Search



Show Advanced search options Hide Advanced search options
The effects of education, culture, research and development in Hajdú-Bihar county
Published September 18, 2014
87-90

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The most important instrument of social advancement and economic development is the education system. The educational qualification of the population of Hajdú-Bihar county is continuously improving, however the census data of the year 2001 show that the educational qualification of the population of the county did not reach the national average. The educational qualification of the county’s population is higher at the county seat and in other cities and lower in small municipalities. The county’s ratio is strongly influenced by the data of the county seat Debrecen and that of Hajdúszoboszló sub region.

The unfavorable educational level of the region is related to the migration tendencies and the brain-draining trends of the past decades, as a consequence of which the population of the less developed eastern regions has moved either to the capital, or to the county seats, or larger cities of the region. The young are increasingly affected by the process.

The number of kindergartens in the county corresponds to the national average, therefore taking into consideration the regional demographic characteristics the aim should be the equalization of regional disproportions. The number of students per 1000 resident within the Northern Great Plain Region and in the county significantly exceeds the national average. The secondary school network of the county consists of 38 secondary grammar- and 51 secondary vocational schools.

The secondary schools of Debrecen have considerable impact on the county’s secondary education. The vocational training network of Hajdú-Bihar county is a large, in its conditions highly differentiated institutional network in which all types of secondary vocational institutions are present with secondary technical-, vocational-, accredited higher vocational-, specialized or preparatory vocational-, and special skill enhancement programmes. The majority of the secondary institutions have regional, rarely national enrollment.

Students who have the intention to continue their studies in higher education within the county can study in Debrecen or Hajdúböszörmény.

The integrated University of Debrecen has the highest student number within the country and it offers the widest range of academic programmes in Hungarian higher education. The University of Debrecen with the wide range of graduate and postgraduate educational programmes, unified academic qualification system, English language programmes is a European standard scientific centre of the Trans-Tisza Region. The county’s higher education takes exceeding share beyond its weight in the education of Natural Sciences (Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Mathematics), Health- and Social Sciences, Agricultural- and Environmental Sciences and Information Technology, which positively influences its educational structure. The county’s share in the education of Humanities (Hungarian Language, Foreign Languages, History, Archeology, Philosophy) is also significant.

6.3% of the country’s scientific researchers work in the county. In 2010 7.0% of the country’s R+D expenditure was spent here. 3/4 of the region’s research capacity is in Hajdú-Bihar county employed either by the University of Debrecen or by the research teams of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

Show full abstract
60
82
History of origin and development of replacement of plants crop rotations is in world agriculture
Published May 6, 2013
53-56

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In practice of world agriculture a long ago the known problem of decline of harvests of agricultural cultures at their permanent growing, scientific explanation of this phenomenon became possible only with appearance of natural sciences. At first the declines of harvests bound to the toxic action of root excretions cultures on her repeated sowing, with development of humus theory of feed of plants of diminishing of harvests at the permanent sowing began to explain impoverishment of soil on a humus.

During a few centuries the known farmers development the looks in relation to forming of scientific bases of construction of replacement of plants crop rotations in the world systems of agriculture, set history of their development and improvement. The analysis of influence of possibility of optimal satiation of replacement of plants crop rotations is conducted by agricultural cultures on the level of fertility of soil, water and nourishing modes and their productivity. For the terms of the insufficient moistening a positive action is marked black pair on the improvement of the water mode of soil in crop rotations.

In historiography the problem of introduction and mastering of replacement of plants crop rotations for the decision of scientific and practical tasks of agricultural production is represented in many-sided aspects, worked out and the recommended replacement of plants crop rotations that are base on zonal principle of development of world agriculture that passed the protracted term of test and counted on various specialization of economies. But for today development of scientific and technical progress requires intensification of agricultural production with the use of intensive crop rotations and growing of high-performance cultures.

Hereupon there was a necessity of realization of analysis of the systems of historical value of scientifically-practical knowledge about development and improvement of replacement of plants crop rotations, as it gives an opportunity to work out to recommending a production with the use of the most effective elements of the past on modern agrarian business and allows to forecast them on the future.

Show full abstract
53
55
Mitochondrial DNA-based diversity study of Hungarian brown hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas 1778)
Published March 23, 2016
23-29

The brown hare being an important game species which is widespread across the European continent has been in focus of many population genetic studies. However only a few comprising researches can be found on the diversity of Central-European populations.

The aim of our large scale long term ongoing study is to fill this gap of informati...on on the species by describing the genetic history and structure of the brown hare populations of the area using both mitochondrial DNA markers and genomic skin and hair colour regulating genes.

This article gives forth a part of our results concerning the mitochondrial DNA diversity of Hungarian brown hares based on amplification of a 512 bp long D-loop sequence. N=39 tissue or hair samples have been collected from 15 sampling sites on the Hungarian Great Plain. We have described a high level of haplotype diversity (Hd=0.879±0.044) based on a 410 bp alignment of our sequences. We have found 17 haplotypes within our sample set with the nucleotid diversity of π=0.01167±0.0022. Our ongoing research shows high genetic diversity for the brown hare in the studied region and a second alignment with 156 sequences downloaded from GenBank indicates a geographic pattern of haplotypes among the studied populations though these results need confirmation by our further analyses.

Show full abstract
63
64
Milestones in the development of agronomic management practices in crop production
Published September 5, 2018
203-209

From the dawn of the history of the human race, agriculture has always been a profound activity of mankind producing food and feed as well as various plant originated materials for further processing.

Agronomy, like any other human activity, depends on the perpetual development of knowledge and technical skills, - in a modern context ... science and innovation. This paper is intended to provide the reader with information regarding the main phases of the development of agricultural production from the Neolithic societies through the early Mesopotamian and Egyptian empires to the inventions of first organised learned society of Rome. The major research findings of the past two millennia including agro-chemistry, genetics and technical development are presented.

Such a review should not lead to any scientific conclusions, but rather a philosophical postulate similar to that of Jonathan Swift written some centuries ago: “And he gave it for his opinion, that whoever could make two ears of corn, or two blades of grass, to grow upon a spot of ground, where only one grew before, would deserve better of mankind, and do more essential service to his country, than the whole race of politicians put together”.

Show full abstract
63
54
Element content analyses in the Institute for Food Sciences, Quality Assurance and Microbiology
Published November 13, 2012
203-207

The role of chemical elements to ensure and promote our health is undisputed. Some of them are essential for plants, animals and human, others can cause diseases. The major source of mineral constituents is food, drinking water has a minor contribution to it, so the knowledge of elemental intake through food is crucial and needs continuous moni...toring and by this way it promotes the food quality assurance and dietetics.
With the evolution of spectroscopic methods increasingly lower concentrations could be determined, so the elemental composition of a sample could be more precisely and fully described. Due to the results the gathered knowledge up to the present is supported and new observations can be done helping us to understand such complex systems as biological organisms are.
The quality of a food is determined by the full process of its production, consequently it starts with agricultural production so elemental-analysis usually cover the whole soil – plant – (animal) – food chain, by this way the „Fork-to-Farm” precept is true in elemental analysis field also.
The history of elemental analysis in the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, Institute of Food Processing, Quality Assurance and Microbiology goes back to 1980s when the so called Regional Measurement Central gave the background for research. The continuous deployment resulted in an obtain of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) in 1988, which extended the scope of examinations due to its excellent performance characteristics
compared to flame atom absorption (FAAS) and flame emission spectrometers (FES). The instrumental park retain up to date correlate to the developing analytical techniques due to acquiring a newer ICPAES in 1998 and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in 2004 – which sensitivity is three order of magnitude better compared to ICP-AES. The Institute supports the work with its own ICP-AES and ICP-MS since 2011. 

Show full abstract
40
60
The development of the scientific bases of horticulture and the history of horticultural innovation in the Northern Great Plain region and in Debrecen
Published September 14, 2005
17-20

It can be told about the second half of the XXth century that, apart from preferring the large-scale growing of field plants and the largescale
livestock farming, corresponding to the central political will of the communist era, the significance and innovation output of
horticultural education in Debrecen was rather of follow-up trait, of... secondary importance. The Tobacco Research Institute continued the
research work, and then even this activity was stopped. According to a survey finished in 1997, the mentioned institute had no invention,
granted patent, protection for registered model or any application for patent in progress at the Hungarian Patent Office. Until this time, invention activity at the University of Agricultural Sciences was of medium standard. In the National Patent Office, seven patent applications related to agricultural production and nine patent applications for other fields submitted under the inventors’ names were recorded. In the same period, the Cereal Research Institute (Szeged) led the absolute innovation list of Hungarian agricultural R+D institutions and university education institutes by submitting 164 own patent applications. Both in domestic and international terms, the horticultural innovation conducted at the University of Agricultural Sciences, despite the individual research results and achievements deserving recognition, without appropriate background – remained unnoticed. Let us put it this way: for the past decades, the light of the Debrecen Flower Carnival has not been thrown on the horticultural teachers and researchers of Debrecen.

Show full abstract
19
19
Wine adulteration and its detection based on the rate and the concentration of free amino acids
Published September 5, 2018
139-151

Following the definition of wine adulteration, the authors briefly review its history from ancient times to present day and describe the methods that are applied for adulteration of wine from the historical point of view. More space is devoted to the Hungarian wine adulteration and to the detailed reports of the early methods, which attempted t...o discover fake wine. It describes in detail the current situation of wine adulteration and the fight against counterfeiting. The second half of the review article presents some examples of the analytical chemistry techniques with which fake wines can be detected. In doing so, priority is given to the discussion of high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography applications. The end of this paper describes the free amino acid content of wines, and the possibilities of using the results for detection of wine adulteration.

Show full abstract
103
98
Some strategic aspects of animal protein production
Published September 5, 2018
11-19

The access to food shaped human societies and dietary models throughout the history of mankind. Animal protein consumption became a part of human culture. Data are presented showing the relationship of daily calorie and animal protein consumption as affected by capita GDP changes. Examples are presented how genetic improvement of animal and fod...der plants influenced the resource efficiency and the overall environmental footprint per unit product. The two examples presented are: the dairy industry of the USA the 1944 and 2007 situation, and the Hungarian broiler chicken sector considering data relevant to 1930, 1960 and 2010. In both cases, dramatic improvements in resource efficiency could be demonstrated. The agricultural area required to animal feed production was reduced by more than 80% in both cases per unit product. Future possibilities are briefly discussed, referring to the still unutilized land reserves of the Globe, the new evolving technologies in progress inclusive the CASPR/Cas 9 genetic editing methods.

Show full abstract
87
86
1 - 8 of 8 items