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Physical and chemical treatment of poultry feather from the slaughter-house
Published December 22, 2010
51-56

The 15-20% of the by-products of meat – and poultry industry – that unsuitable for human consumption – contains keratin. The slaughter technology of poultry produces large amount of poultry feather with 50-70% moisture content. This means more million tons annually worldwide (Williams et al., 1991; Hegedűs et al., 1998). The keratin cont...ent of feather can be difficulty digested, so physical, chemical and/or biological pretreatment is needed in practice, which has to be set according to the utilization method.
Our applied treatments were based on biogas production, which is a possible utilization method. In the IFA (TULLN) Environmental Biotechnology Institute the feather was homogenized, and – according to the previous examinations – the most effective 1:2 feather-distilled water ratio or 1% NaOH-solution was used, and then treated with microwave (70, 130, 160 °C) during 1 hour time period. DM% and oDM% content was analyzed in the original samples, and the pH, Carbon-, Nitrogen-content in the output, too. Based on the received correlation coefficients (R) and related significance values (Sig.) I concluded, that the C-, N-content and the pH values weren’t influenced by any of the additives. The temperature
affected all three tested factors. The temperature showed a strong coherency with the N-content and the pH value when distilled water was used and weak-medium coherency with the Carboncontent. With NaOH-solution treatment the temperature gave strong coherency with the C- and N-content, as well as medium coherency with the pH. Our objective was to determine the method with effectively the pre-treating of poultry feather for biogas production or composting and to prepare of the treated samples for N and C analyzing. Our next aims will be the elaboration of the technological parameters of heat pre-treatment and microbial digestion of poultry feather for biogas production. 

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Novel Applications of Microwave Techniques in the Food and Environmental Industries
Published March 4, 2005
29-34

During the microwave processing, despite the conventional heating, the material heats consistently inside. This property of microwave is utilized by drying and dehydration processes. The thermal sensitivity of raw materials of food industry requires development of gentle, fast and controllable technologies, which is realizable by means of combi...nation of conventional and microwave techniques. The other important application area of the microwave technique is food industrial practice is enhancing the microbial safety of products, mainly by pasteurization processes. In recent time the strict environmental regulation necessitate developing more effective treatment of wastes, waste waters and sewage sludge. Because a part of these techniques are heat and power demanded, the microwave technique may be an alternative process in execution of sludge conditioning, drying or gasification and pyrolysis.

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