experiment was set up in 2007-2009 in the greenhouse of
the UD CASE Department of Agrochemistry and Soil Science. The available (AL-extractable) nutrient contents of soil, among the microbial parameters the total number of bacteria, the number of microscopic fungi, cellulose-decomposing and nitrifying bacteria, the sacharase and urease enzyme activity, as well as the soil respiration rate were measured.
Statistical analyses were made by means of the measurements deviation, LSD values at the P=0.05 level and correlation coefficients were calculated. Results of our experiment were summarised as follows:
− The readily available nutrient content of humic sandy soil increased as affected by the treatments, in case of the available (AL-extractable) phosphorus and potassium content the higher value was measured in high-dosage artificial fertilizer treatment.
− The treatments had also positive effect on several soil microbial parameters studied. The higher-dosage mineral fertilizer treatments had a beneficial effect on the total number of bacteria, cellulose-decomposing and nitrifying bacteria. No significant differences were obtained between the effect of treatment in case of the total-number of bacteria, the number of microscopic fungi and nitrifying bacteria.
− On the sacharase enzyme activity the artificial fertiliser treatments proved to be unambiguously stimulating, the urease activity significantly increased on the effect of the lower-dosage Ca(NO3)2 artificial fertilizer treatment. 
− The soil respiration increased in all treatments in related to the amounts applied, significantly increased in the highest rate of Ca(NO3)2 fertilizer addition. 
− Some medium and tight positive correlations were observed between the soil chemical and microbiological parameters studied in case of both nutrient sources. 
Summarizing our results, it was established that the organic and all the mineral fertilizer treatments had beneficial effects on the major soil characteristics from the aspect of nutrient supply. In majority of the examined soil parameters (AL-extractable phosphorus- and potassium, total number of bacteria, number of cellulose-decomposing and nitrifying bacteria, activity of sacharase enzyme) the high rate of Ca(NO3)2 mineral fertilizer treatment proved to be more stimulating, but at the same time the high rate bacterium fertilizer resulted in significant increases in
the nitrate-N content, the AL-potassium content of soil, the total number of bacteria, the number of cellulose-decomposing and nitrifying bacteria and the urease enyme activity. 
Our examinations showed that the mineral fertilizer treatments proved to be more stimulating on most of the soil parameters studied but according to our results, it was established that Bactofil is efficiently applicable in the maintenance of soil fertility and the combined application of
mineral fertilizer and bacterium fertilizer may be a favourable opportunity – also in aspect of the environmental protection – in maintaining soil fertility.

 

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Different soil fertility conditions depending on different land use methods
Published November 13, 2012
169-172

In precision nutrient management the most important aspect is adaptation but we should consider the possibility of the long-term improvement of soil fertility within the less fertile landscape zones.  This possibility can be evaluated principally by long-term field experiments, which are running on similar soil types. The results of these ...field experiments can indicate that which soil fertility status should be attained. Some more important soil fertility data, (such as pH, P-, K- and soil organic matter (SOM) content) of a long-term field  experiment with increasing farmyard manure(FYM) doses or equivalent NPK fertilizers, set up on an Eutric cambisol, are presented. The yieldincreasing capacity of FYM doses was only 82%, as compared to the equivalent amount of mineral NPK, but long-term FYM treatments resulted in 10% higher SOM content than that of equivalent NPK
fertilizer doses. The studies indicate that SOM content is a function of local climate and clay content of the soil, and neither long-term high FYM doses can increase SOM content steadily above a supposed steady-state value. However we have to make efforts to keep the optimum level. The lowest soil reactions developed both with the highest NPK doses and without any fertilization. AL-P2O5 content of soil was increased more by mineral fertilization than by FYM treatments, but in case of AL-K2O content there was no difference between the fertilization variants. However the highest doses of both fertilization  variants increased soil nutrient content to an excessive degree. Wecould get very valuable data from the unfertilized control plots as well, where long-term yield data suppose 48 kg ha-1 year-1 air-borne N-input.

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The effect of wool staple length on the mineral content using the same sheep feeding regime
Published August 29, 2017
97-100

The wool of sheep is suitable to test the mineral supply; however, a number of factors could affect the results. The growth rate and length of staple can be very different according to season, physiological state and individual variation. These factors are likely to affect the quantity of minerals accumulated into the wool. Therefore, the purpo...se of this research was to examine whether there is a difference between the mineral content of wool nearly reached the full staple length and the freshly grown wool using the same feeding regime.
10 Tsigai pregnant sheep have been selected randomly from the same farm. Wool samples were obtained from the withers, side and quarter with bended scissors. Samples were mineralized using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide using ultrasonic cleaning unit. P, Ca, Mg, Na, S, Cu,Se and Zn content were determined by ICP-OES. Statistical analyses were carried out by SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) GLM procedure.Differences between means were tested by Tukey test. Significantly lower Ca, Na, P, Zn values were found in case of intensively grown wool. Sampling location did not affect the mineral content. Herd mineral supply was adequate. Our results suggest that intensively grown wool samples have to be used for mineral analyses.

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Correlation between cultivation methods and quality in some vegetable species
Published November 13, 2012
313-317

Quality parameters of 5 table root varieties were tested on 3 sowing dates with different cultivation methods: open field on 15 April and 9 July 2010 and under plastic tents on 19 August. The highest red pigment content (betanin) was measured in the varieties Akela and Mona Lisa (~ 80 mg 100 g-1) of the second (July) crop. This crop ...is in general use in Hungary. In comparison, in the late sown varieties (August, under plastics) a further pigment increase (10–20 mg 100 g-1) was observed in the same varieties as related to the earlier sowing dates. Yellow pigments (vulgaxanthins) showed similar trends. Roots of the late sowing date (with harvest in December) contained the highest vulgaxanthin values (103.3–124.18 mg kg-1).
Varieties reacted differently to temperature changes during the production period and thus to sugar accumulation. In the second crop (July) higher water soluble solids content was measured on the average of varieties (10.12%) in comparison to the April sowing (7.76%). Beetroots of the spring sowing are recommended for fresh market while the second (July) crop with autumn harvest can satisfy industry requirements. Late sowing under unheated plastic tents supply us with fresh beetroot in late autumn and early winter and prolong the usability of plastic tents. 
Six lettuce species/subspecies were tested in the open field and under plastic tents in 3 repetitions for nitrate nitrogen, vitamin-C, polyphenol (gallus acid equivalent – mg GAE 100 g-1) and mineral element (Ca, K, Mg, Na) contents. Our measurements showed lower nitrate nitrogen values under plastic than in the open field (89.10± 8.13 and 127.06±14.29 mg kg-1) on the average of genotypes. Lettuce grown in the field had higher vitamin-C content (1.4 mg%) which is nearly 50% more than in plants under plastic. The highest polyphenol content was found in samples from the field with a conspicuous value of 804.17±56.47 mg GAE 100 g-1 in Piros cikória. Samples grown under plastic were richer in mineral elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na) which can be explained by the higher nutrient content of the soil. In this environment superior Mg content was observed in Edivia (4616.33±
311.21 mg kg-1). 

Besides the well- known headed lettuce, Piros cikória (Red chicory),the red leaved Lollo Rossa and Tölgylevel (Oak leaf lettuce) should be
mentioned which well deserve further testing in order to supply us with nourishing, healthy food. 

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Effect of the fertilization on some quality parameters of winter wheat
Published December 15, 2010
105-110

We studied the different mineral fertilizer rates effect on the baking quality of five different winter wheat genotypes (GK Öthalom, Lupus, KG Széphalom, GK Békés, Mv Mazurka) on chernozom soil in 2008.
The bigger fertilizer doses increased the wet gluten content, gluten elasticity and the protein content. The high doses of fertilization... has got a moderate effect on the valorigaph value, water absorption, and falling number. The optimum level of the fertilizer doses were the N90-120+PK.
The Pearson’s correlation analysis proved strong relationships between the fertilization and gluten content, the quality of the gluten, a valorigraph value, and the protein content. The analysis verified a strong correlation between genotype and falling number, and the protein content.
The variety Mv Mazurka has got the best baking quality parameters.

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Change of soil nitrogen content in a long term fertilization experiment
Published March 5, 2015
39-44

The most important aim of sustainable agriculture is to ensure our natural resources – such as soils – protection, which includes fertility preservation and the use of appropriate methods of cultivation.

If we want to get accurate information about the occurred changes, way and danger of changes, we should track the resupply and eff...ect of the mineral nutrients and the removed quantity of nutrients with the harvest.

Nitrogen is an essential element for living organisms and it is present in the soil mainly in organic form. In general only a low percentage of the total nitrogen content can be used directly by plants in the soil. The mineral nitrogen is incorporate by plants into our bodies. This inorganic nitrogen is produced by the transformation of organic contents through mineralization processes and it gets into the soil by fertilization. This is how nitrogen turnover occurs when mineral forms become organic and organic forms become mineral.

The objective of this publication was to introduce – through some element s of nitrogen turnover- how changing the properties of soil in a long term fertilization experiment.

We established that the fertilization is influenced the soil pH. With the increase of fertilization levels increased the acidity of the soil, maybe it is related with the number of nitrification bacteria. The fertilization and the rotation affected to the quantity of nitrate.

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Change of mineral and organic nitrogen forms in a long term fertilization experiment (literature)
Published March 11, 2014
43-47

The research topic has timeliness, since the rational utilization and protection of the soil, besides the conservation of its diverse functions is part of the sustainable development. Research of the long-term experiments is esentially important, because it can model the term effects in the same place, under the same conditions. If we want to g...et accurate informations about the occured changes, way and danger of changes, we should track the resupply and effect of the mineral nutrients and the removed quantity of nutrients with the harvest. Nitrogen is an essential element for living organisms, it is present in the soil mainly in organic form. In general only only a low percentage of the total nitrogent content can be used directly by plants in the soil. This inorganic nitrogen is produced by the transformation of organic contents through mineralization processes and it get into the soil by the fertilization. The plants incorporote the mineral nitrogen into our bodies. This is how nitrogen turnover is realized when mineral forms become organic and organic forms become mineral.

The purpose of our paper is to make a literature before our research.

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Energy crops on less favoured (alkaline) soil
Published November 13, 2012
115-118

The reduction in fossil energy and row material sources induces growing demand for renewable resources. The growing demand for herbal raw materials has land use impacts as well. One way to reduce the conflict between the food and energy crops can be the utilization of less favored areas by growing energy crops. Among the potentially available a...reas for this purpose the salt affected soils (SAS) occupy a significant territories. SAS with structural B-horizon (meadow solonetz soils) represent the most wide spread group of SAS in Hungary. About half of these soils have been reclaimed and used as arable land and the remaining 50% are used as grassland. Sweet sorghum production for manufacturing of alcohol production was investigated in a long term amelioration and fertilization experiment on a salt affected soil (meadow solonetz). By means of regression analyzes the effect of sodium content of the soil and increasing mineral fertilizer doses were studied. According to the multiple regression analysis only the effect of nitrogen fertilizer was significant. On the solonetz type salt affected soil the effect of water soluble salt content of the soil was not significant, but there was a closer correlation between the ammonium-lactate sodium content and the yield of sweet sorghum. The maximum green mass was 45–50 t ha-1, in the case of low Na content and high level of nitrogen fertilization.

In order to quantify the potential yield of natural grass vegetation the relationship between the soil forming processes and the grass vegetation
was investigated. Beyond the different forms of Na-accumulation, the spatial pattern (mosaic-like characteristic) is also an inseparable feature of salt affected soils. The difference in the water regime, caused by the micro-relief is the main cause of variability. The run-on water keeps the deeper parts of the catena position wet longer. The wet situation causes more intensive leaching. In the low-laying parts of salt affected soils species preferring wet situations (mainly Alopecurus pratensis) are in majority. On the higher parts of the micro-relief species tolerating dry situations (mainly Festuca  pseudovina) are dominant. The yearly grass production of low laying areas can be 4–7 t ha-1 but because of prolonged wet  conditions the grass is not grazed and mowing can only be in old state. This old grass is not proper for feeding, but it may be suitable as energy plant. 

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Effects of cultivar and fertilization on extensograph parameters of winter wheat flours
Published December 15, 2010
19-24

In present paper we have examined the effect of mineral fertilization on the extensograph characteristics of wheat-flours. The baking quality of winter wheat is largely determined by cultivar, but it can be influenced by fertilization. Flours were from 4 cultivars grown at six nitrogen fertilizer. The average flour protein content of cultivars ...was very different (11.8, 13.0, 14.3, and 13.07%, respectively). We have found that the extensograph
properties of dough are affected by mineral fertilization, nevertheless, different cultivars distinctly react to the increase of fertilizer doses. We estimates the correlation between flour protein content and extensograph properties, based on our investigations, it became obvious that the correlation between flour protein content and extensograph parameters is really strong.

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Effect of soil-compost proportion on the abiotic and biotic parameters of soilplant system
Published December 15, 2010
99-104

The environmental awareness, coming to the front in the 21st century, motivates us to supply the plant nutrient demand (in point of the plant, the environment and the human health) with natural materials.
Composting is known since the beginning of civilization. We came to know more the processes of composting as a result of last d...ecades’ research, but numerous unexplained questions remained up to this day. The good compost is dark gray or brown, and it should not create an odor. It has aggregate structure, and it’s pH is neutral. Compost is soil-like (Fehér, 2001), nutrient-rich material, which contains valuable nutrients extracted from soil, so if we recycle this, we can decrease the chemical fertilizer and other (example: mineral energy) expenses.
The reason of that we chose the more accurate cognition of compost utilization is to do more effective the site-specific nutrient supply. This increases the average yield and the quality of yield. Besides we can decrease the harmful effects, which endanger the plant, the environment, and the human body.
During the compost utilization experiment we blended the  acid sandy soil with compost in 4 different volumetric proportions (5 treatments) than we set the pots randomized. The advantage of this method is that we can provide equal conditions for plants so we can measure the effect of  treatments correctly. Our experimental plant was ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), that grows rapidly, tolerates the glasshouse conditions, and indicates the effect of treatments well. After the harvest of ryegrass we measured the fresh and dry weight of harvested leaves and the total C-, N-, S-content of the dry matter and of the soil, we examined the pH and the salt concentration of  soil as well. 
Our aim was to study and evaluate the relations between the compost-soil proportion and the nutrient content of soil and plant. In our previous experiments we confirmed (based on variance analyses) that the compost has a beneficial effect on soil and increases the nutrient content of the soil (Szabó, 2009). But it’s important to appoint that the compound of compost is seasonally change: in winter the selective gathered municipal solid waste contains salt that were applied for non-skidding of roads, but salt has a negative effect to the plant. We proved that in our experiment the 25/75% compost/soil proportion was ideal for the plant. This content of compost effected 6 times higher green matter weight compared to the 100% sandy soil. 

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Investigation of the Quality of Winter Wheat in a Sulphur Fertilisation Experiment, 2001/2002
Published May 11, 2003
153-156

We have started a small parcell and a factorial S fertilization experiment with winter wheat in the 2001/2002 cropping year to examine its effect on yield and quality. The scene of experiment was the Latokep Experimental Station of the DE ATC (calcareous chernozeem) in case of small parcell examination and the Agricultural Company of Felsőzsol...ca (brown forest soil) in case od factorial examination.
The protein and gluten content of the grain was investigated with PerCon Inframatic 9001 NIR Analyser, then we have measured these parameters with PerCon 8620 infra appliance. After the milling we measured the following parameters: glutenindex, farinographic parameters (farinographic index, water absorption capacity, dough development time, stability, softening, extension) and valorigraphic index.
Based on the results there’s no justified relation between the fertilization and the protein and gluten content. The valorigraphic index of the samples taken from Felsőzsolca factory characteristically increased as a result of the S-fertilization. In the small-parcell experiment the values of the water absorption capacity, the dough development time and the softening parameters from the valorigrphic parameters depended significantly from the mineral treatments. Signifikant quality improvement wasn’t experieced.
There was sampling in all of critical phenophase (…). The green plant samples were examined on element content with ICP-OES. These measurements are currently in progress.

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Determination methods of quality parameters of Prunus cerasus
Published May 16, 2017
107-111

Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) is a non-climacteric fruit. Storage optimization would enable the expansion of fresh consumption. The quality parameters are required for storage optimization. Those parameters are sugar content, acid composition, mineral content and alcohol content,
moreover it is also planned to determine antioxidants, vitamins... and patulin mikotoxin under different conditions. In this paper, we demonstrate the measurement options of these parameters.

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Variation of boza nutrition parameters based on raw materials
Published February 3, 2016
67-70

Boza is a ceral based fermented drink. Raw material of boza could be rise, millet, wheat and rye. Because of the diversity of raw materilas and the method of fermentation boza might show varied quality and nutrition value.

Nowadays healthy and conscious nutrition are playing more and more important roles in our lives. People pay an ever... growing attention to the nutrition value of products, such as protein- and sugar content, components with antioxidant properties, and the mineral content of the products. In our research we wanted to know how the protein,-, sugar-, total polifenol-, mikro- and macro element content of products change.

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Effect of mineral fertilizers with different sulphur content on the yield of winter wheat in a small plot experiment
Published November 2, 2009
97-100

We can find more and more references on the importance of sulphur and sulphur fertilization, mainly in the case of most important field crops, as cereals, maize, and the oilseeds. The traditional sulphur sources continuously lost their importance by the stringent air pollution orders and nowadays they are not able to meet the demands of plants.... Besides, the application of superphosphate, as phosphorus mineral fertilizer, decreased in several countries. Sulphur fertilization is required in most cases to reach the required yields and quality parameters. The lack of
sulphur causes decreased nitrogen utilization and yield by cereals as winter wheat, moreover, results less favourable baking parameters.
We have examined the N and S content of different parts of winter wheat plants in a small plot experiment at the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences, Látókép Experimental Station. We have also studied the effect of different sulphur fertilization forms and doses on the baking quality parameters and yield. Our aim was to contribute to the development of yield and quality improving sulphur fertilization methods, adaptable by practice.
We have measured the lowest yield in the case of one of the control plots, and 100 kg/ha nitrogen, 80 kg/ha potassium and 70 kg/ha phosphorus nutrient supply resulted the lowest yield (8.7 kg/plot). The maximum yield, 10.2 kg/plot was also experienced on superphosphate fertilized plot by the application of 140 kg/ha phosphorus dose. Application the first dose of both Biofert and FitoHorm 32 S leaf fertilizers raised the yield from
9.1 to 9.9 kg/plot. ANOVA proved that Biofert and FitoHorm 32 S had no significant effect on the amount of yield, the increase is only a tendency.

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The effect of compost application on physical properties of sandy soil
Published February 10, 2013
67-70

The sewage sludge compost is suitable to improve the colloid-poor sandy soils, which are common characteristics of poor water- and nutrientholding capacity. The general characteristics of sandy soils are the light mechanical composition, the low content of humus and mineral colloids, large pore size and a bad aggregate stability. They have a po...or nutrient supply capacity, due to its high porosity the organic matter is degraded very quickly to mineral colloids (Stefanovits et al., 1999).

By the compost application the soil is enriched mineral and organic colloids, thereby improving the soil structure. The effect of addition of compost to soil the water- and nutrient-holding capacity and porosity could be increased and the bulk density could be decreased (Martens and Frankenberger, 1992).

The aim of our experiment is to carry out physical measurements to determine the effects of compost treatment. In this study the results of the first year are presented.

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The effects of fertilization on the protein related properties of winter wheat
Published March 20, 2013
67-69

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The yield and quality of wheat are mainly determined by the plant production system, thus we studied the effect of mineral fertilization.

The field trials were set up in 1983 at the Látókép Research Institute of the University of Debrecen. We examined effect of different Nfertilizer doses (60 kg ha-1 N/P/K, 120 kg ha-1 N/P/K) on Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag's protein properties in 2012. During the tests, three quality parameters were determined: wet gluten content (%), wet gluten spread (mm/h) and gluten index (%). In the experiment the effect of different doses of N-fertilizers significantly influenced by the wet gluten content and gluten index of Lupus.

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Effects of different groundcover matters on nutrient availability in an integrated apple orchard in Eastern-Hungary
Published November 3, 2010
21-25

The aim of our study is to examine the effects of different groundcover methods on nutrient availability and uptake of apple orchard. The
experiment was carried out at the orchard of TEDEJ Rt. at Hajdúnánás-Tedej, in Eastern Hungary. The orchard was set up on lowland chernozem soil in the Nyírség region. It was established in the autumn... of 1999, using Idared cultivar grafted on MM106 rootstocks at a spacing of 3.8 x 1.1 m.
The applied treatments were divided into two groups according to origins and effects. On the one hand, different livestock manures (cow,
horse and pig), on the other hand different mulch-matters (straw, pine bark mulch, black foil) were used. The different manures and mulches
were applied on the surface to test the effectiveness of these materials.
The effectiveness of manure treatments was higher than the other treatments on AL soluble P content of soil. Mostly the manure treatments
increased the AL soluble K of soil. Our all treatments increased 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble NO3 - -N content of the examined soil layers. The effect
of manure treatments was the highest. From the results it was evident that the amount of easily soluble organic nitrogen fraction distributed
more homogeneously than the other mineral N fractions examined.
Our results can be summarized as follows:
1. Our results pointed out that the used ground covering matters divided into several categories regarding its effect.
2. The available N, P and K contents of soil were mostly increased by applying manures.
3. The effectiveness of straw, mulch and mostly black foil was lower.
4. Differences were found between nutrient supplying treatments and the treatments which did not supply nutrients.

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The Effect of the Mineral Content of the Leg-Horn and the Age of Sheep on the Mechanical Parameters of the Horn
Published May 11, 2003
42-45

Species and individual animals with hard leg-horn have higher resistance against foot diseases. The reason for this is the fact, that bacteria can penetrate the hard leg-horn with more difficulty than the soft leg-horn, and in this way it is also more difficult for them to cause an illness. From among the mechanical parameters of the leg-horn t...he P = 0.1% negative linear correlation between the hardness and the water contents of the horn is significant. There is a positive linear correlation between the shock resistance and the water contents of the leg-horn. In the case of air-dry horn (with less than 8% water contents) there is a positive linear correlation between the Ca- and Zn contents as well as the Ca:P ratio and the hardness of the horn. The results suggest that the wider the Ca:P ratio of the horn, the harder the horn is, while the water content is the same. The leg-horn of the Hungarian Merino ewes have larger Ca contents and wider Ca:P ratio than juvenile animals have. This is why the juvenile animals with a softer leg-horn can be more susceptive to foot diseases than the older animals.

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The possibility of use of the 0,01 M CaCl2 and Baker- Amacher extractants for the determination of plantavailable potassium
Published November 2, 2009
7-15

The Hungarian fertilizing recommendation systems use AL soil test for the evaluation of potassium supply. The 0.01 M CaCl2 is a definitely milder extractant, it extracts the easily soluble and exchangeable potassium amount. Its European introduction was already taken into consideration in 1994. The research project on this topic is s...tarted in several european countries, also in Hungary at the Department of Agricultural Chemisty of Agricultural University of Debrecen. Another advantage this multielement method is that the different element-ratios can also be calculated.
The Baker-Amacher extractant’s principle is that it contains a known amount of K, P, Mg in the CaCl2 solution. During the soil extraction adsorption and desorption process take place, so the adsorption or desorption can be calculated from the original and the final concentrations.
In this paper we introduce the results of comparing analysis of the samples (n=630) from Soil Information and Monitoring System. Our aim was to measure the use of new extractants beside conventional extractant (AL) for the evaluation of K-supply would be reasonable.
It can be stated that there is a medium close relationship (r=0.75) between AL-K and 0.01 M CaCl2-K. My calculations confirmed the results of  former examinations, and proved that the two extractants don’t extract and change the same rate of K-fractions. We found that regression  between 0.01 M CaCl2 and AL depend on texture classes, pH classes, amount of lime, and organic matter content of soils.
Comparing the relations between AL and Baker-Amacher we find relatively loose correlation (r=0.45). We stated that there are K-fixing soils among soils considered to be well supplied with potassium by AL. This might be caused by the high amount of mineral clay and the quality of mineral clay. We stated that the dK averages show that the Hungarian nutrient-supply categories characterize generally well K-supplement of soil.
It can be stated that it would be necessary to use new extractants to specify evaluation of plant available K. We found that the 0.01 M CaCl2 and Baker-Amacher extractants could complete usefully the AL procedure and could help effective potassium fertilization.

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Examination of the element content of beers
Published March 11, 2014
117-121

Beer is a complex mixture of more than 800 several components, the most important ones are the minerals from this. Minerals originate especially from water and malt. In this work we measured the mineral contents of some own-brewed beer samples. We compared the results with the mineral contents of the water used as raw material of beer.

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Macro element contents of different genotype cows’ milk
Published December 1, 2010
27-31

The level of mineral elements is important factor regarding the quality of milk. The aim of our research study was to determine the content of mineral elements in milk of Holstein, Jersey, Brown Swiss, Ayrshire, Norwegian-red, Swedish-red cows in the first stage of lactation. All cows were fed with the same type (composition) of feed and they w...ere kept under the same condition. The concentration of macroelements (K, Na, Ca, P, Mg, S) in digested milk samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).

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Applicability of hyperspectral technology for in situ phytoremediation
Published October 10, 2008
71-78

The characterization of heavy metal polluted abandoned mining sites is a complicated assignment due to the variable spatial distribution of the pollutants, therefore complex integrated method is required in order to assess precisely the amount and the distribution of the contaminants. The examined area is flotation sludge reservoir of abandoned... Pb-Zn mining site with serious heavy metal contamination. located in Gyöngyösoroszi, Northern Hungary.
The hyperspectral image of the flotation sludge is obtained by using a Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer DAIS 7915, in the frame of DLR HySens first Hungarian hyperspectral flight campaign (21/08/2002). Parallel to the flight campaign heavy metal content of soil samples were examined from the area of the flotation sludge. The analysis of hyperspectral data was verified by the examination of mine tailing samples by FPXRF (Field Portable X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry) (NITON XL-703).
Determinations of heavy metal containing minerals are based on the spectral profiles of the pixels of the area with using USGIS standard spectral profiles of the examined materials (galena, pyrite, sphalerite, goethite and jarosit).

Applying the Spectral Angle Mapper with BandMax classification the distribution of minerals (galena, pyrite, sphalerite, goethite, jarosit) in the area was defined. The mineral formation occurs especially at the levees and the barren places of the Szárazvölgyi flotation sludge reservoir. Based on the statistic results of the samples, principal component analysis and correlation coefficient between the different metal content of the samples were calculated. The highest correlations were found between Pb-Zn, Fe-Zn and between Fe-Pb. This prove the results of the principal component analysis, where usually Pb, Zn, Fe introduce the main component.

Canopy analysis was also carried out with the hyperspectal image in order to classify the differences between vegetation types at the Szárazvölgy flotation sludge reservoir and analyse the applicability of it. Supervised classification methods were used to distinguish 8 vegetation types based on the spectral properties of the area. The results of the classifications were compared to a ground truth image, based on ortophoto, topographic map, and GPS based field data collection. According to results of the comparison, the paralellpiped classification method is proved to be appropriate method based on the overall accuracy of canopy classification, which was 54% due to heterogeneity of the vegetation. 

The results of hyperspectral data and FPXRF analysis suggest that Pb, Zn and Fe containing minerals have similar spatial distribution in the examined and barren area.

Based on this study hyperspectral remote sensing is likely to be an effective tool for the characterization and modeling the distribution of Pb, Zn and Fe containing minerals at the examined heavy metal polluted sites. Further more, based on the vegetation analysis plant species for phytoremediation can be defined.

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