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  • Heat treated feeds in turkey feeding

    The main aim of our study was to determine the effect of expanded and pelleted feeds, as well as the only pelleted feed based on wheat and corn, on the production of turkeys. In May 2006,, a fattening experiment on turkeys was started on the starter farm of Habar Ltd in Szarvas, owned by the Gallicoop Corporation. 17 day old male turkeys were involved in the fattening experiment. The experiment lasted 117 days. At that time, theanimals were 134 days old. After the experiment was completed, they were slaughtered. The following parameters were examined: growth, feed conversion ratio, carcass traits. Turkey feed were produced separately at different times. Similarly to the standard method of turkey fattening, 8 phases feeding was carried out. The fattening experiment was adjusted on male turkeys in 4×12×6 grouping (4 treatments: expanded and pelleted, and only pelleted corn and wheat feed; 12 repeats: number of pens/treatments; 6 birds/pen) 6-6 turkeys from 12 pens per each treatments were measured individually from the 17th day (starter) and at the time of each following feeding changes and mortality. The average of the group was calculated. The average daily weight gain, proportion of the given feed per pen, feeding changes and mortality were determined. The average daily feed intake and the feed conversion ratio were calculated.

  • Trends in Dry Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Production

    Dry pea is an important, cool-season grain legume, which is grown worldwide on over 6 million hectares. The major producing countries outside Europe are China and Canada, followed by India, Australia, and the United States. France, Canada and Australia produce over 2 million hectares and are major exporters of peas. During the 1980’s, in developed countries of the European Union, pea production rose yearly by 6-10%, which represents a significant increase in both area and yield. Europe accounts for 50-75% of world pea production. In the 1990’s, the European Union produced 4-5 million tonnes of dry pea, of which 3-4 million tonnes were used for feed and 1 million tonnes for export. At the end of the 20th century, the growth in production was low, mainly because of the absence of support measures, and the better returns offered by other crops. In the countries of the former Soviet Union, dry pea was primarily used as feed and pea production dropped, due to a trend in livestock raising.
    Food consumption of dry pea is concentrated in developing countries, where grain legumes represent a useful complement to cereal-based diets as a relatively inexpensive source of high quality protein. As a result, human consumption of grain legumes fell from 2,2 kg/capita in 1961 to 0,5 kg/capita in 1999. The importance of grain legumes in food protein supply decreased, while that of cereal products increased. Shortage of grain legumes has adverse effects on the nutritional standard of poor people in developing countries.
    World dry pea production reached 16,7 million tonnes in 1990, with 3,7 million tonnes used as food, 11,4 million tonnes used as feed, and 1,0 million tonnes used as seed. Dry pea production was 10,9 million tonnes in 1999, and 3,5, 5,8 and 0,8 million tonnes was used as food, feed and seed, respectively. In the coming decades, world grain legume production and utilization as feed are expected to expand at a slower rate than in the 1980’s. Most of the increase is expected to occur in Eastern European countries, Canada and Australia, where production is anticipated to grow at 2% annually. The projection for the new millennium was derived from adjusted trends in area and yield over the period 1961-2000, based on FAO statistical data.

  • Development of maize production technology that increase the efficiency of bioethanol production

    Maize is one of the most important crops worldwide and also in Hungary, it can be utilized for multiple purposes: as a feedingstuff, for human nutrition and for industrial processing. In the last decades, the per ha yield of maize varied greatly in Hungary, between 2004 and 2006, it was 6.82-7.56 t/ha, while in 2007, it was only 3.6 t/ha. Resulting from this, the price of maize became 2-2.5 times higher. The high price hinders bioethanol production. The largest per ton amount of bioethanol, 387 l, can be produced from maize.
    In addition to its classical utilization as feed and food, the industrial use (especially for bioethanol production) of maize is increasin.
    For industrial production, a new production technology is needed. I tested and selected hybrids appropriate for this purpose and set up fertilization and plant density experiments. The experiment were set up on chernozem soil in 2007.
    The applied fertilization treatment was N 120, P2O5 80 uniformly, and five different dosages of potassium: K2O 0, K2O 100 (KCl), K2O 100 (Kornkáli), K2O 200 (KCl), K2O 200 (Kornkáli) kg/ha active ingredient. The applied plant densities were 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 thousand plants/ha.
    The yield of maize hybrids in the fertilization experiment ranged between 10.53 – 14.62 t/ha. Both regarding the form and dosage, 100 kg/ha Kornkáli proved to be the best potassium treatment. Regarding the inner content parameters, the highest starch content in the average of treatments was obtained for the hybrid PR36K67: 73.57%, and its yield was also the highest, so this hybrid proved to be the most suitable for bioethanol production. The highest protein content was observed for the hybrids KWS 353 (12.13%), which can be favourable for feeding purposes.
    Most of the hybrids gave the highest yield at 80 thousand plants/ha plant density, however, hybrids PR36K67 and Mv Tarján achieved the highest yield at 90 thousand plants/ha.
    In bioethanol production, the selection of a high-yielding hybrid with high starch content, a slight reduction of N, increase of potassium, the application of the highest plant densities of the optimum interval, harvest at full maturity (when starch content is the highest compared to protein content) are of great importance. 

  • Mitigation of environment impact of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species

    The Fusarium fungi hazards the grain quality of cereals, therefore significantly affects their utilization as animal feed or consumable product. The Fusarium can decrease the quality of wheat in different ways: decreases the germination capability, causes visible discoloration, mould may appear, reduces the dry material and nutrient content of the grain, causes mycotoxin infection – as a result given by its by-product. Micotoxins produced by Fusarium genus, as the trichotecenes (T-2, HT-2, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, Fusarenone-X) and the zearalenone (F-2) are the most common in Hungary. Occurrence of fumonisins first discovered in 1988 are must be identified carefully. About 20–30% of the overall worldwide production of cereals is infected with Fusarium and its toxins, which situation is similar in Hungary. This infection causes serious yield-losses in cereal production. In the case of cereal products, which non-utilizable as forage seems, an optimal solution is utilizing as biogas raw material, but it is also important to examine the effect of the infected cereal on the anaerobe digestion process.

  • Arthropods assiciated with the stinging nettle in Hungary

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica Linnaeus) (Urticaceae) is a well known medicinal plant cultivated in some European countries for a long time. Because of its multiple usability (food, medicinal plant, feed, fiber), adventageous agrotechnical qualities and low demands for plant protection, its more extensiv utilization can be expected. However, during cultivation from time to time little damages can be occurred on it. The aim of this paper is to show and estimate the most important arthropods (pests and natural enemies) of stinging nettle. Under the pests characterized in the paper according to the references the peacock and the small tortoiseshell are the most important species living on stinging nettle. Their individuals from time to time propagated can cause an important damage on nettle leaves in cultivated nettle stands or assemblages. On the base of a 12 year observation period (Gödöllő, Debrecen, 1998-2010) the following species have been observed: Psylliodes attenuata, Chrysomela fastuosa, Phyllobius pomaceus, Pleuroptya ruralis, Inachis io, Aglais urticae, Microlophium evansi, Microlophium carnosum, Aphis urticata, Dasineura urticata, Tritomegas sexmaculatus. Inachis io has been the only species which during the observation period did danger the stinging nettle stand. The other pest species have not threated even timely either the stinging nettle stand or a single plant. The number and diversity of natural enemies was rather low: running crab spiders (Philodromidae), tangle-web spiders (Theridiidae), crabbing spiders (Thomisidae), lacewings (Chrysopa perla, Chrysopa formosa), coccinellids (Coccinella septempunctata, Propylea quattuordecimpunctata, Adonia variegata), hoverflies (Episyrphus balteatus), earwigs (Forficula auricularia), scorpionflies (common scorpionfly (Panorpa communis) and European paper wasp (Polistes dominula) predominated.