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Career Monitoring, Institutional Assessment and Ranking
Published September 22, 2004
73-77

The labour market started to make a difference between the diplomas issued by higher educational institutions. The decision of prospective students considerably depends on the labour market value of a certain diploma. Career monitoring of graduates is a very important task of higher educational institutions. Feedback and experiences from the gr...aduates and the employers are valuable sources of information for the institutions to shape their teaching activities in order to meet the actual demand of the labour market. Career monitoring of graduates is not a common activity at present in Hungary. Some institutions regularly monitor the labour market position of their graduates, but unfortunately most institutions do not invest time or manpower in such activities. A country level study has already been introduced that included almost all the higher educational institutions in Hungary. This study, coordinated by the Hungarian Ministry of Education, appears ready to be continued. The aim of this study is to introduce some institutional and country level initiations of career monitoring.

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Possible explanations for the transformation of the Northern Great Plain Region's labour market
Published September 2, 2009
69-78

As a result of the processes of hungarian economy and society the increase in territorial differences is noticeable in the last few days. The changes in society's status, the rate of increase and the level of development can be tracked for example in the diverse variation of labour market. In my study I would like to demonstrate the typical pro...cesses of labour market based on the time scale between 2000-2007, and I also want to reveal the root causes of the change in unemployment rate. The source of data is a regular, representative labour-survey by the Hungarian Central
Statistical Office based on interviewing people, as well as registration on place-hunters by the Employment and Social Office together with the summary of governmental subsidy. I targeted the age-groups between 15-74 years in my analysis, but the results are not modified by the over 65 years old population because of their small economical importance. I define the status of labour market by markers among others like economical activity, employment rate, unemployment rate, and I also consider the change in the amount of registered place-hunters in the period examined. My aim is to determine the responsible coefficients of the change in unemployment rate. 

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The correlation of foreign language proficiency, employment and regional competitiveness in the North Great Plain Region of Hungary
Published July 16, 2007
74-82

Employment is one of the basic factors when evaluating a region’s competitiveness. Boosting employment figures will also increase individual income. However, the creation of jobs alone will not solve the problems of unemployment, as labour force with skills matched to labour market demands should also be available. Continuous development of t...he labour force, adjusted to recent needs in the labour market, can contribute to a region’s competitiveness. Mismatches between education and labour market requirements would be too expensive, especially for backward regions like the North Great Plain Region of Hungary. Foreign language education should also be adapted to the changing economy when selecting target languages and language skills. A workforce equipped with contemporary and needed second language skills can be an element in making a region attractive for investors. Although current trends show signs of improvement, Hungary and especially the North Great Plain Region still does not have much to offer in this respect. The paper examines the reasons for the low level of second language acquisition among Hungarians and the population of the North Great Plain Region and explores the ways foreign language knowledge could promote economic development.

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A study of social and economic influences of universities in the Derecske-Létavértes subregion
Published February 10, 2013
153-157

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Businesses operating in the region – adopting to local conditions – mostly pursue agricultural activities. Their R+D activity is rather moderate and largely focuses on development, moreover, the range of innovative businesses is relatively significant, which businesses – before long – will become potential partners for institutions of higher education (especially for Debrecen University).

Social impacts of universities are notable on the person’s status in the labour market. Our study of the Derecske-Létavértes region shows that those with a university degree have an advantageous position in the labour market, compared to the sample of youth aged between 16 and 35. Knowledge obtained at college and other skills greatly help the young to find employment.

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The change of youth unemployment based on the concept of precariat
Published February 25, 2014
105-108

Youth unemployment is a hot potato issue worldwide, including Hungary and its reduction is a major focal point in every country. Today's labour market is characterized by uncertainties and unpredictability while flexibility, project-related employment are emphasized, which pose different expectations on employees than before. This phenomenon is... included in the concept of precariat. In the present study the labour market status, future potentials and options of youths in the Derecske district of Hungary are described.

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Examination of requirements of labour market, connected with competencies of agrienvironmental engineers and nature protection engineers
Published October 20, 2009
81-87

The most important goal of firms is to supply demand of their economic partners. To make it successfully, highly qualified human resource is needed. The quality of human resource is determined not only by qualification, command of a language, professional experience, practise, but extant competencies that can also be developped. To choose the e...xpectant employee, it is not enough to have intelligence and proficiency. It is also decesive to examine particular competencies. All of these will define the employee’s achievement that can be the right way to the success of
the enterprise. 
It is need to make the cooperation between higher education institutions and employers closer. As a result of this, employers can know theirs ways about possibilities of the new higher educational training system. They can use professional knowledge, competencies of the Bologna system’s graduates at different pointsof the economic life. The higher education institutions can revise their training systems considering requirements of labour market. According to these requirements, they can form syllabus in order to train auspicious experts.

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Labour Efficiency of Dairy Farms with Different Types and Sizes in Hajdú-Bihar County
Published March 4, 2006
62-67

Questions and uncertainties characterised the accession period of Hungary to the European Union. It is evident that only those producers can compete on the market who produce good quality products. Therefore, only dairy farms with extra high quality raw milk production will be successful. Furthermore, on this basis, rural areas will be able to ...keep their inhabitants one of the most important problems presently. The author examined the process of milk production and the labour efficiency of 18 dairy farms in Hajdú-Bihar County. Mechanization, the quality of the work force and the system of incentives were assessed. Data of produced milk quality were collected too. Because of farms with different types and sizes the circumstances of milk production differ greatly. As a result of data analysis it was found that the working schedule of small and large farms often differed. The most important working processes (milking, feeding, harvesting) are done by family members. In order to increase the efficiency and improve working atmosphere the improvement of wage and incentive systems would be desirable. Labour efficiency indexes show that the efficiency of tie-stall systems is lower than the efficiency of similar size loose-housing systems. It can also be stated; that labour efficiency of similar size loose housing dairies differs greatly so the importance of work-studies should be increased.

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Labour market characteristics of Ukrainian employees with special regard to the North Great Plain region
Published August 12, 2013
67-72

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">National Employment Public Foundation founded our research to examine the employment characteristics and job market importance of Ukrainian citizens in Hungary in 2008. As the means of our investigation we analysed available statistical data and conducted a survey. Ukrainian citizens working in Hungary with valid work permit were questioned. 226 people were in the sample.

Hungarian job market processes were not significantly affected by the officially employed Ukrainian citizens because their number was rather small in relation to the number of registered unemployed people and in relation to the available job positions. It can be stated that Ukrainian citizens mainly work in positions where high specialised knowledge is not a requirement.

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Validation of the competence profile of agri-environmental engineering bachelor course
Published December 22, 2010
63-71

As member of the European Union, the development if the Hungarian agriculture is determined by the Common Agricultural Policy. After the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003, the environmental protection has got a crucial function. The constant changing role of agriculture has reacted students in higher education. For firms connecte...d to agriculture, human resource management based on competency has an important role in custody of competitiveness. One of the most important goals of firms is to supply the demands of their economic partners. To make it successfully, highly qualified human resource is required. The quality of human resource is determined not only by its qualification, language skills, professional experience, and practise, but extant competencies that can also be developed. To choose the expectant employee, it is not enough for them to have intelligence and proficiency; it is also decisive to examine their particular competencies. All of these will define the employee’s
achievement that will definitely contribute to the success of the enterprise. Basically, closer cooperation is needed between higher education institutions and employers to achieve this goal. At the same time, the higher education institutions can revise their training systems considering the actual requirements of labour market, and accordingly, they can form syllabus in a way to train auspicious experts. In this article examination of the requirements of labour market for graduates from agri-environmental engineering bachelor course is presented.

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Changes in the Hungarian law and in the classification system regarding to ’people living with disabilities’ between 2008 and 2013
Published August 12, 2013
43-55

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Nowadays employment is a hot topic in Hungary. The rate of inactive people on the labour market is very high. Many kinds of supplies are provided by the State for example for the group “people living with disabilities”. It is very difficult to provide job for these people after their rehabilitation. Statistical figures show, that the highest ratio of “people living with disabilities” can be found in the North Great Plain Region of Hungary (30 per cent of the total number of “people living with disabilities”).

The employment of these people means extra costs for enterprises. At the same time the complete accessibility of workplaces is still not realized in many cases in Hungary yet. Currently only a few enterprises are specialized to employ people living with disabilities in the North Great Plain Region. Unfortunately most of the enterprises don’t want to employ them. New workplaces for these people should be created by the utilisation of European Union and national available sources in order to integrate them into the job’s world in long run. I represent the changes in the law and in the classification system in this area.

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Complex problem analysis of the Hungarian milk product chain
Published November 20, 2011
43-47

Hungarian dairy sector went through significant changes in past two decades. The most significant changes were caused by our accession to the European Union. In Hungary milk production remarkably declined after EU accession. The size of our dairy herd has been practically reducing since the political transformation, but increasing yields per co...w could compensate it in some way and for some time. However, in recent years, increasing yield per cow came to a stop and in parallel, the number of cows declined further and faster. Low prices, high production costs and tightening quality requirements ousted several producers from the market in past years. Feeding cost represents the highest rate in cost structure of production, but animal health expenditures and various losses are also significant. There are undeniably competitive disadvantages in the level of organisation and labour productivity; however competitiveness already depends on cost effectiveness in the medium run. In Hungary concentration of the dairies is relatively strong in spite of the relative high number of corporations. The dairies compete with each other and with the export market for the raw material and the better exploitation of their capacities. Applied technology of the Hungarian dairies lags behind the Western-European competitors’; in addition they have handicaps in efficiency and product innovation. Presence of chain of stores being dominant in sale of milk products does also not favour in all respects to the position of the dairies. The aforementioned retail chains are namely consumer-centric, engage in price follower conduct and weaken the position of the dairies with their private label products. As a result of increasing import of milk and milk products Hungary became a net importer in recent years. Today, disposable income still essentially determines the consumption habits of price-sensitive consumers. Loyalty for Hungarian products is not typical, consumers are open for import products being preferred by retail chains. In addition Hungarian milk and milk product consumption is about half of the Union average and it is far behind the level being necessary for healthy eating. In Hungary lack of competitiveness and vertical integration relationships and backwardness are revealing among the dairy farmers and the dairies, while chain of stores are in unprecedented “monopolistic situation”; the whole sector can be characterised by defencelessness. 

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Education and language teaching in the light of recent social and economic needs
Published September 7, 2001
23-29

This paper attempts to describe several general educational potentials that are assumed to facilitate adequate pedagogical response to the recent economic and social paradigm shifts that have resulted in marked changes in the requirements for the labour force on the global job market.
The article describes the most powerful pedagogical trend...s of the 20th century, selectively concentrating on the assessment of their contribution to and share in the preparation of the inevitably forthcoming paradigm shift in education.
Topic related issues of language teaching in an academic setting are then discussed, focusing particularily on English for Specific Purposes, followed by a more thorough analysis of the major types of ESP syllabi. This analysis attempts to identify those properties that empower ESP teaching to give a more sophisticated answer (as compared to general language teaching) to issues raised by the appearance of new trends and needs in the
global job market. 
The paper offers conclusions for consideration as to the responsibility of language teachers and strategy makers in higher education, acting in an intercultural environment.

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Labour-market conditions of the youth in the Derecske-Létavértes sub region
Published February 10, 2013
173-177

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Researches of the youth have been of great interest in social studies in the past decades, since up-coming generations provide supplies for the future, they are the so-called next generation. The problem of the young being afflicted by unemployment is more and more apparent, and not only in Hungary; moreover, in smaller, underprivileged settlements it is even more on the increase. Considering conditions of the youth in the labour-market, we can gain a valuable insight in their lifes as well as their opportunities and future prospects.

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Study on Human Resource Management in Agriculture
Published December 10, 2002
171-181

The human factor has been reassessed with regard to strategic initiatives towards obtaining and preserving competitive advantage. Knowledge, experience and special skills are a specific form of capital, forming part of the organisations’ assets and serving as an organisational strategic resource. Their development and use require major invest...ments, both on the part of the individual and the organisation. In a Europe undergoing integration, the quality of human resources enjoy priority among our really important values and specific features. The opportunities of the near future can be utilised, and agricultural economic organizations can survive and increase their organizational effectiveness, if they possess a basis of human capital which is able to make a shift in perspective and behaviour which is of primary importance from the point of view of incorporating market mechanisms and implementing them in practice. My investigations were focused on the current position of human resource management in a comprehensive manner; further, on the approach of top managers regarding the future. Analysing the business and other indicators of the companies studied, I have set the objective to describe the differences and special features of the human resource management practice of companies, which are different in size, operational form, and from the perspective of success or failure.
Human resource management is directed to attracting, retaining, motivating and utilising labour. A given work process can be successful or unsuccessful – given the same conditions – depending on who performs it. Therefore, human resource management related tasks require special attention when enterprises are planned, established and operated. On analysing the responsibilities of human resource management, I have found that the functions and responsibilities of human resource have low or medium importance in the operation of economic organisations today. Regarding the future, top managers have expressed higher expectations of human resource management responsibilities in all areas and they consider individual functions to be more important. The establishment and operation of a human resource information system has been presented as the most important need for change. Correlation analyses have proved that the higher the sales revenues of a company, the higher the development of human resources is regarded by its manager, and the same holds for training, career support and a proper establishment and continuous evaluation of job profiles.

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The comparative evaluation of the preparedness and development of graduates
Published June 5, 2009
127-133

The skill of dealing with people was given a special importance by the persons interviewed during my examination by means of questionnaires although most of the specialist works I
consulted did not pay too much attention to this fact. When asked about the particular fields of further studies, only a small proportion of the respondents regard...ed the development of their
personality important. I think to dissolve this paradox is necessary as without the development of personality it is impossible to improve interpersonal skills, that is one of the basic pillars of good performance at work. Regarding that it is the graduates who fill managerial posts, dealing with people belongs to one of their tasks.
Among the respondents if the first degree were from a college and not from a university, the greatest proportion of those studying further would live in Heves and Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén counties. However, this connection cannot be proved in Budapest. Individual motivation is the main drive of studying further after obtaining a degree in a greater and greater proportion.
The graduates’ studying further is significantly directed to acquiring extra knowledge rather than a totally new profession and they get a deeper insight into the knowledge necessary for
their profession driven by their own motivation.

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Public finance resources and regional distribution of rural development
Published September 18, 2014
73-77

...x; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: normal; orphans: 2; widows: 2; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Rural development, more specifically the economic development of counties have three public finance resources: the municipality, the central budgetary and the labour market fund resources. Based on the provisions of public finance, there are currently five provisions of the municipality resources of rural development: supporting settlements struggling with employment problems, supporting multi-purpose small regions, supporting settlements which are in a difficult position through no fault of their own, supporting public utility development and supporting holiday resorts. The opportunity of increasing investments is using EU funds. The structural change has a favourable direction, the proportion of the economic development program and regional developments increased in the recent years, but their share is still low. The proportion of agricultural and rural development programs which are important from the aspect of rural development is a less favourable phenomenon. Furthermore, the share of human and social development somewhat decreased, but it is still high. Apart from the regional programs, the Budget Act does not specify the regional distribution of budgets, only the professional purposes of uses, of which it is possible to conclude to which county development can be requested resources for.

Between 2008 and 2011, the 13–15% share of the North Great Plain region was close to the population share of 14.7%. In 2012, there was a turn of events in which the necessity of developing the region was shown. In this year, not only the proportion, but also the absolute extent of development resources increased. Therefore, the region could use resources of 16.9 billion HUF in 2010, 31.4 billion HUF in 2011 and 56.3 billion HUF in 2012. In order to properly use these resources, determined utilisation structure is necessary to be performed. The distribution of development purposes provides an explanation for the backward position of the economic performance of Hajdú-Bihar county.

Of the development resources available for four years, the region spent only 12.2% on economic development.

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Food Safety in EU Higher Education
Published November 15, 2007
188-197

Under the aegis of the Lisbon Strategy, special attention is paid to education and areas left untouched by the European integration process. Human capital and research inputs were identified as major driving forces for long-term development. The European Union is keen on meeting its target of boosting research spending to 3% of GDP by 2010. In ...order to contribute towards his goal, the European Commission has set aside an amount
which is double the budget of the 7th Framework Programme. Accordingly, preferences were given to research and development projects encouraging competitiveness in the food industry and other initiatives, such as the European Technology Platforms. Major obstacles to innovation in Hungary are: lack of funds, weakness of research network, poor structural relations. Better utilization of our comparative advantages should be targeted in order to have the Hungarian food industry become a driving force sector. This is to be promoted by the newly transformed food
engineer training (as a result of the Bologna Declaration) which can adapt better to the changing requirements of the labour market. Food science and related research could become determining factors for the food economy by setting up accredited training systems and enhancing food safety education and training in Hungary. 

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The examination of human resources in the Hódmezővásárhely micro-region on the basis of human resource hierarchy
Published July 28, 2008
91-110

In this paper, I deal with the examination of the situation and change of human resources through the human resource hierarchy. My research covers the Hódmezővásárhely micro-region, which includes four settlements, two towns (Hódmezővásárhely as the centre of the area and Mindszent) and two villages (Mártély and Székkutas). Based on ...population density the micro-region is qualified as a rural territory, which is underpinned by the micro-region’s market town and homestead like character.
I took the human resource system of Cloke and Park (1985) published in their book of Rural Resource Management as a basis of my examination and I pursued my research in consideration of Fehér’s (2005) researches related to rural economy. The system of human resources provided a hierarchical and logical framework for my examination. In the course of the research I made analyses along the three levels of human resources concerning the micro-region and its settlements.
During the examination of the human resources of the Hódmezővásárhely micro-region I pointed out some negative changes and situations which unfavourably influence the socio-economic processes of the territory and its settlements. All this reveal that the human resources are not only factors of the economy of the micro-region as a rural economy but at the same time they are areas to be developed. The living standard (welfare) of the people living in the area and their quality of life (well-being) depend on the development and level of the different dimensions of the human resources largely. For that very reason there is a need for coordinated development of the human resources and the related fields with respect to the cause-effect relations.
My research contributes to the better cognition of rural resources of the Hódmezővásárhely micro-region, without this a rational improvement and sustainable development of the micro-region and its settlements based on inner resources cannot be imagined.

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