Essential oil extraction of wild caraway and thyme was performed using a classical (HD) and microwave hydro-distillation (MWHD) and a laboratory supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with a carbon dioxide as solvent. Our experiments demonstrated that the extraction yield of the essential oil performed in same conditions was influenced by the loc...ation of growth area; the maximum extraction yield of 10 ml 100 g-1 caraway was obtained from dried seeds collected from Csíkmadaras. This quantity far exceeded the yield of the Újtusnád samples. In the case of wild caraway (Carum carvi L.), the extraction method influenced thecomposition of the essential oil (carvone/limonene ratio), the highest limonene content being achieved by classical hydro-distillation. In the case of thyme, this effect was not detected, the thymol/carvacrol ratio was independent from the given extraction method. The obtained thyme essential oil possesses high antimicrobial activity demonstrated by agar diffusion test. The thyme extract provides a good protection against microorganisms collected on the surface of fresh vegetables following bacterial stains: Citrobacter portucalensis, Pseudomonas hunanensis, Pseudomonas baetica, Pseudomonas parafulva, Bacillus mojavensis and Enterobacter cloacae. Protective effect was also detected on the vegetable surface of by chitosan-based edible film coating during a 6-day-long storage period at a temperature of 4 °C. The caraway essential oil used as soft cheese seasoning with a direct, dilution-free method, proved to be unsuitable because the uneven distribution and confer a strong, unpleasant taste to the product in comparison with the ground wild caraway seed-dressed cheese.
Currently we do not have the possibility to define our energy reserves, since we do not know the magnitude of extant material resources. The known petroleum (crude) supply will be sufficient for about 100 years at the longest, and according to the latest estimates in 2008 we will reach and even exceed the maximum level of oil extraction, and af...ter this it is going to decrease.
Hungary has good givens to go upon the way of sustainable energy economy according to experts, however a coherent government policy that lasts for not just one period is essential, and a sound economic- and agricultural policy is needed as well. According to the FVM’s under-secretary in Hungary more than 1 million hectares can be disposable for energy crop production. This would mean that 20 percent of the fields would be taken away from food production and on these fields energy crops would be grown. But we also have to take into consideration that the increase in energy plant production could happen at the expense of food production. If we would like to ensure the food for Hungary’s population from national sources we have to make calculations in determining energy need. In my research I set out the objective to determine the level of that specific turnover and marginal cost which supports the profitability of grain cultivation. With these indicators it is possible to analyze the economy and competitiveness of growing energy crops in the region of the North Plain. The alternatives of using cereals and rational land use should be also considered. A developing bio-fuel program can be a solution for the deduction of excess grain that is typical in Hungary for several years in the cereals sector. The pressure on the national market caused by excess grain can be ceased or moderated, and therefore the storage problems would decrease as well.
Fish meal and fish oil are very important components of fish feeds used by aquaculture. They contain poly-unsaturated fatty acids, which are essential nutrients both for fish and human nutrition. However, sources of fish meal and fish oil are limited, there is a need for new feed components to supply the increasing fish production and the incre...asing demand for fish feed. The aim of AQUAMAX project, supported by the European Union is to replace the fish meal and fish oil with vegetable oils. As a participant of this project, group of immunology in Research
Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation (HAKI) examined the effect of three different fish feeds on the growth performance, innate immune response and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection of common carp in an in vivo experiment. Fish feed supplemented with Camelina oil, but still containing fish oil significantly increased growth performance of experimental fish and their resistance against the infection. Fish feed containing linseed oil only did not enhance the growth performance, and it had a negative effect on resistance against infection. Based on the experimental results it can be concluded that fish oil used in fish feeds cannot be replaced effectively with vegetable oils, but can be supplemented with them.
During our research we investigated the marigold's (Calendula officinalis L.) nutrient requirements with different fertilization setting in small-plot trial. We measured SPME (Solid phase microextraction) and GC-MS (gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer) we examined the effects of the different fertilization settings for the herb's main active in...gredients of essential oil's percentage.
Based on the results, it was concluded, the essential oil agents' percentage breakdowns significantly depending on the cropping technologies. Besides that it is possible, based on Pearson's correlation test the marigold essential oil agents relationship can also be a major factor.
Concerning the nutrient supply, it was found that the highest crop was produced with the N80K0 treatment (81.38 g m-2). The K application resulted in a decrease in crop yield. The highest crop yield per plant was found in plots with 48 cm row space. The best germination was reached in the plots with 48 cm row space (73%).
If the l
Abiotic stresses are one of the most limiting factors inhibit plant's growth, leading to a serious production loss. Drought stress is one of the most destructive abiotic stresses and is still increasing year after year resulting in serious yield losses in many regions of the world,
consequently, affecting world’s food security for the incr