...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The Hungarian mangalitza pig sector has experienced numerous structural changes in the past few decades. The increased demand in the foreign markets for the mangalitza pork, changes in the domestic consumer perceptions have increase the number of sows and breeders. After the European Union’s accession started a significant growth in the sector, which was due to the target programme from the year of 2005 for the keeping of animals representing high genetic value, as the breed is indigenous. From 2008 continuous decline can be observed. The main reason for the decrease was the drastic growth of feed costs because of the drought damage in 2007, and the global economic crisis. Since 2010, a further period of supports has been in place, it extands the willingness to keep mangalitza pigs and the number of sows continuously increasing. On the basis of the average farm size (58 sows/farm) in 2011 it can be stated, that after our EU’s accession the medium-sized farms became stronger. To evaluate the geographic concentration of the mangalitza livestock it was analysed the data of sow number among the years of 2000 and 2011. The geographic concentration of mangalitza stock has a medium value over each year under the survey period, except the years of 2004–2007, when the values of Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI) have low degrees. Due to the subvention period of indigenous breeds it was established more mangalitza farms in different parts of Hungary. Despite of the growth since 2000, numerous problems are in the segment. The aim of the study is to find out the sectoral problems, which are completed with the objectives tree and draw up the main activities to solve the problems. After estimating the SWOT-matrix according to the methodology of the strategic analysis and the discussions with the secretary of National Association of Mangalitza Breeders is prepared the sectoral problem- and objectives tree. The core problem of the mangalitza sector is that the origin of mangalitza products are not certified in the domestic markets. The reason of it is that the breeders don’t request the certificates of fattening pigs, so it can appear not real mangalitza product on the markets as mangalitza. To solve the problems it is drawn up different suggestions in the objectives tree. This analysis is an useful tool for the decision makers in the mangalitza sector to evolve strategic plans on behalf of the efficient cooperations among chain actors.
Wild boar and domestic pig breeds belong to the same species (Sus scrofa), so they can easily have viable offspring. This could be a problem in preserving the genetic lines of wild boars, keeping clean the food industry from lower-grade hybrid boar meat, and „producing” ethically questionable trophies, too. The aim of our study was to devel...op a cost-efficient, fast, easy and accurate marker set which can separate the wild boars from hybrids and domestic pig breeds.
The InDel markers were developed using 59 full pig genomes of 17 different breeds (e.g. Duroc, Large White, Landrace, Mangalica, wild boar). Sequence differences between the genomes of wild boars and domestic breeds were identified in variant call files, and verified using the IGV software. Wild boar, mangalica and duroc specific primers to amplify the chosen InDel regions were designed using Primer3.
After preliminary tests five markers were chosen, three wild boar specific, one Mangalica specific and one Duroc specific one. Fluorescently labelled primers were used to make the valuation easier and more accurate with capillary electrophoresis instead of gel-electrophoresis. The markers were optimised individually and in multiplex conditions and tested in samples of 11 breeds.
In conclusion, a new, faster and cheaper set was developed to separate the wild boars from the hybrids and domestic breeds. Based on the preliminary testing on wild boars, duroc and mangalica breeds zero samples resulted false negative, so it is 100% accurate. In addition, it is a much more cost- and time-effective way than testing every single sample with STR sets.
Since the 1992 Rio de Janeiro UNO Congress domestic animals belong also officially to the genetic diversity of the world. Non commercial domestic animal breeds should be maintained for many cultural and technical reasons. Conservation and preservation of living beings is nowadays in the programme of many regional, national and international org...anizations.
The preservation of domestic animals is possible in situ (at the original place and conditions) and ex situ (by cryogenic methods).
There are three era in the history of preservation of domestic animals: the epoch of spontaneous maintenance, the period of sporadic national activities and the era of international programme.
Some of the questions to be solved by scientific research: the principles of selection of the candidate populations for maintenance, the different degrees of endangeredness, the necessary population size to be subsidized, the problem of inbreeding, the best mating systems etc.
In Hungary the maintenance of endangered domestic animal breeds is based upon the low.
The following breeds are on the list of protected breeds:
− the Hungarian Grey cattle,
− the Lipizzan, Shagya, Nonius, Gidran, Furioso,Kisbér Halfbred, Murinsulaner and Hucul horses,
− the Racka, Tsigai and Cikta sheep,
− the Mangalitsa pig,
− the Hungarian yellow, white, speckled and the Transsylvanian naked necked hen,
− the Bronze Turkey,
− the Frizzle Feathered goose.
Hopefully in the near future the breeders of traditional domestic animal breeds will find the possible niches for their special products.