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The Effect of Plant Density on the Yield of Sunflower Hybrid’s in 2001-2002
Published May 11, 2003
184-189

Nowadays, for increasing efficiency of sunflower production treating hybrid-specific technologies was required. Increasing of hybrid choice gave reasons for trials in respects of critical factors, as well as in case of genotype-enviroment interactions. The effect of changing plant density show up as determinant factor which affects on yield as ...well as on plant hygienic conditions. Trials were established on calcareous chernozem soil (Hajdú-Bihar county), in 2001-2002. The field trials were randomized, in four repetition on small parcels. The plant density trials were established in 35.000-75.000 plant/hectar interval using a scale of 10.000 plant/hectar. 10 hybrids were used in both year.
In 2001, 55.000 plant/hectar density was the optimal, in case of most of the hybrids. The yield of tested hybrids did not show significant difference. Yield decreasing effect of using less than optimal density was more significant than in case of using optimal plant density. In 2002, the optimal density was in 45.000-65.000 plant/hectar interval, there was no possibility to find narrower optimum.
Presence of Diaporthe helianthi and the damage caused by the pathogen was significant in 1997-1999, whereas in 2001-2002 the large-scale appearance of the pathogen did not occur. In 2001, the affect of high plant density on disease caused by Diaporthe helianthi showed just tendency-like appearance, in 2002, the infection showed up just in the end of the vegetation period, without significant damage. In spite of the low infection level, the difference between the infection of the diverse plant density treatment was significant. Increasing plant density made increase the frequency of the Diaporthe helianthi infection. The rate of the flower diseases was around 3-16% in 2001, the highest infection level emerged in 65.000-75.000 plant/hectar density, whereas in 2002, the rate of infection level was less than 10%. The increasing plant density helped the development of flower diseases.

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Testing of paraffin oil efficiency against grape powdery mildew in Eger wine region
Published February 18, 2016
73-80

The aim of the present study was to examine the efficiency of paraffin oil against powdery mildew in Eger wine region. The experiment has been carried out in 2013 and 2014 with Chardonnay and Kékfrankos grape varieties, which have different resistance against powdery mildew. The effectiveness of the oil was examined on leaves and clusters (fre...quency and intensity). This oil was effective against Erysiphe necator infection on field trials in Chile and Brazil. The spread of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) was also inhibited by this material in some experiments conducted in Spain and France.

The differences between oil treatments represented the sensitivity of the grape varieties in accordance with the applied dosages. The oil was effective against powdery mildew with different extent as a result of the so called ”vintage effect”. In 2013, the treatment of the highest dosage (D3) didn’t differed significantly in frequency and intensity of infection from the regular treatment (clusters of Kékfrankos, leaves of Chardonnay). In 2014, the oil was not so effective against powdery mildew compared to 2013. No remarkable differences were detected between the treatments due to the strong pressure of powdery mildew. Furthermore, no any effect of the lowest dosage (D1) was detected in the case of the sensitive clusters of Chardonnay and leaves of Kékfrankos in both experimental years.

In summary, the oil treatment has an effect against powdery mildew, however this efficiency largely depends on the vintage characteristics and the pressure of powdery mildew. Further investigations are neccessary, for example field trials with combinations of other sprays. The oil can be useable as fungicide with proper care in eco-friendly integrated and bio (ecological) viticulture.

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Micropropagation of Leuce-poplar clones and its role in selection breeding
Published March 23, 2016
43-48
Leuce-poplars (mostly white poplar and its natural hybrid grey poplar) are native tree species trough Hungary. They are covering more than 4.0 per cent of the Hungarian forested area (77 000 ha). The white (grey) poplars play a significant role in the forestation under sandy soil site conditions as well as they are of importance from nature c...onservation point of view as well.
Long-term selection breeding work is going on at the National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre Forest Research Institute (NARIC FRI), involving selection of fast-growing Leuce-poplar clones under dry site conditions.
Micropropagation technology is relatively quickly spreading in forestry. In vitro multiplication of trees is applied mainly in fruit growing in Hungary, in case of forestry it is used mainly for selection breeding.
This paper presents a short overview on the micropropagation trials with different Leuce-poplar clones and the early evaluation of the seedlings growing of the micropropagated clones/varieties.
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Response of sugar beet to different foliar fertilizers
Published December 21, 2008
127-136

The yield and quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by level crop production system; therefore the effects of foliar fertilization were studied. Our field trials were carried out in 2005  and 2006 in Hajdúböszörmény, at two experimental sites. In our trials the effects of Biomit Plussz, Fitohorm and Kelcare Cu (having high Cu... content) as foliar fertilizers, as well as a fungicide with high sulphur content, Cosavet DF, were studied and
compared. Effects of treatments were studied in four replicates. 
We took root samples at 4 week intervals, starting in August. The quality of root (sucrose, potassium, sodium and alfa-amino N content) was determined from filtrated beet broth, by an automatic beet laboratory system, called VENEMA. Leaf samples were taken three times in the growing season, element composition was measured by ICP-OES.
We found that the crop and the sugar yield were significantly influenced by the foliar treatments both of the two years.

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Analysis of the photosynthetic parameters, the yield and the quality of winter wheat
Published October 5, 2010
101-106

The environmental adaptability of crop production is basically determined by the selection of biological background (plant species and
varieties) suitable for the region and the site. The aim of our work is to parametrize the plant assimilation, its intensity, dynamics and the
most important characteristics and the relationships to the qu...ality in winter wheat trials. The measurements were carried out at the research
site of the University of Debrecen in small parcel experiments. We measured the leaf net CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance,
intercellular CO2 level, the transpiration, the leaf temperature and the air temperature by the LICOR LI-6400 portable photosynthesis
system in field trials on the nutrient supply. The soil of the experimental area is calciferous chernozem with favorable water regime.
We have examined the photosynthetic activity, the productivity and yield stability of winter wheat varieties. We have compared the yield
results, at similar agrotechnical conditions in seven cropyears. We also determined the quality parameters of the winter wheat varieties.
Then we valued the yield stability of genotypes with the help of analysis of variance and linear regression equations. We have defined the
connections between assimilation parameters, the yield stability and quality parameters of wheat varieties.

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The role of disease resistance in the registration of crop varieties in Hungary
Published June 2, 2015
27-29

Variety testing including disease resistance test of the major crops has been carrying out since the 1960’s in Hungary. Testing for resistance of the new candidate varieties is performed in the so-called VCU (Value for Cultivation and Use) trials under natural infection and in special small-plot or micro-plot trials using different disease pr...ovocative methods. Disease resistance, especially those of multiple and horizontal-type (race non-specific, partial or durable) resistances, has recently become a key limiting factor in the state variety registration. The role of disease resistance in the decision-making process of variety registration is demonstrated on the examples of winter wheat and sunflower as two major field crops in Hungary.

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Laboratory and small plot fungicide trials to control potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) next to Sepsiszentgyörgy town (Romania)
Published November 2, 2014
72-72

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Our experiments were carried out during 2009 and 2010 years on Szépmező field, next to the Sepsiszentgyörgy town, Kovászna county, Romania. The experimental area situated at 520 - 580 m altitude, its soil is a humus rich chernozem, the yearly average temperature is between 7 - 8 oC, the precipitation is 500 - 600 mm/year. 7 different fungicides efficacy were studied for control to potato late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans on three potato varieties, viz. Ostara, Santé and Desirée.

In the laboratory the fluanizam (500 g/L, ALTIMA 500) fungicide was the best in inhibition of growing fungus while on the field trial plots cymoxanil + famoxadone (22.1 + 16.6%, EQUATION PRO WP*) and metalaxyl** + mancozeb (200 g/L + 1.600 g/L, RIDOMIL MZ 72WP) were the most effective. This facts were confirmed by statistic Duncan-test and data of yields.

The appearance of Phytophthora infestans epidemic was influenced by the climate conditions too during May and June when the minimum temperature was 12 oC, and the maximum 20 oC, the rain quantity more than 120 mm, the air humidity above 75%, these conditions promote the appearance and spread of fungus.

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Long-term field experiments in the crop production and agroecology
Published September 5, 2018
267-272

In Hungary, there are 57 LTFEs included 13360 plots of them 51 trials elder than 20 years, more than 50 years are 32 trials and 6 less than 20 years old. Compared to the 2003 statistical data, some 26 LTFEs ceased to operate in the course of the last 15 years. All research workers and scientist have to do the best to preserve the recently still... existing LTFE’s. This paper presents the list of the currently active LTFEs with some comments including the locations, year of setting and the number of plots.

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Results of foliar treatments on Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)
Published July 16, 2007
303-308

The yield and quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by the plant production system, thus we studied the effect of mineral fertilization. Our field trials were carried out in 2005 and 2006 in Hajdúböszörmény, at two sites. We studied the effect of sulphur (Cosavet DF), copper (Kelcare Cu) and two foliar nutrients with high active a...gents. Treatments were replicated four times.
We took root samples at 4 week intervals, starting in August. The quality of root (sucrose, potassium, sodium and alfa-amino N content) was determined from filtrated beet broth, by an automatic beet laboratory system, called VENEMA.
We found that the crop and the sugar yield were significantly influenced by the foliar treatments in both of the two years.

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Dieback of apricot plantations caused by 'Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum' in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county (Northern-Hungary)
Published November 10, 2010
34-41

Plant diseases caused by phytoplasmas have increasing importance in all over the world for fruit growers. Lately, phytoplasma diseases occur on many fruit varieties and responsible for serious losses both in quality and quantity of fruit production. In the long-run these diseases cause destruction of fruit trees. The apricot phytoplasma disease... (Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum) was first reported in Europe in 1924 from France. In 1992 the disease has also been identified in Hungary. On the base of growers' signals serious damages of "Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum" Seemüller and Schneider, 2004 (formerly: European stone fruit yellows phytoplasma) could be observed in different stone fruit plantations in the famous apricot-growing area nearby Gönc town, Northern-Hungary. Field examinations have been begun in 2009 in several stone fruit plantations in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County mainly in Gönc region which is one of the most important apricot growing regions in Hungary, named “Gönc Apricot Growing Area”. Our goals were to diagnose the occurrence of Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum on stone fruits (especially on apricot) in the North-Hungarian growing areas by visual diagnostics and confirm data by laboratory PCR-based examinations. All the 28 collected samples were tested in laboratory trials and at 13 samples from apricot, peach, sour cherry and wild plum were confirmed the presence of phytoplasma (ESFY). On the base of observations it seems evident that the notable losses caused by "Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum" is a new plant health problem to manage for fruit growers, especially apricot producers in Hungary. 

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Management of phytopathogens by application of green nanobiotechnology: Emerging trends and challenges
Published June 2, 2015
15-22

Nanotechnology is highly interdisciplinary and important research area in modern science. The use of nanomaterials offer major advantages due to their unique size, shape and significantly improved physical, chemical, biological and antimicrobial properties. Physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of metal nanoparticles have received much a...ttention of researchers. There are different methods i.e. chemical, physical and biological for synthesis of nanoparticles. Chemical and physical methods have some limitations, and therefore, biological methods are needed to develop environment-friendly synthesis of nanoparticles. Moreover, biological method for the production of nanoparticles is simpler than chemical method as biological agents secrete large amount of enzymes, which reduce metals and can be responsible for the synthesis and capping on nanoparticles.

Biological systems for nanoparticle synthesis include plants, fungi, bacteria, yeasts, and actinomycetes. Many plant species including Opuntia ficus-indica, Azardirachta indica, Lawsonia inermis, Triticum aestivum, Hydrilla verticillata, Citrus medica, Catharanthus roseus, Avena sativa, etc., bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis, Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Lactobacillus sp., Klebsiella aerogenes, Torulopsis sp., and fungi, like Fusarium spp. Aspergillus spp., Verticillium spp., Saccharomyces cerevisae MKY3, Phoma spp. etc. have been exploited for the synthesis of different nanoparticles. Among all biological systems, fungi have been found to be more efficient system for synthesis of metal nanoparticles as they are easy to grow, produce more biomass and secret many enzymes. We proposed the term myconanotechnology (myco = fungi, nanotechnology = the creation and exploitation of materials in the size range of 1–100 nm). Myconanotechnology is the interface between mycology and nanotechnology, and is an exciting new applied interdisciplinary science that may have considerable potential, partly due to the wide range and diversity of fungi.

Nanotechnology is the promising tool to improve agricultural productivity though delivery of genes and drug molecules to target sites at cellular levels, genetic improvement, and nano-array based gene-technologies for gene expressions in plants and also use of nanoparticles-based gene transfer for breeding of varieties resistant to different pathogens and pests. The nanoparticles like copper (Cu), silver (Ag), titanium (Ti) and chitosan have shown their potential as novel antimicrobials for the management of pathogenic microorganisms affecting agricultural crops. Different experiments confirmed that fungal hyphae and conidial germination of pathogenic fungi are significantly inhibited by copper nanoparticles. The nanotechnologies can be used for the disease detection and also for its management. The progress in development of nano-herbicides, nano-fungicides and nano-pesticides will open up new avenues in the field of management of plant pathogens. The use of different nanoparticles in agriculture will increase productivity of crop. It is the necessity of time to use nanotechnology in agriculture with extensive experimental trials. However, there are challenges particularly the toxicity, which is not a big issue as compared to fungicides and pesticides.

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Studies of the effects of N fertilizers and Microbion UNC biofertilizer on microelement content of horseradish (Armoracia macrocarpa)
Published November 3, 2010
41-45

A field experiment on calcareous chernozem soil was performed to study the effects of different N and bacterial fertilizers on the nutrient content of horseradish (Armoracia macrocarpa). In the experiment the trials were arranged in a randomized block design with three replications, applying three levels of NH4NO3 and diff...erent N fertilizers, namely ammonium-nitrate, urea and calcium-nitrate, with or without application of Microbion UNC biofertilizer.
In the present paper the changes and distribution of manganese, zinc and copper contents of the horseradish plant are summarized by the
effect of different treatments.
The Mn content of leaves were higher in all cases than those of roots, but Zn mainly accumulated in the roots. The distribution of copper within the horseradish plant was more equalized than that of Zn and Mn. Different N fertilizers and increasing doses of ammonium-nitrate had effects mainly on the microelement contents of leaves. The highest Mn contents of plant were measured in treatments of Ca(NO3)2 and Ca(NO3)2+Microbion. The lowest ammonium nitrate dose (N1) decreased the Mn content of leaves compared to control, but further doses
(N2, N3) did not alter these values any longer. Microbion UNC biofertilizer did not have any effect on the Mn content of roots, but we measured higher Mn in leaves in some combined treatments. Ca(NO3)2 increased the zinc content in leaves and roots in a noticable manner. With the increasing of NH4NO3 doses, the Zn content of leaves and roots augmented significantly. Neither N fertilizers (or the increasing doses of NH4NO3) nor the biofertilizer application influenced the Cu content of horseradish plant. 
N fertilizers had higher effects on the microelement content of horseradish, the biofertilizer’s effect was smaller and was not the same in every treatment.

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The influence of fertilization and tillage method on the formation root system capacity and grain production of spring barley
Published November 20, 2011
89-93

To evaluate the interaction of year x variety, year x tillage method and year x fertilization on the grain yield and root system capacity (RSC) of spring barley, we ran polyfactorial field trials in agroecological conditions of a warm corn production area in Slovakia, at  Malanta, in 2009 and 2010. The RSC measurements were done using LCR ...- meter at a frequency of 1 kHz and they took place in four growth stages: at leaf development in the stage of four leaves (RSC1), in full tillering (RSC2), in the stage heading (RSC 3) and at the stage of ripening (RSC4). The values of grain yield, RSC1, RSC2, RSC3, RSC4 reached in 2009 comparison to 2010 were significantly lower. The highest yield in 2009 was reached by variety Marthe (4.49 t.ha-1) and by variety Bojos (7.19 t ha-1) in 2010. The highest values of RSC in observed growth stages were achieved by variety Bojos in 2009, and in 2010 also besides RSC1. Within both years, difference in yields between tillage methods was not observed. The values of RSC in growth stage of 4 leaves and tillering was higher at conventional tillage, butthe values of RSC3 and RSC4 were higher with minimized tillage. The highest grain yield and values of RSC in every growth stage were achieved on the fertilization variant “c“ in 2009 and on the fertilization variant “b“ in 2010. The correlation relationships between grain yield and RSC were significant and positive in every growth stage. The strongest relationship was found among grain yield and RSC (r=0.6047).

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The role of the hybrid-specific technological recommendations of maize in precision crop production procedures
Published November 13, 2012
297-302

The necessity of application of hybrid specific crop production technology has been confirmed not only by trial results but also by the experiences gained from the agricultural practice. For this reason it is essential to test and collect data in field trials about the specific agronomic traits of the corn hybrids belonging to different maturit...y groups and genotypes. Corn hybrids are tested for their responses to sowing time, plant density and fertilizer supply; sensitivity to herbicides; and lately, the resistance to the damages caused by the larvae of corn root worm. Last but not least, mention should be made of the differences in the responses of the corn hybrids to the damages caused by drought stress. Based on the trial results, suggestions for the hybrid specific corn production are compiled and made public for the experts and farmers engaged in corn growing. Corn hybrids may deliver maximum yields on the impact of specific crop production technology only in case if it relies on carefully done general production technology including soil cultivation, seed bed preparation and weed control. Similarly, precision crop production technology may advance the yield increase in economic way if it is constantly drawing on the source of research results.

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Timing it right: The Measurement and Prediction of Flowering
Published September 5, 2002
17-22

Although the model described here was developed from research in controlled environments, there is now considerable evidence that in can be applied to a very wide range of natural environments in several species. Multi-locational trials augmented by successional sowing and, if considered necessary, supplementary illumination in the field to inc...rease daylength, can be used to estimate the values of the model coefficients: (1) to characterize germplasm collections and so predict flowering behaviour elsewhere; (2) for interpreting and understanding crop adaptation; and (3) for genetic analysis of photoperiod sensitivity. We do not yet know whether the model has any contribution to make to the understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of photoperiod and temperature responses, but at the very least, it should provide the basis for indicating the most appropriate environmental conditions, genotypes and physiological stage of the plants most suitable for such investigations.

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The effects of fertilization on the protein related properties of winter wheat
Published March 20, 2013
67-69

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The yield and quality of wheat are mainly determined by the plant production system, thus we studied the effect of mineral fertilization.

The field trials were set up in 1983 at the Látókép Research Institute of the University of Debrecen. We examined effect of different Nfertilizer doses (60 kg ha-1 N/P/K, 120 kg ha-1 N/P/K) on Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag's protein properties in 2012. During the tests, three quality parameters were determined: wet gluten content (%), wet gluten spread (mm/h) and gluten index (%). In the experiment the effect of different doses of N-fertilizers significantly influenced by the wet gluten content and gluten index of Lupus.

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Influence of Foliar Treatments on the yield and quality of Sugar Beet
Published May 23, 2006
119-123

The yield and quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by the plant production system, thus we studied the effect of mineral fertilization. Our field trials were carried out in 2005 in Hajdúböszörmény, at two sites. We studied the effect of sulphur (Cosavet DF), copper (Kelcare Cu) and two foliar nutrients with high active agents. Tr...eatments were replicated four times.
We took root samples at 4 week intervals, starting in August. The quality of root (sucrose, potassium, sodium and alfa-amino N content) was determined from filtrated beet broth, by an automatic beet laboratory system, called VENEMA.
We found that the crop and the sugar yield were significantly influenced by the foliar treatments

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Foliar treatments of Sugar beet
Published November 15, 2007
55-59

The yield and quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by the plant production system, thus we studied the effect of mineral fertilization. Our field trials were carried out in 2005 and 2006 in Hajdúböszörmény, at two sites. We studied the effect of sulphur (Cosavet DF), copper (Kelcare Cu) and two foliar nutrients with high active a...gents. Treatments were replicated four times.
We took root and leaf samples at 4 week intervals, starting in August. The quality of root (sucrose, potassium, sodium and alfaamino N content) was determined from filtrated beet broth, by an automatic beet laboratory system, called VENEMA. Leaf samples were measured with ICP-OES.
We found that the crop and the sugar yield were significantly influenced by the foliar treatments. 

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Characteristics of Corn Seed Sales in Hungary
Published May 11, 2003
78-81

As seen on the above tables we can acknowledge the fact that the Hungarian corn seed market is very unique and, because of its size, indispensable for all multinational breeder companies. We can also assume that the main places in the market are taken by big companies as Pioneer, with its unbreakable first place, followed closely by Syngenta Se...eds and the fusionized Monsanto. Although the Hungarian breeders’ hibrids perform on field tests and trials similarly or better than other varieties developed by the above mentioned companies, we can’t find them even near to those leading few given mostly by Pioneer, Syngenta and Monsanto hibrids. This fact leaves us with a conclusion that the Hungarian companies should change the strategy of their marketing procedures to increase sales.Thus, they need better technology to keep up with their competitors, more advertisement, other marketing „hints”, which can only be fulfilled with a big economical background, unfortunately not yet available for our breeders.

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The effect of NPK treatments on the Cu and Fe content of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Published March 20, 2013
31-34

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In this study the effect of N, P and K nutrients on the Cu and Fe content of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains was investigated in a long-term fertilization experiment set up in Nagyhörcsök. Samples were also harvested from four experimental stations of the Hungarian national long-term fertilization trials. These are the following: Bicsérd, Iregszemcse, Karcag, and Putnok. Plant samples were collected in 2005 which was very wet. Our results from Nagyhörcsök were compared with the Cu and Fe content of samples which were harvested from control plots of other experimental stations. The Cu and Fe content of grain samples were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) followed by digestion with HNO3-H2O2 solution. All data were subjected to ANOVA, and when significant differences (P<0.05) were detected, Duncan’s test was performed to allow separation of means.

The main conclusions are as follows: Cu and Fe content of wheat grains was higher and higher in every NPK treatments. Samples were harvested from the control plots of Iregszemcse and Bicsérd have higher Cu content than the treated samples from Nagyhörcsök.

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