Between 2002 and 2006 we made the coenological survey of five disturbed habitats marked as grasslands. With our coenological examinations and the statistical analyses we wanted to make the detailed botanical survey of the given five habitats in order to verify that the maintenance of habitats amongst agricultural lands – and considered as les...s valuable – is of high importance and necessary from an environmental point of view, since these habitats are often living and feeding areas of many rare and/or protected plant- and animal species.
As a result of the statistical analyses we have pointed out that number of species in case of all the five habitats extreme fluctuation characterizes the statistical universe. As regards the
average of the coverage it is the highest in case of the third habitat (degraded Puccinellia grassland), and the coefficient of variation shows homogenity as well. In examining the Shannon-value the average is the highest in case of the second habitat (Alopecurus meadow), and the statistical dispersion is the smallest. The coefficient of variation shows medium variability. The median of evenness is the lower in case of the third habitat (degraded
Puccinellia meadow) and the statistical is the highest here as well.
We have done the Hierarchical and the K-Means Cluster Analyses for the 21 plant associations of the five habitats. Both cluster analyses put the same associations into the same cluster, so
one can state that the associations in each cluster are different from the associations of the other ones according to the coverage data of the plant families.
In the past decade, the population of the Hooded Crow has shown significant growth in Debrecen, Hungary. The aim of this study was to become acquainted with the nest-site selection behavior of Hooded Crows in urban spaces. While our research revealed that the Hooded Crow is not particular when it comes to selecting among tree species for nestin...g, we did notice differences regarding nesting height. Hooded Crows living in the city build their nests higher up than those living outside Debrecen’s city limits. We also discovered a slight, insignificant difference between nesting heights and tree species, which is probably due to the different characteristics of the given tree species. As for nesting heights, we found that in typical urban habitats there were no relevant differences. However, when we compared these habitats in pairs, it came to light that nesting heights -when comparing solitary trees - wood segments and tree rows - wooded segments- did show significant differences, which can be explained by the various conditions provided by the habitats mentioned.
In summary, the following results emerged from our research:
1. The Hooded Crow prefers approximately the same nesting heights in all kinds of habitats, urban environment and tree species.
2. The nesting height does not significantly depend on the habitat itself or on the tree species.
In the past decade Hooded Crows showed a significant growth in Debrecen. The aim of this study was to become acquainted with Hooded Crows nest-site selection in urban circumstances. The research revealed that Hooded Crows are not choosy when it comes to selecting the species of the trees, but we noticed differences regarding nesting height - Ho...oded Crows living in the city build their nests in higher regions than those living in places outside Debrecen. We discovered a significant difference between nesting heights and the tree species, which is probably due to the different characteristics shown by the given tree species. As for nesting heights, we found that in typical urban habitats there were no relevant differences shown. Samet the situation, when we compared these habitats in pairs, it came to light that nesting heights - when comparing lonely trees - wood segments and tree raws – wood segments - did not show significant differences too, which can be explained by the various conditions provided by the habitats mentioned.
To sum up, during our research the following results emerged:
1. Hooded Crows prefer approximately the same nesting heights in all kinds of habitats, urban environment and tree species.
2. Nesting height depends on the tree species but independent from habitat.
The Poa pratensis L. and the Poa angustifolia L. are close relative species whose morphological features vary greatly. Our goal was to examine how the inividuals from different soil types of these species differ statistically from one another, whether the morphological features of the variant species differ significantly, and whether they keep...their specific features in dissimilar habitats.
The quantitative features of the populations developing on distinct soil types wich are statistically separate provide for the different phenotype forming effect of the soil types as variant habitats. There is connection between the soil types and the measurement of the ramets on every soil types. The morphometric values of P. pratensis – that are bigger in all habitats – show that this species genetically widely adapted. Significantly different morphological features were found, but because of the high environmental dependence of the morphological features and of the significantly different characteristics which reveal several overlaps between the two species, these characteristics cannot be considered as reliable identification keys.
The Game Reserve of Nagydobrony extends on a marginal area of a former peatland and is covered with extended hardwood gallery forests and oak-hornbeam forests and is surrounded by a mosaic-like agricultural landscape. Due to its richness of nature-like and semi-natural habitats it supports a diverse insect assemblage. By light and bait trapping... 383 species of macro-moths were recorded from which larvae of 85 species are feeding either on forest trees and scrubs or on cultivated plants thus these can be considered as potential pest species. Thirteen species (mostly Geometridae and Erebidae: Lymantriinae) have a special significance for forestry due to defoliating activity in gradation periods. Considering the habitat connections, the composition of moth assemblage is dominated by generalist species with broad spectrum of ecological tolerance but the species connected with humid forested habitats are also richly represented. The bulk of species consists of widely distributed Euro-Siberian species, but also some Holo-Mediterranean species with more southern character and Mediterranean-Subtropical migrant species were registered. The bait trapping provided significant results on the phenology of the dominant species. The faunistically significant and/or protected species were observed in a low number of individuals only, thus the applied trapping methods did not damage the faunal composition.
Maintaining saline grasslands in good condition, preserving their yield and diversity is important not only for the purpose of nature conservation, but also for farming. Therefore, the primary purpose of our study is to analyse the effect of pasture use of the smaller weight extensive and the larger weight intensive beef cattle on the grassland... vegetation and nutrient content. In this way, we can answer the question whether grazing for nature conservation can be achieved with more profitable, more economical and more intense varieties.
The tests were carried out in May 2016 and May 2017, in the Hortobágy National Park (Pap-ere and Zám puszta), where a total of 16 sample areas were analysed. These areas are grazed with extensive beef cattle (Hungarian grey) and mixed genotype of intensive cattle. The associations were selected along a moisture gradient, such as wet salt marsh (Bolboschoenetum maritimi) and drier saline meadow (Beckmannion eruciformis). All the vegetative material collected both years in May was analysed for the following parameters: dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre and life-sustaining net energy content. We compared the effects of medium grazing (0.46 livestock/ha) and abandonment on vegetation and nutrient content.
We examined the effect of (i) grazing, (ii) different grasslands (salt marsh, saline meadow) and (iii) grazing of different cattle breeds (Hungarian grey, intensive beef) on the nutrient content of the vegetation of grasslands Based on our results, it was found that grazing had an impact on crude protein and life-sustaining net energy content. The highest crude protein content (12.75 m/m%) was obtained in the year 2017 in the area where higher density had been grazed for two years. For the lifesustaining net energy, the highest value (5.05 MJ/kg d.m.) was also obtained in 2017 and the lowest in 2016. Furthermore, it was found that there was no significant difference between the effect of the two cattle breeds on the parameters examined. Significant effects were observed only in the case of life-sustaining net energy: in the area of intensive beef cattle we received a higher value (5.15 MJ/kg body weight) than in the area with extensive beef cattle (4.96 MJ/kg body weight).
Our results have also shown that cattle grazing is of the utmost importance for the maintenance of both wet and mesophilous habitats. Based on our three-year study, we can say that grazing by both extensive and intensive cattle breeds is suitable for the management of saline habitats.
The more widely use of GIS, remote sensing technology provides appropriate data acquisition and data processing tools to build several national and international biodiversity monitoring system of environmental protection and natur conservation. The ChangeHabitats 2 is a similar international project, which uses airborne hyperspectral and airbor...ne laser scanning (airborne LiDAR) sources beyond traditional data collection methods to build a monitoring system of Natura 2000 habitats. The goal of our research, on one hand, was to separate the most typical species of trees which can be found in the largest coverage in the research plots of Debreceni Nagyerdő Nature Reserve from field and airborne remote sensing data, use image classification that based on spectral and geometry (height) characteristics of the trees. On the other hand our goal was to evaluate the efficient use of the integration of mobilGIS, airborne hyperspectral and airborne LiDAR data collecting methods to complement or substitut of the traditional, field data collecting methods. We used ArcGIS 10.2 and Exelis 5.0 GIS software for data evaluation, in which the mosaicing, the selection of plots and the spectral image processing were carried out.
sorting because the micro organisms, which help the digestion of high fibre plants, are missing in his stomack, that is why they are mostly called „concentrate selectors” (Hoffmann, 1985, 1988, 1989).
These animals should mostly eat easily digestable plants with high nutrition level (pulses, buds, sprouts and flowers), and they are able
Examining the amount and quality of vegetation available on the habitat of roe deer we can identify the species which can satisfy their feed demand. It is known, that roe deer as other large ruminants, from the plant abundance prefer certain plants and plant parts while there are others which are avoided. The identification of the eaten species and the rate of their occurrence in the feed is the first step to become acquainted with the interaction between animal and the surroundings.
On the examined territories there was significant difference between the disembowelled body masses. The does which come from the hunt Nagyszénás weighed 4-5 kilos more than the does from the Csongrád territory. The main feed components were present in different rate in the samples of the territories, in the Nagyszénás samples grain, dicotyledonous herbacous plants were dominant, and were eaten more. The high level of grain in the feed result in better condition and larger body mass.
Citrus flatid planthopper, a native insect to North America had for a long time a scarce economic importance there. However, being polyphagous made little damage on citrus trees and some ornamentals. In 1979 it was introduced to Italy where it established and spread quickly. It is now an invasive alien species continually spreading in South and... Central Europe causing considerable damage in fruit crops and various ornamentals. Present study shows the results of a series of observations carried out from 2011 to 2015 at a number of habitats in north of Hungary. The pest could be found at each habitat but the hedge, the tree row, the gardens and the orchard/vineyard were the most infested. Frequency and population density of Metcalfa pruinosa were considerable on Asteraceae, Cannabaceae, Fabaceae, Juglandaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Sapindaceae. Typical vegetation could be functionally classified as ornamental plants, trees/shrubs, fruit plants, weeds and feral plants. Feral plants – some of them also invasive alien species – were found at each habitat. Plant species native to America were among them the most populated. As the hedgerows were neglected, and most gardens, orchards and vineyards abandoned, these are excellent conditions for the quick and long-lasting establishment of the pest as well as they may be reservoirs to infest cultivated fruit crops and ornamentals. The hedgerow was situated along a railway line. The length of similar hedges can be merely in Pest county several hundred km, which means M. pruinosa has plenty of opportunity for spreading along the railway and infest agricultural and ornamental cultures. On the surveyed alfalfa and maize fields, accidentally very few nymphs and adults were observed. Although, the population density of M. pruinosa was considerable on many hostplants, economic damage or yield losses could not be detected. Economic or significant damage was observed only on roses, raspberries and stinging nettle. This later is cultivated in Germany and Finland. The applied horticultural oil was efficient.
The possibilities of examination the growth of fish species are verry difficult, and much of methods are oblique. With the weather loach is the work especially complicated through the small scales. Till now the growth of weather loach is in Hungary unexamined.
We applied self developed catch method in three explored channel. The length
The growth of the fishes is different, but the growth of the body length was nearly the same in the three channels. The one year old fishes can growth to a maximum of 130-140 millimeters, the two years old fishes can growth to maximum of 180-190 millimeters. Longer fishes by 180-190 millimeters are 3 or more years old. The data of sex-ratio is deviant than the literature wroted. The fish from Fényes are growing faster, than the others. This species can be 190-200 millimeters long after 2 years from birth. It is a very fast growing.
Halyomorpha halys (Stål, 1855) spread rapidly during the last five years and became common and abundant in Central Europe, especially in the urban environment. In the Carpathian basin, the West Ukrainian Transcarpathia county was the last region where this species has not been found yet. The first specimens of this invasive pest were sampl...ed in Velyka Dobron’ in 2018 and in 2019 it was found in another neighbouring village and cities of Chop, Berehove and Uzhhorod. The data provided here is the first for West Ukraine and the second for the country following the published record from Odessa (SE Ukraine). Although H. halys is still less abundant and occupied mainly urban habitats, it will certainly cause nuisance for peoples and damages for farmers in the near future.
Hungarian stock of game is not only part of our national treasure but also one of our domestic products and economic income. Not indifferent therefore the number and the state of health of our wildlife. Population decline of the Brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1758) (one of our most important small game in Hungary) takes a long time. Demogr...aphic parameters of Brown hare was examined, particularly the factors affecting the decline of the species in Hungary. We took samples from typical habitats where the Brown hare could be found in relatively high density in our country. The article reports data of reproductive characteristics, diseases, parasites of Brown hare and other factors such as climatic and anthropogenic which could influence of the population dynamics. We mention sample collection and processing methods eg: population size estimates, examination of reproductive organs, the sex ratio and the age structure as well as the individual condition based on data of domestic and foreign authors and our partial results.
Orthoptera fauna and assemblages of natural and semi-natural grasslands of the Hungarian Lowland are well-known, however, little is known about assemblages living in agricultural and anthropogenic habitats such as arable lands, roadsides, hedges, and riverbanks. Due to climate change, intensification of agriculture, and change of habitat us...e, these habitat types become increasingly important.
To collect data on these mainly unknown habitat types, a three-year study was carried out on the Orthoptera fauna and assemblages of the firth region of the Tisza and Sajó rivers. This area was mainly unknown, and our research contributes to increasing knowledge and provides a base for further investigations.
In the 40 sampling sites of the studied region, an occurrence of 30 Orthoptera species was recorded based on 2241 sampled individuals. In this study, we provide 540 new distribution data records of orthopterans that means an almost eightfold increase of the known data. Orthoptera assemblages of different agricultural habitat types showed significant differences considering both species richness and composition. Data suggested that non-cultivated habitat patches of dirt-roads, roadsides and stubble fields and even extensively used pastures, hayfields and alfalfa, red clover, and even wheat fields can preserve relatively species-rich Orthoptera assemblages. Contrary weedy sites of these cultivars and intensively used arable lands (maize, sunflower and rape fields) showed extremely low species diversity.
The Eurasian Collared Dove shows different patterns in density all over Hungary. In some cases, the population has decreased to a lower level, but there are habitats where the population remained stable. Several factors were taken into consideration during the evaluation of this phenomenon. These publications state that the increased urbanizati...on of corvids, the lack of food sources, and the changes in nesting sites caused the decrease in numbers. During our research, we intend to contrast the differences in population structure of Collared Doves that differ from each other in the density of predators presented at nesting sites. As a first step, in this paper, numerous samples (n=118) were taken from a population that is less influenced by corvid species’ nest predation. Our prediction was that the population parameters remained at the level of 1980’s, in which the population of Eurasian Collared Dove has reached its maximum, according to further publications.
During the evaluation process, our data were collected from hunting bags near Nyíregyháza. Results were compared with former publications. We stated that the population structure, such as age and gender distribution remained stable in the evaluated population. In addition, morphometric factors of the collected individuals were also measured, such as weight, wing length, 3rd primary feather, and tail length, which were compared with former surveys. During statistical tests no significant difference was revealed among population parameters, but there were significant differences between most of the morphometric data, (p>0.05).
The grass species Cleistogenes serotina (L.) Keng, generally found in the mountainous region in Hungary, has been observed in the lowlands of the Great Hungarian Plain in the last few decades. Since its first recent mention in sand habitat as well it, has been found in several locations in the interfluve between the Danube and the Tisza. In cer...tain, sandy grasslands, the invasion of this species is considerable (e.g. near Fülöpháza the area invaded by Cleistogenes increased almost fourfold within six years). The success of invasion on new habitats is related to changes in the
characteristics of plants comparatively studied on mountain and sand populations.
We studied blades of leaves on different levels (1st, 5th and 10th) and from different biotops. Cuttings were made, with a thickness of 10-12 μm, at the middle of the blades. The cross sections were observed using a light microscope. Digitised images (DigitPlan) and survey data were arranged into a database.
The leaf structure is characterised by the kranz anatomy, and a double layered bundle sheath, which is typical of the aspartate type of C4 grasses. There were significant differences only in cross section area and the number of bundles for various ages of the leaves. There were more bundles in the older leaves than in the younger ones. We did not find any difference in the ratio of tissues among leaves of different ages and sources. According to our study, the ratio of leaf tissues characteristic to species was neither significantly influenced by the biotop, nor by the age of the leaves. However, there is a difference in tissues size. Summarising the results, the species can be considered „only” as ecotypes on the
different studied areas.
Our new result is that kranz anatomy can also be found in the leaf-sheath.
This research was supported by the Hungarian Scientific Fund (OTKA), grant No. T016511 and T026346.
Environmental, natural, social and economic processes undergoing both in Europe and in the world predict such a 21st century that is characterised by increasing resource-crisis from both economic and ecological aspects. Therefore, it is very important for Hungary to see what happens to its natural resources, epecially to its agricult...ural land, water reserves as well as the biodiversity of the local unique flora and fauna. One of the most significant issues of the rural areas of Hungary is whether we can preserve the natural habitats and the various biodiversity of the related species, the favourable biological background of agriculture. In addition, whether we are able to provide high quality food for the country as well as for the broader reagion, whether we are able to produce energy from the resources available as well as to provide sufficient opportunities for the population to live and work. These can be considered as the most significant issuesof the coming decades which determine the strategy of the Hungarian rural economies in long term.
Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) is one of the most noxious and invasive weed species in Hungary. A. syriaca invades arable lands, horticultural and forestry plantations, natural and semi-natural habitats too. In cases of field crops it can cause considerable yield losses mostly in maize (2–10%), soybean (12–32%) and sorghum (4–29%)..., but only with high rate of coverage. It can also increase these problems that the common milkweed can be serve as reservoir and host for viruses, other pathogens and pests.
Because of the importance of common milkweed and in spite of demand to develop effective biological control, until now has not been developed a proper control program against A. syriaca. The aim of our research was to identify the necrotrophic fungal pathogens, which were involved in notable disease occurrence on this weed in different parts of Hajdúság region of Eastern-Hungary in 2016.
To the isolation of fungi from leaves and their identification were based on morphological colony characters on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). To the description of conidia features were used PDA for Alternaria and synthetic low-nutrient agar (SNA) for Fusarium species, respectively. The examination of axenic cultures revealed that the fungi isolated from the leaves of common milkweed were Fusarium sporotrichioides and Alternaria alternata.