The most important endeavour of European Union’s regional policy is to moderate disparities. An emphasised strategic objective of member states, based on the principle of solidarity, fairness and justice, is to develop regions and almost forty percent of the common budget is devoted to achieving this objective.
Hungary, as a full EU member
The differences in development among the regions are significantly influenced by the economic characteristics of the specific region, quality and quantity of human resources, accessability of the region and other factors influencing local quality of life beside natural conditions.
The new spatial structure was formed by change of regime, processes of the nineties, primarily the economic renewal based on foreign capital investments and the crisis phenomena in parallel with these. The economic, political and social consequences of the transformation significantly changed spatial structure and increased disparities. New disparities formed which were further aggravated as a consequence due to the formation of the eastern-western slope and local crisis zones. As a result of the outstanding development of the capital, the long term differentiation of regional development differences can also be detected when examining the regional distribution of Hungarian gross domestic product. The collapse of heavy industry and agricultural mass production based on the eastern markets primarily affected the north-east counties in the eastern part of the country.
Strengthening regional competitiveness is of key importance for the region, which requires the application of consistent development policy. The most important is economic development which, if it operates well, also infers the possibility of establishing welfare infrastructures. Drawing in external sources to ease the significant lack of capital is important for the processing industry and the development of supplier networks. Agricultural development also plays an important role in transforming economic structure, since the characteristics of the region, its traditions and long term competitive advantages are favourable, therefore it is going to represent a higher ratio within the economy than the EU average. The modernisation of the agricultural sector can be promoted by supporting market accession, quality agricultural production and stimulating producer-retailer cooperation. The development of transportation and informatics infrastructure as well as human resource development plays a significantly important role in the development of the region.
In conclusion, the implementation of such a consistent regional development policy is required in the future, based on the strengths of the region, that serves the most efficient utilisation of regional development funds through the implementation of regional policy principles and prevents the irreversible decay of the region while promoting rapid development.
After World War I., but especially from the second half of the 20th century the public policy development is determinative in urban development. The urban and the country planning appears under the auspices of the regional development policy between the world wars. After 1945 the primary goal in economic and development policy was the socialist... industrialization, with a priority on cities. In this period the driving force in urban development primarily were the industrial installations. As a result, economic and social structure was transformed. It is a fact, that planned economy gave a huge impulse to city network, which determine the trend of cities up to this day. After the regime change, as an effect of escalation of regional differences and as a result of economic processes the urban development took new directions. The state intervention changed, and the principles of decentralization prevailed in resource allocation. The private and non-profit sector appears in urban development, the governments gain more important roles. These three sectors became the movers of local development. To recognize the main trends of urban development in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, the local area development funds were examined in a special way in a given period. This study will show, the main tendencies of the consumption of decentralized regional development funds between 1996–2008, in the cities of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. This study also gives an answer for which factors convert the renewal of city network of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County after the regime change.
An important ambition of EU regional politics is the reduction of disparities. An important strategical objective of the Commission is to terminate underdevelopment and to ensure the development of the regions based on the principles of solidarity, equity and justice. The commission has dedicated forty percent of its common budget to achieve th...ese goals. The differences in development are significantly influenced by the economic characteristics of the specific region, the quality and quantity of human resources, the accessibility of the region and factors influencing local quality of life.
The new spatial structure has been formed by the processes of the change of regime, the events of nineties and the economic renewal based onforeign capital investments parallel with crisis phenomenon. The economic, political and social consequences of the transformation have significantly transformed spatial structure and increased disparities. New disparities have formed, which strengthened due to the formation of east-west slopes and local crisis zones. The outstanding improvement of the capital resulted in great regional development differences, which can be detected when examining regional distribution of gross domestic product. The Eastern part of the country was most heavily affected by the collapse of heavy industry and agricultural mass production based on the Eastern markets.
It is of key importance for the region to strengthen regional competitiveness, which requires the application of consistent development-politics. Economic development is the most important, which can also draw the possibility of establishing welfare infrastructures. It is important to develop the processing industry, the supply networks and to ease the lack of capital it is also important to involve foreign capital. Developing agriculture plays an important role in transforming the structure of the economy. Since the conditions of the region, its traditions and long-term competitive advantages are favorable, thus can represent a greater ratio in the economy than the EU average. The modernisation of the agricultural sector can be promoted by supporting marketing, quality agricultural development and producer-retail cooperation. It is also highly important to promote development in transportation and informatics infrastructure and human resources.
In the future – based on the strength of the region – it is necessary to achieve such a consistent regional development politics, which by validating the principles of regional politics, serves the interest of utilizing regional development supports most efficiently and prevents the irreversible underdevelopment of the region and promotes fast development.
Environmental, natural, social and economic processes undergoing both in Europe and in the world predict such a 21st century that is characterised by increasing resource-crisis from both economic and ecological aspects. Therefore, it is very important for Hungary to see what happens to its natural resources, epecially to its agricult...ural land, water reserves as well as the biodiversity of the local unique flora and fauna. One of the most significant issues of the rural areas of Hungary is whether we can preserve the natural habitats and the various biodiversity of the related species, the favourable biological background of agriculture. In addition, whether we are able to provide high quality food for the country as well as for the broader reagion, whether we are able to produce energy from the resources available as well as to provide sufficient opportunities for the population to live and work. These can be considered as the most significant issuesof the coming decades which determine the strategy of the Hungarian rural economies in long term.
In the Hungarian Rural Development Programme (RDP) climate change adaptation is addressed through the measures in Axis 1, 2, 3 and 4. Under Axis 1 farmers can receive support for farm modernisation that will help them adapt to climate change. The processing industry will also be able to use the available resources for capital expenditure on bui...ldings and new equipment. Axis 2 and especially the soil and water package within the agrienvironmental
measure aim to support production methods, which protect soil quality and will help adaptation to climate change. Measures of Axis 3, such as basic services for the economy and rural population, village renewal and development will provide local communities the opportunity to identify actions that can be undertaken to deal with the effects of climate change. On the other hand, the extension of forest resources contributes to climate change mitigation and enhances carbon sequestration. New methods have been elaborated to the sustainable regional water management, irrigation, water regulation, defence against internal water, and soil protection established. Water management contributes to the balance of water quantity on one side, but also to mitigating the climate change on the other.
The occasion that joining to the European Union general several new opportunities which are supporting development, changes and increasing disadvantages. We tried to capitalizing these resources less or major rate in national and international level too. These opportunities are projects, tenders whose longterm effects are measured difficulty, i...t is a hard task. In spite of this fact I feel it has got basement importance to determine project activity forming future developments and ways.
In my study I deal with Derecske-Létavértes Sub-region. My aims to survey economic background of this sub-region, seeking contexts between economical factors, influential agents and project activity or results. In a settlement level it is essential what kind of supporting forms are available for entrepreneurs, civil organization, economic development and local government, what are the founds could be realized their development plans.
The practice of the conception and park-like economic development (between market economy circumstances) seems to be novel in our country. The first industrial parks have been established decentralized, with a local initiation, with some determining foreign undertakings early in the 90 years. Since then the increase of the number of the parks i...s high also the areas which have weaker economic level. We have make attention (in
the development politics) to the industrial parks working in the most harmful micro-regions, where the capital task is to extension of the employment, and to involvement of the capital. In the Northern Great Plain Region there are 31 industrial park at the ends of 2007. There are developed infrastructure and service in the big part of the parks. The smaller part of the parks cannot live on its title of industrial park, because of regional position, and concerned their management troubles. But the extension and developing of the park’s economic is very important in the region.
the target for the European Union to make Europe the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world. In this process, the education and training are of great importance for the member states. The restructuring of higher education, the modernization of the universities cannot be achieved without new financial resources. They s...hould be ensured by increasing contribution of the private sector. However it is not enough to invest sufficient funds in the educational and training system, they must be expended efficiently. The free higher education itself does
not necessarily guarantee the equal access and maximal participation. The quality of higher education and equal opportunity can be improved, if the rising funds are expended on infrastructure development and creating an efficiently working student support system.
Quality, equal opportunity, efficiency – they are the most important views for the decision-makers in the higher education reform. In my paper, I would like to interpret definitions relating to higher education and in this way I attempt to evaluate the financing systems of the Hungarian higher education formed since the change of the regime, with special regards to the normative financial system combined with the payment of tuition fees. For classification, it is necessary to present the different basic financial models. Furthermore, on the basis of the above criteria, I try to make recommendations on how to improve the present financial model in order to achieve the Lisbon objectives.
The topic is important in our days, because tuition fees will be introduced in Hungary from 2008. The problem is very complex, although the analysts in most cases tend to approach the topic with prejudice, depending on their financial and political interests. My analysis may contribute to discernment in the tangle of the pros and cons.
Northern Hungary is one of the most disadvantageous regions of Hungary and the European Union; "keeping force" is extremely week. The regional spatial inequalities – despite the national and EU convergence program – have been increasing year by year. The social and economic situation of the region shows negative trends. Negative features of... the migration processes are manifested in the candidates' choice for tertiary education has increased in the region in the past three years parallel with the proportion of those who are not on site, but primarily in the Central Hungarian region to continue their studies. An intensification of the negative trends is experienced in the economic processes both in jobs and the structure and performance of the local economy in respect of per capita income.
The transition from the nineties has decisively influenced the social and economic processes and the status of tertiary education institutions and their constantly changing role in the region. The role of education has become a key point of their activities as financing of the sector encouraged the institutions to increase the number of students and training offer, while R&D as form of cooperation in the economic sphere overshaded. Nowadays and over the past decade the increasing demand to transform their educational profile has increased in accordance with the social and economic situation of the region, adjusted to the catch-up and development opportunities of the region.
Projects funded by the European Union contribute significantly to the socio-economic development of Hungary, its increasing competitiveness, thereby the local people's general level of satisfaction, their ”happiness and prosperity”. Successful spending from the Union's funds, successful project implementation directly impacts all actors in...the Hungarian economy and society. Therefore, to examine the factors that support or jeopardize the implementation of the projects is a priority at EU and national levels. My research and doctoral dissertation aims to develop a methodology to assess the management efficiency of projects supported by the European Union, implemented in Hungary taking into account all measurable factors (technical and special expertise) and the "suspected" factor (EU thinking learning).
I intend to draw up guidelines for future EU funded project management teams to realize projects successfully for the benefit of Hungary.