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Rye plant parameters in the Westsik crop rotation experiment
Published April 27, 2020
39-45

Our research work was carried out in the Westsik crop rotation field experiment in 2018. The main research purpose was to analyse the effect of the different organic and chemical fertilizers on parameters of rye. Our results revealed some differences between the different fertilization methods. One spike weight, grain weight of one spike, r...ye plant height, rye plant weight per m2 and 1000 seed weight in crop rotations VII, XV and VIII were different from the data of all crop rotations. This finding can be explained by the fact that crop rotations VII and XV were non-fertilized, only 23.3 t ha-1 straw manure (VII) or green lupine manure was applied as a second crop (XV). In addition, crop rotation VIII consists of four parts where we apply chemical fertilization with green lupine manure as a main and second crop. There is a positive close correlation between rye plant height and other studied characters (rye plant weight per m2, spike length, weight of one spike, grain weight per spike, spike weight per m2, grain weight per m2 and 1000 seed weight).

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Evaluation of the role of common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) green manure in crop rotations
Published May 26, 2022
161-171

Common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) is an annual legume, grown as green manure provide rapid soil cover, can increase soil moisture and organic matter content and reduce soil erosion during fall. During the fallow period, legumes grown as catch crops are known by releasing large amounts of mineral nitrogen (N) for the subsequent crop. By taking ...advantage of these benefits, it is possible to increase the yield of the next crop in an environmentally friendly and sustainable way. The goal of this study was to determine the value of common vetch as a green manure, considering its effect on soil conditions and the yield of next crops. We examined three different common vetch seed rate as a green manure in a crop rotation with triticale, oat and corn. Next to the green manured treatments, we used fertilized and bare fallow control treatment for comparison. In our study we evaluated the aboveground biomass weight of spring vetch green manure and its effect on the moisture content of the soil. We examined the green manure’s effect on the next crops plant height and yield. We found that the moisture content of the green manured plots was significantly higher during summer drought. On the green manured plots, 37.9% higher triticale yield, 50% higher oat yield and 44% higher corn yield were measured compared to the control plots. The insertion of spring vetch green manuring into crop rotations could be a good alternative to sustainable nutrient replenishment methods. It can be used to reduce the input needs of farming, reduce carbon footprint, contribute to the protection of soils and increase the organic matter content of the soil.

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The effect of biopreparations in pot experiment
Published March 20, 2013
45-49

In pot experiment the effect of Amykor and Organic Green Gold bioproducts and their combinations with NPK fertilizer on some soil properties (chemical parameters) and on the biomass of testplant were studied. The experiment was set up in 2012 at the Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, in a three replications, in a random block... design. The studied soil typein the pot experiment was humus sandy soil from Debrecen-Pallag with onion (Allium cepa) test plant. At the end of the experiment (after 4 week) in our laboratory the samples of soil and plant were determined. The nitrate-nitrogen, AL-soluble phosphorus and potassium content of soil, the weight of green onion leaves, the wet weight of bulb and root of onion and biomass of onion. The results of the study were the following: – The treatments influenced positively the nitrate-nitrogen, the AL-soluble phosphorus and potassium content of soil. – The most effective treatments were the artificial fertilization (NO3-N) and the NPK+ simple dose of Amykor (AL-P2O5 and Al-K2O). – The NPK fertilization and the NPK+OGG (sprinkle in every 10 days) combinations had significant positive effect on the weight of green onion leaves. – The biofertilization and the straw+biofertilizer combinations stimulated the AL-soluble potassium content of soil occasionally. – The OGG treatment (sprinkle in every 10 days) had significant effective impact on the wet weight of bulb and root of onion. – The biomass of onion was increased by the artificial fertilization and OGG (sprinkle in every 10 days) treatment.

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The effect of various composts on vegetable green mass on two soil types
Published May 16, 2017
179-183

Composting of sewage sludges makes easier the utilization of sewage sludge in the agriculture and the composts in good quality could increase the nutrient content of soil. Due to the composting process, the sewage sludge composts with high organic matter content can be utilized in the same way as other composts or farmyard manure.
Composts p...roduced in different ways have different effects on the physical, chemical and biological properties of different soils, although their positive effects have already proved in the literature. In our study the effects of composts from different composting processes were investigated in soil-plant systems. The different physical and chemical properties of the two examined soil types (arenosol and chernozem)strongly influenced the nutrient supply capacity of composts which could be characterized by the growth of ray-grass as a test plant in the pot experiment. In this work we examined the effects of three different composts on the green weight of plants on the fourth and eighth weeks after the treatment and sowing.

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Deproteinized plant juice as part of circular economy: A short review and brief experimental data
Published December 1, 2020
23-26

As the population of the Earth is constantly growing it generates an unmet demand for protein, which is an urgent problem. The protein extraction process is a potential solution, which offers high-quality plant protein suitable for animal and human nutrition at a favorable price. The process used within our project produces green juice from... the green alfalfa biomass through pressing. After the coagulation of protein from this green juice, the by-product is called DPJ (Deproteinized Plant Juices) or brown juice. Our preliminary results match the international literature, namely that brown juice take up as much as 50% of the fresh biomass in weight. To utilize this by-product is a crucial part of the process to make it environmental-friendly and financially viable as well. The examined brown juice samples came from a small-scale experiment of alfalfa varieties carried out in the experimental farm at the University of Debrecen. According to our preliminary results, brown juice has high macro- and micronutrient values, furthermore, it has a potentially high amount of antioxidant compounds. The study highlights that brown juice is suitable as an ingredient in microbiological media, in plant nutrition as a supplementary solution, for feedstock and for preparing human food supplements or functional foods. The potential utilization of all biorefinery products makes it a very appropriate technology for today’s challenges.

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The effect of wet compost extract on the root tubers of green pea
Published May 16, 2017
51-54

Nitrogen plays significant role in the life of plants, it could be the main limiting factor of plant growth. Sustainable plant nutrition pays attention to satisfy the plants’ nutrient demand without chemical fertilizers, e.g. by bounding the atmospheric nitrogen. The nitrogen fixing organizations play important role in supplying plants with n...itrogenbecause the N2-fixingbacteria can fix high amounts of nitrogen.
Many effects of the sewage sludge compost extracts is known in the literature. We studied the effect of sewage sludge compost water extract in laboratory conditions on the growth of Rhizobium spp. isolated from green pea, while in a small plot experiment thepea-Rhizobium symbiosis were studied on sandy soil in the Nyírség region. The extract was produced under aerobic conditions. The compost extract was applied before and/or after sowing. In the laboratory experiments we used the sterile version of extract, in different doses.
In our work we present the effect of compost water extract on the number of green pea roots nodules, dry weight of the plant and reproduction of the Rhizobium bacteria.

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The effect of rootstocks on the fruit quality parameters of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
Published September 14, 2005
39-43

The authors studied the effect of rootstocks with different growing vigour on fruit quality of different cultivars. Research results shows that best fruit diamter and fruit weight of all cultivars are for M9 rootstock. Similar tendency was found in skin colour, but in the case of Granny Smith, MM106 rootstock is more favourable because the gree...n skin colour is necessary for the consumers’ acceptance. Seedling rootstok has some unfavourable effects on fruit quality, thus its usage is not expedient.

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Effect of soil-compost proportion on the abiotic and biotic parameters of soilplant system
Published December 15, 2010
99-104

The environmental awareness, coming to the front in the 21st century, motivates us to supply the plant nutrient demand (in point of the plant, the environment and the human health) with natural materials.
Composting is known since the beginning of civilization. We came to know more the processes of composting as a result of last d...ecades’ research, but numerous unexplained questions remained up to this day. The good compost is dark gray or brown, and it should not create an odor. It has aggregate structure, and it’s pH is neutral. Compost is soil-like (Fehér, 2001), nutrient-rich material, which contains valuable nutrients extracted from soil, so if we recycle this, we can decrease the chemical fertilizer and other (example: mineral energy) expenses.
The reason of that we chose the more accurate cognition of compost utilization is to do more effective the site-specific nutrient supply. This increases the average yield and the quality of yield. Besides we can decrease the harmful effects, which endanger the plant, the environment, and the human body.
During the compost utilization experiment we blended the  acid sandy soil with compost in 4 different volumetric proportions (5 treatments) than we set the pots randomized. The advantage of this method is that we can provide equal conditions for plants so we can measure the effect of  treatments correctly. Our experimental plant was ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), that grows rapidly, tolerates the glasshouse conditions, and indicates the effect of treatments well. After the harvest of ryegrass we measured the fresh and dry weight of harvested leaves and the total C-, N-, S-content of the dry matter and of the soil, we examined the pH and the salt concentration of  soil as well. 
Our aim was to study and evaluate the relations between the compost-soil proportion and the nutrient content of soil and plant. In our previous experiments we confirmed (based on variance analyses) that the compost has a beneficial effect on soil and increases the nutrient content of the soil (Szabó, 2009). But it’s important to appoint that the compound of compost is seasonally change: in winter the selective gathered municipal solid waste contains salt that were applied for non-skidding of roads, but salt has a negative effect to the plant. We proved that in our experiment the 25/75% compost/soil proportion was ideal for the plant. This content of compost effected 6 times higher green matter weight compared to the 100% sandy soil. 

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Microbiological preparations affecting the soil nutrient availability and growth of ryegrass in a pot experiment
Published March 11, 2014
49-53

The effects of different bacterial fertilizers and their combinations with NPK fertilizer and wheat straw were investigated on some soil properties (chemical parameters) and on the biomass production of testplant. The applied quantities of the bacterial fertilizers were the double of the recommended dose. The experiment was set up in 2013 at th...e Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, in a three replications, in a random block design. Calcareous chernozem soil; originating from Debrecen (Látókép) was used with ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) test plant. At the end of the experiment (after 8 week) the samples of soil and plants were determined for nitrate-nitrogen, ALsoluble phosphorus and potassium content of soil, the weight of green biomass of ryegrass per pot, the dry matter and moisture content of ryegrass. Straw treatment resulted better water and available nutrient content of soil in general. Inoculation however was not improving the biomass production over the fertilizer treatment. Interrelation with the recommended dose could be further studied.

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Water managed properties of apple and pear trees based on lysimeters
Published November 20, 2011
129-132

A significant proportion of the aboveground green and dry weight of the plant is constituted by foliage. The canopy is an important factor of plant growth. On the one hand, the canopy absorbs solar energy, which is necessary for photosynthesis; on the other hand, it accumulates the nutrients absorbed by the roots, and most of the water-loss occ...urs through the foliage. The determination of the full canopy is not an easy target. In our research, we developed a measurement method to determine the leaf area. With the parameters of the examined tree (leaf length and maximum width) and the data of the ADC AM 100 leaf area scanner, we determined the k-value, with which we can easily and fast evaluate the leaf surface. Furthermore, we defined from the water balance of compensation lysimeters the cumulative transpiration of fruit trees and the efficiency of water use of trees. From the examined trees were made a 3D depiction, which show the shape, branching and the location of trees.

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Calculating possibility of the leaf area index of apple and pear trees
Published December 16, 2012
229-233

A significant proportion of the aboveground green and dry weight of the plant constitutes the foliage. The canopy is an important factor of plant growth. On one hand the canopy absorbs the solar energy, which is necessary for the photosynthesis, on the other hand accumulates the absorbed nutrients by the roots, and the most of the water-loss ha...ppens through the foliages. The determination of the full canopy is not an easy target. In our research we developed a measurement method to determine the leaf area. With the parameters of the examined tree (leaf length and maximum width) and the data of ADC AM 100 leaf area scanner we determined the k-value, with which we can easily and fast evaluate the leaf surface.

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Evaluation of water balance in apple and pear trees
Published October 5, 2010
193-198

A significant proportion of the aboveground green and dry weight of the plant constitutes the foliage. The canopy is an important factor
of plant growth. On one hand the canopy absorbs the solar energy, which is necessary for the photosynthesis, on the other hand accumulates
the absorbed nutrients by the roots, and the most of the water-l...oss happens through the foliages. The determination of the full canopy is not
an easy target. In our research we developed a measurement method to determine the leaf area. With the parameters of the examined tree
(leaf length and maximum width) and the data of ADC AM 100 leaf area scanner we determined the k-value, with which we can easily and
fast evaluate the leaf surface. Furthermore we defined from the water balance of compensation lysimeters the cumulative transpiration of
fruit trees and the efficiency of water use of trees.

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