The objective of this research was to test the influence of various natural substances on acid production, growth, and viability of characteristic microorganisms in yogurt and probiotic fermented dairy foods. Oligofructose, inulin, honey, and the dried biomass of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis were found to stimulate the growth rate and acid... production activity of the major thermophilic diary cultures tested and, in addition to this, the presence of the aforementioned substrates also improved the survival of starter bacteria in fermented milk products during storage. The reduced production time of cultured milks resulted in increased production efficiency. The stimulatory and/or protective effect of oligofructose,
inulin, honey, and Spirulina on Bifidobacterium spp. is probably the most important finding of this study because bifidobacteria do not grow well in milk and they have low survival rates in conventional fermented milks. Some of the bioactive substances tested were also capable of exerting an antifungal effect on spoilage yeasts and molds, and improving the nutritional and sensory properties of the final product, thus providing a new opportunity for manufacture of functional fermented dairy foods.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The honey bees are essential for the pollination of agricultural plants. The Pannonian honey bee, Apis mellifera pannonica, is native to Hungary, only these subspecies are being bread in our country. The parameters have been separated the pannon and italian honey bee subspecies, the colour of tergit, the cubital index and proboscis length. The morphometric analisys is of special importance because this, on the one hand, shows correlation with honey bee production and on the other hand, the pure morphometric charactersitics is the basis of any potential honey bee export. Mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites are the common methods to define genetic diversity and the separation of subspecies.
Honey has been a valuable food for mankind since ancient times. It was the only sweetener until the start of industrial sugar mass production. Honey plays an important role in our nutrition and its positive effects on health are well-known. The quality of Hungarian honey is perfect, so it is very important to safeguard and monitor its quality c...ontinuously and to build up a good traceability and quality assurance system. For such a system, it is necessary to study the nutritional properties and the origin of different honey samples. In our study, we study Hungarian and Greek honey.
There are several morphological differences among the honey bee subspecies, which proofs that they adapted different way to the environmental factors of the given area. Morphological observations are not the only way to separate subspecies, it is possible on their genetic speciality as well. The authors’s aim in this present study was to exam...ine morphological characteristics of subspecies, furthermore looking for correlation between morphological parameters and honey yield. According to their results, among the most important parameters considered by Hungarian breeders, in the case of the native Apismelliferacarnica subspecies, the proboscis length could be the indirect tool for honey-productivity focused selection.
In a two-year-study, yield loss and temporal development of incidence of Monilinia fructigena were quantified in organic apple orchards and the importance of fruit wounding agents was determined. The first infected fruits were observed at the beginning of August in 2001 and 2002. Disease development was continuous until fruit harvest in both ye...ars. Pre-harvest yield loss caused by Monilinia fructigena amounted on average 27.2% in 2001 and 41.6% in 2002 by fruit harvest. The growth rate of disease development was almost double in 2002 compared to 2001. All infected fruits were injured by wounding agents such as aboitic and mechanical injury factors, codling moth (Cydia pomonella), common earwig (Forficula auricularia) and birds. In this study, the most important wounding agents were codling moth and mechanical injury factors in organic apple orchards. In both years, our results showed that 70-80% of the infected fruits were damaged by codling moth in organic apple production. Moreover, 10-15% of the infected fruits were mechanically injured in the two years. Our results indicated that most of the damaged fruits fell on the orchard floor before harvest and they became an important secondary inoculum source of M. fructigena. Biological and practical implications of the results are discussed.
The structure of Hungarian agriculture should be changed before the EU accession. The new structure should fulfill EU requirements and also produce competitive products. Unconventional products (mushroom, fish, honey etc.) have a lot of advantages: they can be produced on small farms, their trade is mainly free of regulation and their markets a...re almost unlimited. This paper deals with one of these alternative agricultural enterprises, namely mushroom production. Hungarian mushroom production – in spite of difficulties – has witnessed remarkable expansion: it has increased its production by fourfold and its export by fivefold in less than ten years. The low level of wages gives Hungary significant advantage over its competitors. If we could ensure the appropriate infrastructure (technical advice, bank loans, etc.) the mushroom industry would become one of the most profitable sectors of Hungarian agriculture.
An apiary trial was conducted in 2016 August to October in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, Nyírmada to evaluate the influence of queen’s age on the Varroa destructor-burden in the treatment colonies. Sixty colonies of bees belonging to the subspecies Apis mellifera carnica pannonica in Hunor loading hives (with 10 frames in the brood chamber.../deep super) were used. The colonies were treated with amitraz and the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos active ingredients. The amitraz treatment includes 6 weeks. The coumaphos treatment with Destructor 3.2% can be used for both diagnosis and treatment of Varroasis. For diagnosis, one treatment is sufficient. For control, two treatments at an interval of seven days are required. The colonies were grouped by the age of the queen: 20 colonies with one-year-old, 20 colonies with two-year-old and 20 colonies with three-year-old queen. The mite mortality of different groups was compared. The number of fallen mites was counted at the white bottom boards. The examination of spring growth of honey bee colonies has become necessary due to the judgement of efficiency of closing treatment. The data was recorded seven times between 16th March 2017 and 19th May 2017.
Data on fallen mites were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Post-Hoc Tukey-test. Statistical analysis was performed using the software of IBM SPSS (version 21.). During the first two weeks after treatments, the number of fallen mites was significantly higher in the older queen’s colonies (Year 2014). The total mite mortality after amitraz treatment in the younger queen’s colonies was lower (P<0.05) compared to the three-year-old queen’s colonies. According to Takács and Oláh (2016) although the mitemortality tendency, after the coumaphos (closing) treatment in colonies which have Year 2014 queen showed the highest rate, considering the mite-burden the colonies belongs to the average infected category. The colonial maintenance ability of three-year-old queen cannot be judged based on the influencing effect on the mite-burden. The importance of the replacement of the queen was judged by the combined effect of several factors.
During the spring-growth study (16th March–19th May) was experienced in the three-year-old queen’s colonies the number of brood frames significantly lower compared to the one- and two-year-old queen’s colonies. In the study of 17th April and 19th May each of the three queen-year-groups were varied. Therefore in the beekeeping season at different times were determined the colonial maintenance ability of queens by more factors: efficiency of closing treatment in early spring, the spring-growth of bee colonies, the time of population shift (in current study, this time was identical in each queen-year), honey production (from black locust).
Bee poisoning related top lant production shows an increasing tendency. The poisoning of honey bees most of the times is caused by neonikotinoids and insecticides. The bee pasture has imparied because of the too high bee-density,therefore the beekeepers had to locate their colonies near to the farmland. The pollinating insects experience dimmes...urable damages because the ignorance of the agricultural society and the lack of communication. In cases of bee poisoning sometimes it can be intentional. The samples of direct bee-destruction show higher dose of chemical residues than the amount of which they can get during the pollinating activity. In our study we also demonstrate the direct bee poisoning which is caused by endosulfan and dichlorvos.