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The effect of foreign stallions on the Hungarian Furioso-North Star breed
Published May 26, 2022
67-70

The most common aim of animal conservation programs is to maintain genetic diversity. Furioso-North Star is an indigenous Hungarian horse breed originated from Mezőhegyes Stud. The breed is based on two founder stallions, Furioso Senior and North Star Senior. The aim of this research study was to analyze the effect of the foreign breeding ...stallions to the genetic structure of Hungarian Furioso-North Star breed. The genetic structure of the breed was studied from pedigree data what was received from the Furioso-North Star Horse Breeding Association. Foals born between 2015–2018 were chosen as reference population. Every breeding stallion was marked by nationality (Austrian, Czech, German, Hungarian, Romanian or Slovak) according to their birth place. The population was described with genetic variability, what was calculated using Endog software. The Furioso-North Star breed is popular in Central Europe and nearby countries. The stallion imports and the stallion transfers were necessary and useful as they made changes in the composition of the genetic variability. The new genes and the new lines have refreshed the genetic structure. There were several breeds, like the Nonius, Shagya Arabian and English Thoroughbred, whose had an impact on the genetic structure of the Furioso-North Star breed.

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Study of a Turkey Population for Gene Preservation
Published May 4, 2004
48-52

Genetic variability is very important in small populations. We examined an indigenous bronze turkey population which is bred for gene conservation in order to see if the current mating system maintains genetic variability. The present generation was surveyed using microsatellite markers and a computer model was used to simulate changes in the p...opulation over 100 generations.
The data was analysed using the concept of entrophy from information theory instead of genetic variance so that we could more accurately measure genetic variability.
The results indicate that the breeding method currently in use, rotational line mating, is acceptable with respect to preserving genetic variability, but new selection methods may provide additional protection against the loss of alleles.

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Comparison of Variability among Irradiated and Control Inbred Maize Lines via Morphological Descriptions and Some Quantitative Features
Published October 11, 2006
70-73

Knowledge of genetic diversity in breeding material is fundamental for hybrid selection programs and for germplasm preservation as well. Research has been done with nine irradiated (fast neutron) and four non-treated inbred lines. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the degree of genetic variability detected with morphological descri...ption (based on CPVO TP/2/2) in these materials, (2) to compare the genetic changes among irradiated and non-irradiated maize inbred lines (based on some quantitative features). The irradiation did not change any of the characteristics clearly in positive or negative way, which can be related to the fact that the effect of induced mutation on genetic structure cannot be controlled. From the irradiated lines we have managed to select plants with earlier ripening times and better phenotypes. We could distinguish 3 main groups by the morphological features; these results match our expectations based on pedigree data. Markers distinguishable on the phenotypic level (e.g. antocyanin colouration, length of tassels) were significant in all lines.

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Changes in the genetic variability of the Furioso-North Star population between 1989 and 2019
Published May 26, 2022
61-65

The Furioso-North Star (FNS) is one of the indigenous Hungarian horse breeds, originated from Mezőhegyes Stud. The aim of this work was to analyze the pedigree diversity and inbreeding of the registered Hungarian Furioso-North Star population in two different time points: the first was the active population in 1989, the second was the acti...ve population in 2019. Pedigree data was analyzed using Endog 4.8 software. The pedigree completeness was calculated in three different ways. In the past 30 years the pedigrees became more complete. In the population 2019 were 5 horses with ancestor in the 40th generation. Only 17–17 animals covered the 50% of the genetic variability for the two population. The most important ancestor was Herod xx in both reference populations. The FNS breed has English Thoroughbred background, that might be the reason of having several horses form this breed in the database. There were six animals among the ten most important ancestors in both reference populations. The average inbreeding coefficient was 3.31 in 1989 and 4.22 in 2019. Animals with highest inbreeding coefficient were born from the mating of close relatives (typically father-daughter). The Bart Furioso III-84 Boglár had the highest inbreeding coefficient (0.299) in the population 2019.

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Results of fast neutron induced mutations in M1 and M2 generations of sorghum (Sorghum bicolour)
Published November 15, 2007
49-54

Due to climatic barriers, the genetic variability of Sorghum varieties decreases away from the gene centre, therefore hybrids cultivated in Hungary are restricted to a relatively limited genetic basis. This limited genetic basis results in a lower rate of genetic improvement, so the genetic basis of cytoplasm factors are to be extended. We enha...nced the diversity of primary materials by fast neutron treatment. As a result of this treatment we detected sterile, deformed specimens with double panicles in the stock treated with a dose of 12.5 Gy in the M1 generation. Agronomically useful
specimens were found in the stock treated with 10 Gy and 7.5 Gy doses, where the leaf area index (LAI) and Harvest- index gave higher values than those of the control group. In the stock treated with 5 Gy dose, variations were less significant. In the reseeded M2 generation we detected albino specimens with extreme chlorophyll defects in the 10 Gy Zádor stock.

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Gene Bank Developed by Induced Mutation for Selection
Published March 4, 2006
45-49

Heterosis breeding in maize caused gene erosion by using uniform inbred lines. In order to strengthen the genetic base, we established a gene bank containing lines with broad genetic variability, resistance and adaptability. The maize gene bank is a result of our work in the past two decades.
The gene bank originated from treatments of maize... seeds of hybrids and inbred lines with fast neutrons. The 1500 maize lines have great genetic variability which can be exploited after strict assessment and selection. As a result of the past several years, P 26, P 61 and P 62 lines have been released after DUS investigation in 2001.

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Identification of Hucul mare families by mtDNA markers
Published March 20, 2014
75-79

Hundred animal species have disappeared during the last century. By this time, approximately one-third of domestic animals have been in the endangered category. Hucul horses are also in this category; furthermore saving the genetic diversity beside the race preservation is an important challenge as well. The number of mares and stallions is onl...y one of the expressive elements of genetic diversity; together with their quality determine the genetic variability of this breed. Beyond that, if an exact breed can originates from more founders, it can be more renewed genetically. Stud book documents these data by registering the mare families and stallions’ genealogical lineage. Molecular genetics, especially mitochondrial DNA analysis can make the precise identification of mare families possible. As a result of these molecular based methods, protection of genetic diversity, as well as breed preservation became more reliable. After the primer designing, the optimal primer pair was chosen which targets a 1092 bp length DNA sequence in the cytochrome b region. After the successful PCR optimalisation, we determined 170 Hucul mares’ sequences. According to our results, the samples compose ten haplotypes, which are much less, than the registered number of mare families in the stud book. Further investigations are needed to reach more representative results, and drawn the further consequences.

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Genetic Diversity of Hair Colour in Horses
Published December 6, 2005
40-45

The main aim of this study was to analyze sources of variability for coat colour expressed as a quantitative trait as well as to determine non genetic factors influencing horse colour variation and shades. Traditional Hungarian horse breeds such as Lipizzan (grey), Gidran (chestnut), Shagya Arabian and Arabian Pure Bred (grey) and Nonius (bay a...nd black) horses were involved in the current study. We report results using direct measurements of horse coat colour using objective colorimetric dimensions and a spectrophotometer for determining hair melanin. Correlation analysis indicated that the single biological component that correlated best with the total melanin content of horse hair is the L* value (r=-0.858, p<0.0001). Subjective colour classes and coat colour variables L* and a* were obviously related, with R2 values of 0.88 and 0.46 respectively, with a lower R2 for b* of 0.22 (all p<0.001).

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Investigation of the mycelial compatibility of Macrophomina phaseolina in the Carpatian Basin
Published May 26, 2022
25-28

Macrophomina phaseolina is a globally widespread fungal pathogen. The fungus has a very wide range of hosts. Under optimal conditions, M. phaseolina can cause serious damage tothe host plants. In this study, the mycelial compatibility of different M. phaseolina isolates was investigated. From 2019 to 2021, 12 sunflower samples were collecte...d from different regions of the Carpathian Basin, 9 samples from Hungary, 1 sample from Austria, and 2 samples from Slovakia. The genetic variability of the pathogen is a critical problem in plant protection. Two compatible pathogen strains can easily exchange their genetic material for each other, which can lead to the development of resistance. All collected samples (12) were tested to examine their compatibility. Isolates from all tested samples were paired with isolates from all other samples thus, a total of 66 pairings were made. During the examinations of mycelial compatibility, only 20 pairs of all possible pairings were found to be incompatible, and all others (46) were found to be compatible.

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Coincidences between molecular genetic and studbook data of gidrán mare families on the basis of mtDnA
Published March 24, 2015
69-73

The traditional Hungarian horse breed, Gidran has been close to the edge of extinction several times. Despite the multiple bottleneck effect, the breed has retained a part of its genetic variability, and performed prominently in carriage driving and show-jumping competitions. Maintaining of the Gidran breed is important in the point of view of ...world heritage; because besides Hungary, smaller Gidran populations exist only in Bulgaria and Romania. Taking advantage of the special inheritance features of mtDNA, our study focused on two mtDNA regions of Gidran mares. Altogether, 251 hair samples from various Hungarian studs were examined. The analysis was successfully made in case of 251 samples of the cytochrome b and in case of 246 samples of D-loop regions. Because of the distinct mutation rates of the two mtDNA markers, the number of the haplotypes and the way of grouping samples into haplotypes was different. Our key finding was that most haplotypes may be compatible with mare families of the stud book; however incidental mistakes in stud book have occurred only in a few cases. Our results indicate the importance of the preservation and breeding those mare families, which are molecular genetically more diverse than the others, and are in the edge of extinction.

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Introduction of DNA-based Methods to Agriculture Through Molecular Taxonomic Examination of Poa Species
Published December 6, 2005
139-142

biological methods, one among them is AFLP that is well applicable for taxonomic research. Bluegrass species, that are important components of meadow associations, thus their thorough knowledge is necessary in maintaining biodiversity, were examined with bringing this method to perfection.
Taxonomic relationship of the members of Poa pratens...is aggregation is a controversial issue. Present study aimes to identify the members of this group, with a developed AFLP method through molecular taxonomic examination of Poa species in meadows nearby Debrecen, revealing their genetical distances. Species of the aggregation show a great genetic variability, but their genetic proximity approves the use of the term aggregation. Results established wider geographical investigation of three species of the aggregation. The distinctness of the species based on their morphological features was confirmed according to their genetical basis as well. The method overall turned out to be appropriate for the taxonomic research of bluegrass species like Poa pratensis and its aggregation.

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Integrated nutrient supply and varietal difference influence grain yield and yield related physio-morphological traits of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) varieties under drought condition
Published May 26, 2022
111-121

The ever-growing world population entails an improvement in durum wheat grain yield to ensure an adequate food supply, which often gets impaired by several biotic and abiotic factors. Integrated nutrient management, such as nitrogen rate × foliar zinc × sulphur fertilization combined with durum wheat varieties were investigated in order t...o examine the dynamics of yield and yield related physio-morphological traits under drought conditions. The four durum wheat varieties, three-level of nutrient supply (i.e. control, sulphur, and zinc), and two nitrogen regimes (i.e. zero and 60 kg ha−1) were arranged in split-split plot design with three replications. Zinc and sulphur were applied as foliar fertilisation during the flag leaf stage, both at a rate of 3 and 4 liters ha-1, respectively. Results showed existence of genetic variability for grain yield, plant height, NDVI, SPAD and spike density. Foliar based application of zinc and sulphur at the latter stage improved the plant height. Nitrogen fertilized varieties with lower spike numbers showed to better yield formation. Co-fertilization of nitrogen and zinc improved grain yield of responsive varieties like Duragold by about 21.3%. Spikes per m2 were statistically insignificant for grain yield improvement. It could be inferred that the observed positive effect of sulphur, nitrogen and zinc application on physio-morphology and yield formation substantiates the need to include these essential nutrients in the cultivation system of durum wheat.

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Role of Sowing Time in Maize Production (Review)
Published September 15, 2003
36-39

Many authors, both in Hungary and abroad, have reported on experiments carried out to determine the role of sowing time in maize, but the results are often contradictory. This is hardly surprising, since the maize plant exhibits enormous genetic variability and the hybrids created through selection and inbreeding may have very specific requirem...ents as to sowing date. The year effect, too, often complicates the efforts of scientists to provide clear guidance to farmers on the optimal sowing date for each hybrid.

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