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Does drought stress always negatively affect the yield and quality of soybean in Hungary?
Published December 15, 2019
37-40

Globally-fluctuating climate imposed serious abiotic stresses on the agricultural sector, leading to noticeable, and sometimes disastrous, losses in yields and/or quality of crops; however, in certain cases, plants could survive stress with relatively low reductions, and sometimes even with some enhancements as a reaction to changed environment..., especially in the case of mild stress. An experiment was conducted in 2017 and 2018 in Debrecen, Hungary to evaluate the mild drought stress influence on the yield and quality of three soybean cultivars. The results showed that both ES Pallador and Pedro cultivars could achieve more yield when subjected to mild drought conditions; however, protein concentration was enhanced in ES Pallador whereas slightly degraded in Pedro under drought. The cultivar Pannonia Kincse followed different trend; both yield and protein concentration were reduced under drought. Oil concentration of the three cultivars did not show significant changes; however, it always followed opposite trend to that of protein concentration. It could be concluded that both ES Pallador and Pedro are recommended to be grown under rain fed conditions in Debrecen, whereas Pannonia Kincse is recommended under irrigation conditions.

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The effects of drought stress on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) growth, physiology and quality – Review
Published May 16, 2017
19-24

Abiotic stresses are one of the most limiting factors inhibit plant's growth, leading to a serious production loss. Drought stress is one of the most destructive abiotic stresses and is still increasing year after year resulting in serious yield losses in many regions of the world,
consequently, affecting world’s food security for the incr...easing world population. Soybean is an important grain legume. It is one of the five major crops in the world, an essential source of oil, protein, macronutrients and minerals, and it is known as the main source of plant oil and protein. Harvested area of soybean is increasing globally year after year. However, soybean is the highest drought stress sensitive crop, the water deficit influences the physiology, production and seed composition of this crop. We introduce a review for literatures concerning the changes of the above traits of soybean exposed to drought stress, with past explanations for these changes.

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Physiological traits and yield of three soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes as affected by water deficiency
Published June 30, 2018
11-15

Soybean is a very important legume; it has the highest protein content, and it is a very important source of vegetable oil. Soybean is droughtsusceptible, and drought is one of the major abiotic stresses that has been increasing over the past decades as a result of the global climatic changes. To evaluate the influence of drought stress, three ...soybean genotypes were grown under rainfed conditions, and compared to irrigated controls. The obtained results showed that the chlorophyll content, leaf area index and plant height decreased under drought stress conditions, which led to noticeable and sometimes significant yield reduction. Our results suggest more specific studies on the physiological changes of the local soybean genotypes under drought stress to better select the adopted ones.

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Examination of drought stress of two genotype maize hybrids with different fertilization
Published May 20, 2020
53-57

In the growing season of 2019, we analysed stress resulting from climatic factors on maize hybrids of different genotypes, with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the physiological responses of each hybrid, which might support the elaboration of a cost-effective irrigation plan.

Our experiments were carried out at... the Látókép Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen on calcareous chernozem soil in a small-plot long-term field trial with strip plot design. In the scope of the experiment, N-fertilizer doses were applied as basic fertilizer and top-dressing in addition to the non-fertilized (control) treatment. The 60 and 120 kg N/ha doses applied as basic fertilizers in the spring were followed by top-dressing in the V6 phenophase with a +30 kg N/ha dose. Measurements were carried out with the involvement of the Renfor early (FAO 320) and Fornad (FAO 420) late maturity hybrids-

The stomata of the plants became more and more closed with the progression of the phenological phases; their stomatal conductance decreased. However, the hybrids responded differently to environmental stress. In the case of the Renfor hybrid, the highest conductance (669 mmol/m2-s) was recorded in the V12 phenophase with the 150 kg N/ha treatment. The stomata were more open due to the high turgor pressure, allowing plants to evaporate properly. The plant was in its worst physiological condition on 2nd July, at the time of the appearance of the last leaf in the case of the 120 kg N dose (224 mmol/m2-s). The value measured in the V12 phenophase has already shown that the stomata were closing due to the self-regulating system of the plant. It would have been necessary to dispense irrigation water following the measurement. This confirms the finding that water stress can be prevented by measuring stomatal conductance.

In the case of the Fornad hybrid, stomatal conductance was the highest on 12th June (630 mmol/m2-s) in the 90 kg N/ha treatment and it was the lowest (183 mmol/m2-s) in VT (emergence of the last leaf) phenophase in the 60 kg N/ha treatment. In this case, the appropriate time for applying irrigation water would have been early July, when the conditions for the plants were still adequate. Subsequently, the stomata began to close due to a reduction of the water resources available to them.

There was a significant correlation between soil moisture and stomatal conductance, as well as between temperature and stomatal conductance.

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Effects of water deficit on the growth and yield formation of maize (Zea mays L.)
Published May 16, 2017
143-148

Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most important consuming cereal crop in the world after rice and wheat. This requires an understanding of various management practices as well as conditions that affect maize crop performance. Water deficit stress during crop production is one of the most serious threats to crop production in most parts of the world a...nd drought stress or water deficit is an inevitable and recurring feature of global agriculture and it is against this background that field study of crops response to water deficit is very important to crop producer and researchers to maximize yield and improve crop production in this era of unpredicted climatic changes the world over.
A pot experiment was carried out to determine the effects of water deficit on growth and yield formation of maize. Two maize cultivars were used Xundan20 and Zhongdan5485. Three levels of soil water content were used in two stages of water control levels at two stages of the maize plant development
1. The JOINTING STAGE: A. CONTROL (CK) soil water content: from 70% to 80% of soil water holding capacity at the field, soil water content: from 55% to 65% of soil water holding capacity at the field, soil water content: from 40% to 50% of the Soil water holding capacity at the field.
2. The BIG FLARE PERIOD: A. CONTROL (CK) soil water content: from 75% to 85% of soil water holding capacity at the field, soil water content: from 58% to 68% of soil water holding capacity at the field, soil water content: from 45% to 55% of the soil water holding capacity at the field.
This research mainly studied the effects of water deficit on physiological, morphology and the agronomical characteristics of the maize plant at the different water stress levels.
The importance of these results in this experiment will enable plant producers to focus and have a fair idea as to which stage of the maize plant’s development that much attention must be given to in terms of water supply.

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The hydric stress influence on quantityand quality of the maize yield in the Crisurilor Plainconditions
Published May 6, 2013
21-27

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The paper is based on the researches carried out in an experiment placed on the preluvosoil from Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea, Crisurilor Plain during 2008–2011in the following variants: V1=Irrigated, without irrigation suspending; V2=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in May; V3=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in June; V4=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in July; V5=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in August; V6=Unirrigated. The hybrid used: Fundulea 376. In the variant with optimum irrigation, water reserve on 0–75 cm depth was maintained between easily available water content and field capacity. Pedological drought was determined every year and the irrigation was also needed. The irrigation determined the increase of the total water consumption and yield gain in comparison with unirrigated variant. Irrigation suspending in different months determined the yield losses very significant statistically. The biggest protein content was registered in the variant without irrigation suspending; the values registered in the variants with irrigation suspending in May, June, July and August and in the unirrigated variant are smaller, with differences statistically assured. There was a direct link between de Martonne aridity index values and water consumption, yield and protein content and an inverse link between pedological drought and yield quantity and protein content. These are the arguments for irrigation opportunity in maize from Criurilor Plain.

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Influences of water deficiency on the productivity of young plants at different sites
Published September 5, 2018
371-378

Water deficiency has become one of the most limiting factors of crop production in Hungary as the tendency in annual amounts of precipitation shows a decreasing tendency; therefore, it has become similar to those of Southern Europe. The most significant decrease in precipitation occurs typically during spring, approximately 20% of the data expr...essed in the averages of the last century. Studying the relationship between water deficiency as a stress factor and nutrient supply is important in order to improve the production efficiency of crops. Nowadays, this problem receives outstanding attention presented in numerous papers both in Hungary and globally, however, there are several questions yet to be answered. Our pot experiments were carried out under controlled greenhouse conditions in order to establish new data on these relationships. Experimental soils were typical for Western Transdanubia, taken from long-term field experiments representing four different site characteristics of the region. It was concluded from the results that drought periods during the early growth stages (i.e. 4–5 weeks after emergence) of plants may result in significant decreases in both dry matter production, nutrient concentrations, nutrient uptake and shoot:root ratios. Better nutrient supply, especially potassium, plays a significant role in reducing the negative effects of water deficiency.

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The role of the hybrid-specific technological recommendations of maize in precision crop production procedures
Published November 13, 2012
297-302

The necessity of application of hybrid specific crop production technology has been confirmed not only by trial results but also by the experiences gained from the agricultural practice. For this reason it is essential to test and collect data in field trials about the specific agronomic traits of the corn hybrids belonging to different maturit...y groups and genotypes. Corn hybrids are tested for their responses to sowing time, plant density and fertilizer supply; sensitivity to herbicides; and lately, the resistance to the damages caused by the larvae of corn root worm. Last but not least, mention should be made of the differences in the responses of the corn hybrids to the damages caused by drought stress. Based on the trial results, suggestions for the hybrid specific corn production are compiled and made public for the experts and farmers engaged in corn growing. Corn hybrids may deliver maximum yields on the impact of specific crop production technology only in case if it relies on carefully done general production technology including soil cultivation, seed bed preparation and weed control. Similarly, precision crop production technology may advance the yield increase in economic way if it is constantly drawing on the source of research results.

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Examination of the vegetative and generative accomplishment of new apple varieties
Published March 11, 2014
29-34

Our research focuses on apple varieties, what are planted expansively in the development apple orchards of Western-Europe, but about the production characteristics of these varieties we don't have or just few practical experiences in Hungary. These varieties can be described with regular and high yields, aesthetic and alluring appearance in the...ir origin places, what ensure profitable producing for the growers. In our climate what tends to be often extreme (hard cold winters, late spring frosts, summer drought, heat stress) these varieties may behave differently, so before the substantial planting it is expedient to carry out variety evaluations to avoid the later failures. The place of our experimental is located in the Nyírség, what presents adequately the ecological conditions of the surrounding areas, so the gained results can be easily adapted in the biggest apple production site of Hungary. Regarding the vegetative and the generative parameters of the 14 examined varieties ('Schniga', 'Jugala', 'Fendeca', 'Galaval', 'Fengal', 'Red Cap', 'Early Red One', 'Jeromine', 'Crimson Crisp', 'Red Topaz', 'Red Jonaprince', 'Red Idared', 'Fuji SW', club variety) we found significant differences, which is the result of the genetically coded characteristics of the varieties, the effects of the vintage, the different training methods and the correlations of these factors.

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Effect of Water and Nutrient Supply on the Allelopathy of Abutilon theophrasti Medic. and Xanthium italicum Mor
Published May 11, 2003
102-105

Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic.) and Cocklebur species (Xanthium spp.) are more and more dangerous and „difficult to control” weeds in several cultivated plants. The ground cover of these species have became larger in Hungary like other warm-philous species. There are several causes of danger of them, for example: large capability f...or competition, allelopathic effect, keeping on of emergence.
The allelopathic effect of these weeds were examined on sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). Extracts of plants grown under different conditions have several effect on this species.
Abutilon theophrasti plants were grown in perlite to examine the effect of supplying with nutritive materials on production of inhibitors. The water soluble exudates of the shoots grown with no artificial fertilisers inhibit stronger than grown with them. Acid soluble exudates have contrary effect. The exudates made of roots inhibited the sugarbeet less than shoots.
Effect of drought stress on production of inhibitors was examined on Abutilon theophrasti and on Xanthium italicum. The species responded to missing of water different, and the water, acid and basic soluble exudates had different effect, as well.

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Technological development of sustainable maize production
Published May 16, 2017
83-88

In our research we examined the effect of the hybrid, the nutrient supply, the number of plants and the abiotic factors (temperature, amount of precipitation) on the yield, crop quality and yield stability of maize. We devoted special attention to the natural nutrient utilization ability and fertilizer reaction of maize.
The experiment took ...place in Hajdúszoboszló on chernozem soil, on a nearly eight ha field. The size of one plot was 206 m2, this it was a half-industrial experiment. We tested six hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing seasons. I analysed the correlation between the nutrient supply and the yield of maize hybrids with control treatment (treatment without fertilization) and with N 80, P2O5 60, K2O 70 kg ha-1 and N 160, P2O5 120, K2O 140 kg ha-1 fertilizer treatments. Yield increasing effect of the fertilizer also depended on the number of plants per hectare at a great extent. The number of plants of the six tested hybrids was 60, 70, and 80 thousand plants per ha.
In Hajdúszoboszló, in 2016 the amount of rainfall from January to October was 605 mm, which was more than the average of 30 years by 160 mm. The yield of hybrids without fertilization changed between 9.63–11.6 t ha-1 depending on the number of plants.
The six tested hybrids is 10.65 t ha-1 in the average of the stand density of 60, 70 and 80 thousand plants per hectare without fertilization, while it is 12.24 t ha-1 with N80+PK fertilizer treatment. That increase in the yield is 1.6 t ha-1, it is significant.
Da Sonka hybrid is sensitive to weather, it is able to produce 6 t ha-1 additional yield in case of favourable condition. However, it has a low stress tolerance. The most stable yields were observed at Kamaria and Pioneer hybrids. The effect of vintage is also an important factor on the yield. In average, the yield of maize was 6.81 t ha-1 in 2015, which was a drought year and 11.86 t ha-1 in 2016 that was a favourable year.

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