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The Valuation System of the National Land Fund
Published December 6, 2005
317-323

The aim of establishing a National Land Fund was to realise the rational management of land property belonging to the Hungarian State, to assist in the realisation of estate political directives, and also to support the development of a modern property structure based on family farms. During this 3 years operation the National Land Fund has bec...ome the major player of the Hungarian land market. It has arranged land trades totaling 15,000 hectares, which makes 50% of total related turnover. The NLF created the reason for the existence of land as credit security with the provision of security of mortgage credits. National Land Fund has written co-operation contracts with 11 commercial banks in order to provide long-term agricultural mortgage with the background of land security. NLF has issued almost 1,000 conditional declarations of land purchase to the banks, helping the credit system of agricultural companies.
The valuation system „TÉR” created by the National Land Fund, is a many-sided, flexible system adjusted to Hungarian conditions. This evaluation system can determine the value of land in a reliable way. NLF built further controls into the process with the co-operation of independent revisers providing real determination of land value.

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Marginalisation and Multifunctional Land Use in Hungary
Published December 14, 2004
50-61

Our study prepared as a brief version of National Report in the frame of EUROLAN Programme. We deal with the interpretation of some definitions (marginalisation of land use, multifunctionality of land use, marginalisation of agriculture, multifunctionality of agriculture), with sorting and reviewing indicators of marginalisation and finally wit...h the analysis of functions of land use. We suggested a dynamic and a static approach of marginalisation. We can explore the dynamic process by time series and the static (regional) one by cross-section analyses.
It is very hard to explain the perspective of the future of marginalisation of land and of agriculture in Hungary. The process of marginalisation seems faster in the agriculture in the coming years, but it depends on the utilisation of new possibilities given by the EU financial resources and by the Common Market. At this moment agriculture seems one of the big losers of the accession.
In the long term we should face considerable challenges in the land use. It is necessary to take into account that there is a supply market of foods and traditional fibre production world-wide. There are limited possibilities to produce and to market for example biodiesel (fuel), bioethanol, or maybe biogas. Thus the environment and landscape preservation becomes more and more real land use alternatives.
The environmental interpretation of the multifunctionality of land use: activities (functions) of environmental preservation and nature conservation in a certain area, which aim to preserve natural resources by the existing socio-economic conditions.
Preservation of rural landscapes is the task mainly for land-users, who can be commanded by legal means and can be encouraged by economic measures to carry out the above activity. In the recent past measures of „command and control” type regulation were predominant, however nowadays, especially in the developed countries, the role of economic incentives increases.
As a conclusion of our analysis we can state that as long as the main land-dependent activities (agriculture, forestry, housing, tourism, local mining) cease to be viable under an existing socio-economic structure, then it is hardly possible to sustain the rural landscape on an appropriate level by non-commodity products (such as environment preservation, cultural heritage, nature conservation, employment etc.).
1 The study was prepared in the frame of EUROLAN (EU-5 Framework Project), QLK5-CT-2002-02346, as a compiled version of the Hungarian National Report, The national project co-ordinator: Prof. Dr. Gabor Szabo.
A part of places with high ecological values coincides with the areas with unfavourable agricultural endowments and underdeveloped micro-regions. We think so that the marginalisation preserves the non-environmental-sound activities and hinders the development of multifunctional agriculture and this process can change only by joint utilisation of endogenous and exogenous resources and methods. Thus the successful programmes for agri-environmental protection and multifunctional land use can serve the moderation of negative effects of marginalisation or maybe the marginalisation process itself.

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Connections between land usage, property structure and agricultural enterprises in Hungary
Published May 23, 2006
31-34

The last decade of Hungarian agriculture was marked and changes which affected all parts of agricultural production. This process resulted in a new ownership and organisation structure. The paper presents the effects of the changes in ownership on land use and the various enterprise forms and intends to outline the main tendencies. In general, ...it can be stated that the role of agriculture in GDP production and employment is decreasing in Hungary, but according to concurrent opinions of experts, agriculture still has and will have a major role in income production and the ease of social tensions in rural areas in the future as well. Hungary’s accession to the European Union provides new chances and new prospects for Hungarian agriculture and rural areas. Hungarian agriculture became a part of the internal market which includes about 450 million people. The safety of marketing became stronger, the rate of financial support is increasing and the income of growers will increase in the future. This process implies more obligations and the keeping of strict regulations. Competition inside the internal market is intensifying, competitiveness will be more important while the chances of development and investment of the growers and the feasibility of more effective land use are increasing. After the accession, integration into the directives formulated in the CAP and the packages of measures accepted in it is framework have growing importance.
These directives encourage farm-reallocation, namely the rational estate concentration. In general, it can be stated that rational estate concentration, and more effective land use as a consequence, will increase the efficiency of agricultural production.

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Energy forests or vineyards?
Published October 5, 2010
237-240

This paper primarily aims at giving an introduction to an alternative opportunity for vineyards owners many of whom have come to a
decision about elimination of their vineyards. The paper is focusing on the Mátra wine-region as a study area, which is the largest mountain
wine region in Hungary where more than one third of supported clear...ing of vineyards have been implemented in the last few years. The
abandoning of vineyards is explicable in more than one way such as very small average size of land or the increasing mean age of owners
etc. The fundamental reason is the chronic doubtfulness of the grape and wine market and the low level of overall profitability of production.
Grape production has a long tradition in this region, thus the disappearance of vineyards caused serious problems in land use through the
absolute lack of plans for the future. The popularity of biomass production in the press and the biofuel resultant from vine stocks raise
interest for short rotation forestry within a group of farmers. Short rotation forestry offers a new chance for some farmers to cut oneself adrift
from the harmful effects of the market of agricultural products.

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Possibilities of Corn Seed Commercialization on the Hungarian Market in 2003
Published May 4, 2004
166-169

According to the sales results of the past two years we can draw the conclusion that although the Hungarian hybrids have very good capabilities, they are still in a big disadvantage in the corn seed sales sector, considering other foreign varieties. These above mentioned disadvantages, as published in prior essays, are not because of the variet...y’s low quality, but the lack or little presence of marketing. In order to gain position and market on the seed sales sector in Hungary, a lot more has to be done in the area of advertisement.
Seed advertising is very particular and different from all other types of goods. To make growers familiar with your product, you have to be in continuous contact with them, through field days, exhibitions and presentations, besides the well known and in other areas also used quotidian advertisement methods.
Although Hungarian breeders reach better and better results each year, they still cannot catch up with the multinational companies spending millions of dollars on development and advertising, thanks to their financial position.
Finally we can state that choosing the appropriate variety for our needs and possibilities of land and machinery is of great importance in order to reach the best results we can.

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Relationships of Fruit Production and Regional Development in the Northern Great Plain Region
Published December 6, 2005
181-187

The role of retaining population in agriculture is stronger and more significant in the long run in the North Great Plain Region compared to other regions. The region has a significant processing industry along with a good basis for producing raw materials, developed food processing capicity and high quality agricultural products typical of the... region. The GDP in agriculture, forestry and game management is somewhat higher than the national average.
Variety is of cardinal importance when establishing the quality of horticultural products and determining the product value. The Hungarian breeding results of apple, quince, apricot, cherry, raspberry, red and black currant are promising.
The regulation system of EU the vegetable and fruit market is based on Retail Cooperatives Producers. With the establishment of national vegetable- and fruit production and retail organizations, the market regulation, production and quality development issues of the sector can be handled and solved. Reaching EU standards in fruit production can only be achieved with up-to-date plantation systems and breed selection. A key issue in development is establishing the required financial resources for investments and updating production. In order to reach these standards, significant state subsidies and good credit conditions are needed. By solving these tasks, the sector is expected to become self-financed without government help.
The pursuit of safer production, improving quality and increasing yields require the establishment of up-to-date irrigation systems. The improvement of family farms, motivating land concentration is necessary for increasing average size of plants. Establishing the above mentioned conditions is important since the vegetable-fruit sector is of great significance in the employment of rurally based population, improving their living conditions and executing rural development programs.

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Bioenergy production: are the objects realistic??
Published July 28, 2008
53-58

Currently we do not have the possibility to define our energy reserves, since we do not know the magnitude of extant material resources. The known petroleum (crude) supply will be sufficient for about 100 years at the longest, and according to the latest estimates in 2008 we will reach and even exceed the maximum level of oil extraction, and af...ter this it is going to decrease.
Hungary has good givens to go upon the way of sustainable energy economy according to experts, however a coherent government policy that lasts for not just one period is essential, and a sound economic- and agricultural policy is needed as well. According to the FVM’s under-secretary in Hungary more than 1 million hectares can be disposable for energy crop production. This would mean that 20 percent of the fields would be taken away from food production and on these fields energy crops would be grown. But we also have to take into consideration that the increase in energy plant production could happen at the expense of food production. If we would like to ensure the food for Hungary’s population from national sources we have to make calculations in determining energy need. In my research I set out the objective to determine the level of that specific turnover and marginal cost which supports the profitability of grain cultivation. With these indicators it is possible to analyze the economy and competitiveness of growing energy crops in the region of the North Plain. The alternatives of using cereals and rational land use should be also considered. A developing bio-fuel program can be a solution for the deduction of excess grain that is typical in Hungary for several years in the cereals sector. The pressure on the national market caused by excess grain can be ceased or moderated, and therefore the storage problems would decrease as well.

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Effects of the development of production factors on productivity
Published February 17, 2015
13-18

In every economic sector, the enacted and expected quality of the products strongly affects its market entry and subsistence. The aim of management is success, competitiveness and subsistence that require adequate human and material resources and enough production stock. We must also notice that the quality of tools and instruments significantl...y influences work productivity. This applies to both plant production and animal husbandry.

The author researched milk production factors with methodical observation, document analysis and interviews. Data were collected with a ten-year interval, thus this assay can highlight the field, volume and sources of investments during this period and that the production stock increased in most farms and decreased in few. The data also shows the influence of investments on work productivity - there are differences between farms of equal size, so there are still ways of development.

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Connections between settlement structure, land use and the process of gypsy segregation in Hajdúböszörmény
Published December 22, 2010
41-50

The main aim of this study is to explore the connections between the unique settlement structure circumstances of Hajdúböszörmény and the social problams related to the gypsy minority. After the change of regime, the gypsy population increased especially quickly in some parts of the city, which is in connection with the settlement network p...osition and the internal division of the settlement. The significant segregation of the gypsy
minority appeared as a new phenomenon in the city, whose reason was the increasing migration of gypsies from Northeastern Hungary and the relatively low price of the abandoned real estates located in the outskirts and external settlement parts of the city. Even the gypsy population living in the city for a long time separates itself from the immigrant groups that live in run down houses and practicle have no connection with the job market of the city. It is the typical rural segregation process known only in small village regions (e.g. Southern Baranya, Cserehát) that now goes
on in the outskirts of Hajdúböszörmény. 

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