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The effect of sulphur and nitrogen supply on the growth and nutrient content of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Published June 30, 2018
65-70
Sulphur is an essential element for plants. Decreasing sulphur deposition from the air, and the use of more concentrated phosphate fertilizers, which contain no sulphur, has led to reports of sulphur deficiencies for wheat. Sulphur deficiency significantly affects yield and also the quality of wheat. The pot exper...iment was set up on calcareous chernozem soil at Látókép, Hungary, test plant was spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Seven treatments were used where nitrogen and sulphur were supplied as soil fertilizers in increasing rates (NS1, NS2, NS3) and in foliar fertilizer as well (NS1+fol., NS2+fol., NS3+fol.). Plant aboveground biomass production was determined in samples taken in the stages of development BBCH 29-30, 51-59, 61-69, 89. The nitrogen and sulphur content of straw and grain were measured. N/S ratios of grain and straw were calculated. The weights of grain were ranging between 8.6–16.1 g/pot. NS2 and NS2+fol. treatments produced the highest values. Foliar fertilizer had no further effect on grain. Analysing the values of the straw, it was observed that tendencies were similar to values of grain. The NS2 treatment produced the highest weight of straw and the NS3 rate already decreased that amount. The obtained results show the unfavourable effect of excessively high rate applied in NS3 treatment. The supplementary foliar fertilizer had no significant influence on the weight of straw. Both N and S-uptake of plant was very intensive at the stem elongation stage, then the N and S-content of plant continuously decreased in time in all treatments. The N-content of grain ranged between 2.215–2.838%.
The N-content of grain slightly increased with increasing of nitrogen doses. In the higher doses (NS2, NS3) foliar fertilization slightly increased the nitrogen content of grain, although this effect was not statistically proved. The N-content of straw varied from 0.361 to 0.605%. The growing dose of soil fertilizer also considerably increased the nitrogen content of straw. Foliar fertilization further increased the nitrogen content of straw. The S-content of grain ranged between 0.174–0.266%. The lowest fertilizer dose (NS1) significantly increased the sulphur content of grain. The further increasing fertilizer doses (NS2, NS3) did not cause additional enhance in sulphur content of grain.
The foliar fertilizer also did not change the sulphur value of plant. The increasing amount of soil fertilizer and the supplementary foliar fertilizer had no effect on the sulphur content of straw. The treatments influenced the N/S ratios of grain and straw. On the basis of experimental results it can be concluded that the examined nitrogen and sulphur containing soil fertilizer had positive effect on the growth and yield of spring wheat grown on the calcareous chernozem soil. The soil fertilizer application enhanced the grain nitrogen and sulphur content. The highest rate of fertilizer (600 kg ha-1) proved to have decreasing effect on the yield. The sulphur and nitrogen containing foliar fertilizer did not have significant effect on the yield parameters but slightly increased the nitrogen content of plant.
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Response of sugar beet to different foliar fertilizers
Published December 21, 2008
127-136

The yield and quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by level crop production system; therefore the effects of foliar fertilization were studied. Our field trials were carried out in 2005  and 2006 in Hajdúböszörmény, at two experimental sites. In our trials the effects of Biomit Plussz, Fitohorm and Kelcare Cu (having high Cu... content) as foliar fertilizers, as well as a fungicide with high sulphur content, Cosavet DF, were studied and
compared. Effects of treatments were studied in four replicates. 
We took root samples at 4 week intervals, starting in August. The quality of root (sucrose, potassium, sodium and alfa-amino N content) was determined from filtrated beet broth, by an automatic beet laboratory system, called VENEMA. Leaf samples were taken three times in the growing season, element composition was measured by ICP-OES.
We found that the crop and the sugar yield were significantly influenced by the foliar treatments both of the two years.

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19
29
Influence of Foliar Treatments on the yield and quality of Sugar Beet
Published May 23, 2006
119-123

The yield and quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by the plant production system, thus we studied the effect of mineral fertilization. Our field trials were carried out in 2005 in Hajdúböszörmény, at two sites. We studied the effect of sulphur (Cosavet DF), copper (Kelcare Cu) and two foliar nutrients with high active agents. Tr...eatments were replicated four times.
We took root samples at 4 week intervals, starting in August. The quality of root (sucrose, potassium, sodium and alfa-amino N content) was determined from filtrated beet broth, by an automatic beet laboratory system, called VENEMA.
We found that the crop and the sugar yield were significantly influenced by the foliar treatments

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15
22
Foliar treatments of Sugar beet
Published November 15, 2007
55-59

The yield and quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by the plant production system, thus we studied the effect of mineral fertilization. Our field trials were carried out in 2005 and 2006 in Hajdúböszörmény, at two sites. We studied the effect of sulphur (Cosavet DF), copper (Kelcare Cu) and two foliar nutrients with high active a...gents. Treatments were replicated four times.
We took root and leaf samples at 4 week intervals, starting in August. The quality of root (sucrose, potassium, sodium and alfaamino N content) was determined from filtrated beet broth, by an automatic beet laboratory system, called VENEMA. Leaf samples were measured with ICP-OES.
We found that the crop and the sugar yield were significantly influenced by the foliar treatments. 

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14
22
Results of foliar treatments on Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)
Published July 16, 2007
303-308

The yield and quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by the plant production system, thus we studied the effect of mineral fertilization. Our field trials were carried out in 2005 and 2006 in Hajdúböszörmény, at two sites. We studied the effect of sulphur (Cosavet DF), copper (Kelcare Cu) and two foliar nutrients with high active a...gents. Treatments were replicated four times.
We took root samples at 4 week intervals, starting in August. The quality of root (sucrose, potassium, sodium and alfa-amino N content) was determined from filtrated beet broth, by an automatic beet laboratory system, called VENEMA.
We found that the crop and the sugar yield were significantly influenced by the foliar treatments in both of the two years.

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16
35
Influence of Foliar Treatments on the Sugar Yield Changes of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)
Published May 4, 2004
108-111

In our small block experiment in randomised blocks, we examined the effect of 6 foliar treatments at 3 different nutrition levels in 2002 on meadow chernozem soil.
The experiment consisted of 3 blocks, which corresponded to 3 different nutrition levels. The first block was the control, the fertilization rate of the second block was 20 kg ha<...sup>-1 N, 40 kg ha-1 P2O5, 120 kg ha-1 K2O, on the third block 40 kg ha-1 N, 80 kg ha-1 P2O5, 240 kg ha-1 K2O were applied. We applied magnesium and strobilurin active ingredient (Juwel, BAS 51200), in different combination and with different application dates.
We found that the foliar treatments with bioactive fungicides significantly influenced the yield and some quality parameters in this field experiment.

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The effect of water-stress on the mineral nutrition of fruit plantations
Published October 5, 2010
187-192

Besides agro-techniques the climatic conditions play an important role in agricultural production. Weather extremes are
significant hazards to many horticultural regions all over the word. It has a profound influence on the growth, development and yields of a
crop, incidence of pests and diseases, water needs and fertilizer requirements i...n terms of differences in nutrient mobilization due to water
stresses. Nowadays, the weather extremes cause more and more problems and significant hazards to many horticultural regions in Hungary.
The aim of this study is to explore the problems of nutrient uptake followed from climatic anomalies and response it. In this study
we focus on water supply problems (water-stress).
Reviewing the effects and nutrient disorders caused by climatic anomalies, the following statements can be taken:
· Nutrient demand of trees can be supplied only under even worse conditions.
· The most effective weapon against damage of climatic anomalies is preventative action.
· Proper choice of cultivars, species and cultivation should provide further possibilities to avoid and moderate the effects of
climatic anomalies.
· Fruit growing technologies especially nutrition should be corrected and adjusted to the climatic events as modifier factors.
· The role of foliar spraying, mulching and fertigation/irrigation is increasing continuously.
· Urgent task of the near future is to correct and adjust the tested technologies of fruit growing according to these climatic events as
modifier factors.
Optimal nutrient supply of trees decreases the sensitivity for unexpected climatic events. To solve these problems supplementary, foliar
fertilization is recommended, which adjusted to phonological phases of trees. Moreover, mulching is regarded as an excellent water saving
method.

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Agronomic bases of precision barley production
Published November 13, 2012
217-220

To ascertain the importance of individual preciosion factors in achieving yield and quality of malting barley, we established a multifactor 
experiment at the research station of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra in 2009 and 2010. Four variants of fertilization, 2 ways of soil cultivation and four varieties 'Bojos’, 'Kango...o’, 'Marthe’ and 'Xanadu’ were observed. From the quality indicators the nitrogen content (%) was observed. The results were statistically analyzed by using a multifactor analysis of variance by using Statistica 8, the program Statgraphics. The difference between years was statistically significant (1.87 t ha-1) in favour of 2010. The difference was also significant between the varieties 'Bojos’ and ’Kangoo’(1.07 t ha-1), respectively. 'Martha’ and 'Xanadu’ as well as 'Kangoo’ (0.56 resp. 0.33 t ha-1). Conventional soil cultivation in
comparison with a minimalization technology, demonstrated a  tatistically insignificant increase of yield. Significant differences were obtained between the variants of fertilization. Treatment by using Condit (b-var.) showed a very positive impact in climatic favorable year (2010) with a yield result of 7.42 t ha-1. In comparison with an untreated control, the difference in yield was 0.89 t ha-1. A significant increase of yield was achieved by using the combination of solid fertilizer with foliar fertilizer (LAV + Hakofyt, var.c) 0.47 t ha-1. The crude protein content was statistically influenced by a variety and year. In 2009, the crude protein content was above average (12.38%). Significantly lower attributes were achieved in 2010 (9.90%). From the studied/observed varieties the lowest crude protein content was showed by a variety 'Kangoo’ (1.68%).

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Examination of Possibilities for Increasing Sugar Content
Published May 11, 2003
202-206

The result of sugar beet production is highly effected by the quality and the yield. Those agricultural techniques are very important which can be applied at low cost to improve these parameters. Such an opportunity is to increase sugar yield by foliar fertilization with nutrients and by treatment with bioactive fungicides.
In my small block... trial I examined the effect of the magnesium and strobilurin active ingredients in different combinations and at different application times on the quality and the yield of sugar beet.
I found that there was a signifficant increase in sugar content on that blocks which were treated with a bioactive ingredient combined with magnesium in the middle of July and on those which were sprayed with bioactive ingredient in August.

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Nutritional disorders of arable crop growth in eastern Croatia
Published September 5, 2018
273-290

Nutritional imbalances accompanied with growth retardation of crops at early growth stage were found since the last 40 years on certain arable lands in eastern Croatia. In this regard, phosphorus (P) deficiencies in maize and wheat were found mainly on acid soils of the western part of the region, potassium (K) deficiencies in maize, soybean on... the hydromorphic neutral to alkaline calcaric drained gleysols of Sava valley lowland, while zinc (Zn) deficiencies were observed mainly in seed-maize and soybean on neutral calcaric eutric cambisols of the eastern part of the region. Cold and moist spring is factor promoting P deficiency symptoms. As oasis of normal crops existed on same arable land, comparison of plant and soil composition was possible from typical sites. P nutrition disorders were in connection with the lower P and the higher aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) concentrations in the top of plants and the lower soil pH values. K-deficiency as result of strong K fixation and imbalances with high levels of magnesium (Mg) were the main responsible factors of low maize and soybean yields on some drained gleysols. Chlorosis incidences typical for Zn deficiency in maize and soybean were in close connection with the higher soil pH, the lower quantities of mobile Zn, here and there the higher mobile P in soil, the lower concentrations of Zn and the higher levels of Al and Fe in plants. Overcoming the above mentioned disorders and normalization of yields were achieved using ameliorative fertilization either by K or P fertilizers and in case of Zn by foliar spraying of crops with 0.75% ZnSO4 solution. Also, alleviations are possible by selection of more tolerant genotypes of field crops to specific types of nutritional disorders. From this aspect, some practical solutions were recommended for maize with reference to K nutritional problems.

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