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N-Phenyl-Phthalamic Acid and Fertilization Effects on Flowering, Fruit Set and Fruit Quality of Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
Published October 11, 2006
24-28

On seven apple cultivars (Gala Must, Gloster, Granny Smith, Idared, Jonagold, Jonathan Csány 1, Mutsu), the authors studied the influence of N-phenyl-phthalamic (PPA) acid and fertilization on flowering, fruit set and fruit quality in the years 2003-2004. The research results showed that PPA application extended the flowering time of the most ...cultivars. Fruit set of apple cultivars increased in many cases when regulator was applied. The additional nutrient supply could increase the fruit set too. The increase of fruit set increased the number of fruit per tree. Quality parameters determined by fertilization and fruit number per tree. For example, when N-phenyl-phthalamic acid was applied without fertilization the fruit number per tree increased considerably however, it caused a considerable frittering away. The reason for this is that fruit set was high and fruit received not enough nutrition for growing up. The skin colour of fruits was decreased in several cases by the treatments. In one respect the enlarged fruit number was shaded the others and the fertilization increased the vegetative shading leaf area.

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The effect Benefit PZ biostimulant on the fruit size and yield production of apricot varieties (Prunus Armeniaca)
Published May 23, 2006
16-18

Fruit size is determined by the genetic makings of varieties the pomology and enviromental factors. The climate and the previous year’s harvested yield have a great effect on yield volume. It is not easy to harmonize the qualitative and quantitave parameters of the fruit. High yield usually causes smaller fruits.
The aim of our trials was ...to evalaute the effect of Benefit PZ biostimulant on fruit size. We examined two apricot varieties (Bergeron, Magyarkajszi C235) for the efficacy of the product. The three applications were made with 400 l/ha water with 2500 ppm. The optimal interval of application with Benefit PZ is during in the early phases of development. The size of the final fruits depends on the number of cells making up the fruits. The later application could not increase fruit size growth, there are no significant differences between the Benefit PZ sprayed and the control plots. The totally harvested fruit weight was 13.5% more on the trees of cv. Bergeron, it was caused by the higher fruit set. On the sprayed trees were 12.2% more fruit. Therefore were no differences between the average fruit weight. Fruit weights of the treated trees were 44.37 g on cv. Bergeron, 44.15 g on cv. Magyarkajszi C235 and on the no treated trees were 43.83 g as well as 45.33 g.

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Contexts between apple orchards with various cultivar comparisons and the effect of ATS (ammoniumthiosulphate) on fruit thinning
Published March 20, 2013
35-38

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Our research focuses on a fruit thinning material that can also be used in apple production. This material reduces significantly the required manual labor of hand thinning by russeting the blossoms selectively. The ATS (ammonium-thiosulphate) acts as chemical desiccant contrary to the nowadays commonly used materials such as naphthalene acetic acid, naphthyl acetamide, benziladenin and ethylene, which affect the metabolic processes of the plant by regulating the hormone system. In our experimentals cultivar ’Pinova’ and ’Golden Reinders’ were treated with different concentrations of ATS. The effect of these doses on the fruit setting and the quality and quantity parameters of the fruits was studied. According to our results, in the case of cultivar ’Pinova’ the ATS did not have any detected effects at the concentration of 1.5%. Application of ATS at 3% decreased considerably the fruit setting and fruit yield, accordingly the mean fruit size improved. The response to treatment in the case cultivar ‘Golden Reinders’ does not have any similar consistent results.

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The setting of fenological-stadium of plum (Prunus domestica) rootstock-variety combinations in 2011–2013
Published February 25, 2014
25-29

We planted experimental trees, namely 6 plum varieties and 6 plum rootstocks in the spring of 2010, which of aim were the phenological -phases of variety-rootstock combinations analyses.

We observed 18 plum varieties – rootstocks combination in Kecskemét, in Garden of Kecskemét Collage. We set the examination with 2 kind irrigations.... A plum combination appear in the examination in 6 repetition depend on irrigation. The vegetative period started bursting of buds in 2011 March 15–18.; 2012 March 16–19. and 2013 March 12.–April 2. This was followed green buds stadium shorter or longer periods, than appeared white buds stadium and in the following day we could see started of flowering. The main flowering kept 7–10 days, except in 2012, when arriving frozen by April 8. morning stopped the main flowering. Following flowering we observed fruit falling 3 occasion, these weren’t noticed calendar date. These were in order: fruit falling after set, fruit falling in June, fruits falling before harvest. In 2013 these fruit falling there weren’t considerable. The ripening was characteristically varieties. The most of earlier ripening was ‘Katinka’/‘St Julien A‘, from which we didn’t harvest in 2011, but in 2012 July 17, and in 2013 July 9. pick up some plum fruits. The ‘Cacanska lepotica’ ripped in July 21–30, this was followed in ripening time the ‘Topfive’ in July 19.–August 6., The ‘Toptaste’ in August 5–23., The ‘Jojo’ in August 2–26., and the ‘Topper and ‘Katinka’/‘Mirobalan ’ stopped ripening in August 22.–September begin. The colouring leaves and the falling leaves started continue after harvesting, but we experienced the end of the falling leaves in the first bigger frozen time, October 24.–November 26.

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Effect of Rootstocks on Blooming Capacity and Productivity of AppleCultivars
Published December 14, 2004
14-20

The experiment with three different rootstock cultivars was set up in a commercial apple orchard at Nagykutas, which is situated in the western part of Hungary. The aim of our two-year-study was to determine the effect three different growing rootstock cultivars (M9, MM106 and seedling) on the flowering and productivity of 33 apple cultivars. O...ur observations included the following measurements: the date of the beginning and the end of flowering, flower density, fruit density, fruit numbers per tree and tree productivity. According to our results, it was found that the different growing rootstocks have a great determining effect on the above measurements. Our results showed that the flowering period was similar for all cultivars on the three different rootstocks. However, the flowering and the fruit setting decreased in the order M9, MM106 and seedling rootstocks. In contrast, the fruit number per tree followed, in decreasing order, MM106, seedling and M9 rootstocks.

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Anti-Oxidants in Agriculture
Published May 4, 2004
195-200

Today’s programmes aiming at enhancement of fruit and vegetable consumption have been intensified. In the unanimous view of experts, different health problems, such as those of the immune system, inflammations, and even certain cancerous diseases can be prevented and/or cured with regular consumption of fresh (raw) fruit and vegetables. It is... well-known fact that among the biologically valuable components, antioxidant compounds – C- and E vitamins, as well as carotinoides – play an important role. In this field, Hungary can expect success in the future since it has excellent plant genetic stock. Regretfully, national data banks regarding cultivation technology, cultivation areas or varieties for fruits and vegetables and their antioxidant contents do not exist in Hungary. Nevertheless, in connection with the so-called “Hungaricums” its existence would be of urgent necessity. Such excellent Hungarian products are – among others – a lot of sour cherry varietiles, the Szeged green pepper and the Makó onion. They enjoy high priority as “Hungaricums” even in the European Union and such activities that support these kinds of products should be enhanced by intense and consequent research work, which may prove their role as functional foods. Presently’ the USA leads in the research of antioxidant compounds of sour cherry, and so far 17 of these compounds have been found partly in Hungarian varieties. Similar research on green, and ‘pritamin’ peppers have not gone so far since they were limited only for seasoning paprika. In Hungary, studies on onion and garlic have not been performed. It should be mentioned that due to the continental climate, these products may be cultivated, consumed or processed only in a limited period. Taking this into consideration, processing and conserving methods are needed which make the consumption of these fruit and vegetables as functional food possible year-round. Scientific establishment of this set of questions is of current concern, because consumption of these products could have an important role in improving the health status of the Hungarian population in the future.

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How does the S-locus determining self-incompatibility in stone fruits work in self-compatible peach?
Published September 14, 2005
93-100

The majority of stone fruit species are self-incompatible, a feature that is determined by a specific recognition mechanism between the S-ribonuclease enzymes residing in the pistils and the F-box proteins expressed in the pollen tubes. Failure in the function of any component of this bipartite system resulted in self-compatibility (SC) in many... cultivars of Prunus species. Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.) is the only species in the Prunoideae subfamily that is traditionally known to be self-compatible, but its molecular background is completely unknown. Isoelectric focusing and S-gene specific PCR revealed that SC is not due to functional inability of pistil ribonucleases. We hypothesize that SC may be a consequence of a kind of pollen-part mutation or the action of one or more currently unknown modifier gene(s). Only two S-alleles were identified in a set of peach genotypes of various origin and phenotypes in contrast to the 17–30 alleles described in self-incompatible fruit trees. Most important commercial cultivars carry the same S-allele and are in a homozygote state. This indicates the common origin of these cultivars and also the consequence of self-fertilization. According to the available information, this is the first report to elucidate the role of S-locus in the fertilization process of peach. 

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Alternatives of microclimate control in orchards
Published November 13, 2012
209-212

The aim of the study was to find out which of the methods used to avoid damages of late frosts would be the most effective for the fruit growing practice. We tested the antifrost irrigation method in Debrecen-Pallag. For that purpose microjet sprayers are used, which are thrifty and does not need for that purpose large containers. With the aim ...to secure an even distribution of water, the sprayers are distributed on three levels: above and inside of the crown as well as on the level of trunks. On a large scale, a single microjet above the crown level would be sufficient. By means of a detailed analysis  served to set the optimum intervals between spraying phases: with each 15, 10, 5 and 3 minutes during half a minute. The synchronous presence of water and ice below the freezing point, the released freezing heat plus the water used much above the freezing point
(9–10 °C) altogether maintains the temperature above around 0 °C near the flowers or growing fruitlets, meanwhile, the surrounding air cools down to -8 °C. The effectiveness of the generally used antifrost would be increased substantially by the former application of cooling irrigation, which delays the blooming date. 

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Environmental friendly irrigation of vegetables with high salt content water
Published September 18, 2014
115-119

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Horticultural activities have been characteristic in the hobby gardens located in the northern and western areas around the town of Karcag for more than 300 years. During the droughty summer periods, characteristic to the region, the water demand of vegetables and fruit trees are covered by irrigation, for that the water is gained from drilled wells. These well waters contain high amount of dissolved salts contributing to the secondary salinization of the soil. Taking these facts into consideration an irrigation experiment was set at the lysimeter station of Karcag Research Institute. Our goal was to mitigate the risk of secondary salinization generated by irrigation with waters of high salt content and to survey the application possibilities of soil preserving irrigation.

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