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Conceptional Model of Regional Agricultural Water Management System
Published December 6, 2005

Our study focuses on the water management improvement of the Hajdúsági-löszhát (loess ridge). The Hajdúsági-löszhát (loess ridge) is an intensive agricultural area. At the same time, the problem of increasing water demand is still not solved, so towards of safety production irrigation should be improved. To realise this should be known ...not even agricultural water demands but industrial and urban ones as well, thus a complex water management system is required to be worked out.
In the first part of the research, the water demand in the area is mapped, then a conceptional model of the Hajdúsági-löszhát’s (loess ridge’s) water management system is created. After collecting data the water management scenario is summarized in a real time model splitted into five periods.
During the research, the instruments of spatial informatics (GIS) are used to get acquainted with the variation of the hydrological parameters in space and time. To understand and simulate the different decision making processes and to choose the right decision alternative, a decision support system is created with the use of spatial informatics data.
In addition, considering the potentially right decision alternative, irrigation will be started in practice, an effect and after-effect inquiry will be made, and the results will be analysed, evaluated and summarized. Finally, a suggestion to the most adequate irrigation technology will be made.

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Modelling forestation alternatives
Published February 17, 2015


Agroforestry systems are part of the history of the European Union rural landscapes, but the regional increase of size of agricultural parcels had a significant effect on European land use in the 20th century, thereby it has radically reduced the coverage of natural forest. However, this cause conflicts between interest of agricu...ltural and forestry sectors. The agroforestry land uses could be a solution of this conflict management. One real – ecological – problem with the remnant forests and new forest plantation is the partly missing of network function without connecting ecological green corridors, the other problem is verifiability for the agroforestry payment system, monitoring the arable lands and plantations.

Remote sensing methods are currently used to supervise European Union payments. Nowadays, next to use satellite imagery the airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) remote sensing technologies are becoming more widespread use for nature, environmental, forest, agriculture protection, conservation and monitoring and it is an effective tool for monitoring biomass production.

In this Hungarian case study we made a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to create agroforestry site selection model. The aim of model building was to ensure the continuity of ecological green corridors, maintain the appropriate land use of regional endowments. The investigation tool was the more widely used hyperspectral and airborne LiDAR remote sensing technologies which can provide appropriate data acquisition and data processing tools to build a decision support system.

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Hungary’s correspondence with the EU regulations regarding liquid bio fuels
Published July 28, 2008

During the recent years researchers from different countries have found that our environment is at risk. It has been recognised by the leaders of the member countries and they have made decisions together concerning environmental protection in several agreements, contracts. Unfortunately, these decisions have been weakened and adumbrated on num...erous occasions by certain interests.
However, the energetic exploitation of the biomass has been supported by the economic and social changes of the previous years, more specifically, that of the bio fuels. The significant increase in the price of the traditional energy sources, the import dependency of the countries, the foreseeable exhaustion of the resources, the changes occurred due to joining the EU are all such problems that facilitates the application of bio fuels, as a good solution.
Our country decided to modify the then existed bio fuel component rate of 2% to 5.75% which has to be achieved by 2010. Since then, in March 2007 it has been expanded to 10% until 2020 (concerning energy content). This decision was taken knowing that this year (2006) the bio fuel rate has been 0.5%. However, the rate of 2% has not been achieved even in the EU. One can understand that the implementation cannot be fulfilled without significant political decisions and support. The main reason for this is that the price of bio fuels is not competitive with the present fossil-origin energy prices in Hungary. So in 2007 several regulations were modified. The most important one is perhaps the regulation of the revenue tax, which caused the successful tax-differentiation concerning bio fuels in more member states between 2007 and 2008. Its essence is that the revenue tax is not decreased, but if the fuel does not contain a bio fuel component of 4.4 bulking percentage per litre, „punishment” tax has to be paid. Moreover, on behalf of the implementation, regulations concerning bio fuels and bio fuel components are improving
At present the production and the application of bio fuels without any support are not economical yet. That is why it is important to emphasize the support policy of our country. After joining the Union, the new members can receive some shares from the direct disbursements, but only a tan increasing rate, we can achieve the 100% in 2013, though there is an opportunity for national contribution. Energy plants produced in agriculture receive separate supplementary support which is an advantageous opportunity for the farmers of the sector. Bio fuels cannot only be supported through agriculture, of course, but by research development, investment etc.
All in all, it can be concluded that Hungary seeks to fulfil the EU responsibilities taken and by this, to contribute to the maintenance of the sustainable progress, decrease of environmental pollution and the import dependency of energy sources.

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Mapping agricultural performance and environmental parameters aimed at generic regional studies
Published November 13, 2012

In this paper we present the interim results and the methodology applied to create web GIS ready cartographic representations of agricultural performance related information and environmental parameters. The main aim of the research is to eventually create a web GIS based decision  support system that can enable decsision makers and genera...l users to create useful and representative map layouts of certain environment and agriculture related phenomena that can be easily analyzed and interpreted to make strategic decisions on environmental issues. In this aim the initial steps are to evaluate the available data for cartographic representation, analyze the possibilities of visualization, create a GIS ready data structure and implement the database and revise additional possibilities to incorporate further environment related datasets of auxiliary sources. The main results of the study are a comprehensive set of visual layouts that could serve as guideline for mapping statistical information of agriculture and some steps towards the incorporation of environmental parameters to the system.

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Centre of Agri-Knowledge – a Web-Based Integration of Information and Decision Support Systems for Agriculture
Published May 23, 2006

The University Debrecen Centre of Agricultural Sciences acts as the centre and co-ordinator of agrarian higher education and consultation in the eastern region of Hungary. New internet technologies afford new chances to accomplish the institute’s mission to develop agriculture, environment and countryside in the area. As the main framework of... integrated e-learning, e-business and research in the agrifood sector the development of an internet portal, the „Centre of Agri-knowledge” (CAK) has been started in the recent past.
To support our students and education, to stay continuous in touch with our agricultural engineers we consider very important to build internet communities, where students, farmers, traders and researchers can share their knowledge and experience.
In Europe same as in Hungary agriportals born and disappear continuously. Although CAK is still in its early stage of development, its comprehensiveness, professional backend and the experience of the Centre of Agricultural Sciences guarantee a new standard of online services in the Hungarian agrifood sector

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Significance of risk assessment metric in audit of financial statements and reports
Published September 2, 2009

Management and decision-support of today’s businesses require design and application of management reports based and high-end controlling systems. One of the main source of information for controlling systems is financial accounting that should be designed to support planning, controlling and monitoring systems. Financial and accounting infor...mation is essential for decision making support of organizations. Therefore
eligible assurance is needed that these information are true and fair. Internal and external financial audits as assurance qualifiers are linking to the controlling systems through assurance. Weaknesses of and threats to controlling systems shall be recovered and communicated to the management during qualifying process. Recovering of threats should be based on risk analysis, assessment. In this study I would like to present some methods and tools of risk assessment of financial reports, statements and a way on they can be further developed.

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Application of advanced environmental assessment methods in orchard management
Published November 13, 2012

Our reseaches were carried out in apple and pear orchards at Farm and Regional Research Institute in Pallag of the University of Debrecen and Pear Gene Reservoir in Újfehértó. Aim of this study is to interpret and analyse field studies with the aim of a GIS based database. Furthermore, beside field measurements, airborne and field hyperspect...raldatacollection and analysis were also made to facilitate special watermanagement and irrigation related surveys. The integration of unified, geoinformatics systems with high spatial resolution and calibrated airborne hyperspectral data are appropriate tool for decision support systems, which support the continuous update and actualization of the changing cropping data, the analysis of cropping results in a unified complex data system, the acquiring of agro environmental subsidies, the establishment of monitoring system, and the optimization of irrigated fruit production.

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Optimization of Density of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Production Quotas by Pointwise Geostatistic Methods
Published March 4, 2005

The regional distribution of the Hungarian sugar beet production quotas was developed by the conventional concurrency relationships. In our research we analyzed 320 sectors of 9 factories with geostatistic methods in a GIS environment. The applied researches of spatial mean, spatial deviation, deviational ellipse have been introduced by us in t...his speciality. We used two different methods in our optimization inquiries, where the spatial segment of the standard deviational ellipse was based on a more robust preliminary data processing solution, and this is why it is a less parametricable method. The inquiry of the spatial buffer zones in production sectors ensures an obvious optimization possibility. We considered the supply route distances in both cases as a modeling boundary condition. Our results show that we introduced an effective decision making method to the occurent replanning of the production sectors with the pointwise density inquiries and the geometric analogy that was fitted to it.

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Analyzing the Efficiency of Dairy Farms by Using the Method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)
Published December 1, 2010

In Hungary the dairy sector is in a long-term critical period, the stock has been in constant decline. The consumption of milk and dairy products in Hungary is slightly rising compared to the world tendency, and it is fallen behind the level in 1990. The milk consumption per capita in 2006 was with 75 liters less than the EU-15 average. Dairy e...nterprise is a very risky activity: the profitability of the enterprise is affected by the fluctuation of feed and animal health products prices from the side of inputs, and by the fluctuation of end-product prices. Under these circumstances it is vital for the
cattle breeders, in order to survive, to harness the reserves in the breeding as effectively as possible. In our research we made a multi-faceted efficiency analysis of an agricultural holding’s three dairy farms. The chosen method for the analysis was Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The
selection of the method is justified by the fact that there is not such a reliable database by which we could define production functions, and that DEA makes possible to manage several inputs and outputs, i.e. multiple decision problems, simultaneously. By using DEA the sources that causes shortfalls can be identified, analyzed and quantified on farms that does not operate efficiently, thus it can help the corporate decision support successfully. In the model inputs are the cost data per one liter milk – feed, medicinal product use, logistic costs -, and the main parameters
concerning the keeping and rearing. Outputs are indicators concerning milk production, milk quality and others. We prepared the model in MS Excel, the linear programming model series were programmed by Visual Basic. After solving the model, in light of the shadow prices we can determine why either of the farms is not efficient.

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Work Organisation Supported by an Expert System in Agriculture
Published December 4, 2001

Expert systems are softwares that incorporate the experience of an expert and support decision makers by leading them through the thinking processes of an expert in the form of „if…then” rules. To use an expert system we have to work with knowledge expressed in a pre-determined form. To do so, we used a shell that can be purchased, and we... acquired knowledge about the topic from experts through interviews and personal monitoring. Attributes that are non-measurable, such as many of the factors determining work-place organisation and revealing knowledge related to it, can be formed into words by using expert systems. The goal of the study was to present a suggested form of expert system model to help judge the level of work-place organisation.

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The Bereg flooding in 2001 – Impacts on the built environment
Published March 20, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Today, an increasing number of natural disaster events are witnessed. Our respond to these disasters is increasingly important and more timely problem. Before PhD studies my research aimed at revealing the impacts reconstruction, restoration and damage prevention had on the environmental, social and economic segments of disaster-hit areas. This present paper intends to provide preliminary results of the work already carried out in the Bereg Region, where I specialized on the effects of Tisza flood.This paper focuses on the results and conclusions drawn from the analysis of environmental consequences resultant from the flood based on a study area.

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Complex assessment of inland water fish stocks
Published April 11, 2007

In the domestic fish production, natural waters have yielded for several years about 7-8 thousand tons. This, from the point of view of outputs, considering the almost 130 thousand hectares of natural water, is rather low, it means approximately 55-60 kg/ha mixed fish.Although the various natural waters can differ significantly on the basis of ...yields, yet on the majority of the territories, the results were low. In the case of our extensive still waters and rivers, the reason can undoubtedly be found in the combined effect of the lack of the possibility of reproduction of the fish stock and the over-fishing. Fishery built on planning supposes the best possible knowledge in the given circum stances of the parameters of the water area and its fishstock. Lacking this knowledge, it is not possible to establish the optimal use fulness of the resources, what is more, the management can make faulty decisions – as a result of a lack of information -, which can risk the success of later activities.
It is known that many factors have an impact on the success of the fishery, as well as some information in connection with the water area and the fish stock are necessary, the knowledge of which make it possible to manage the fishery in a planned way. One part of the information is available, while the other part is incomplete or not deep enough. The necessary data are dissimilar depending on their nature, can be obtained from different places, by different methods.
As the first step for executing the field surveys and processing data, I developed a complex model, which contains in a unified system the steps of estimating the fishstock. I made the sampling on the basis of this. Part of the model is a fish faunistic survey, as well as a morphological survey of the water area. The information gained from these are important for making more accurate the system of devices of the samplings for stock estimation (duration, number of net-rows) and for assigning its place (places representing the best way the physical characteristics of the given water area). The major stages of stock-survey: A) faunistic survey, B) physical survey of the bed, and C) sampling with the help of gill-nets. This is followed by the evaluation by the computer module.
The results of the research create a methodological and technical background for the fish faunistic and population biologic surveys still performed in different ways in our country, and by applying these methods together, all basic information about natural waters which help decision-making concerning fisheries can be obtaine deffectively.

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Possibilities of Farm Management Decision Support
Published May 11, 2003

Computer science has a major role in the decision-making process of farmers. In this process IT can be applied to virtually all phase: from infromation gathering to information processing. I am examining the position of informatics in the decision-making process. IT can be used in every single phases of the decision-making process. In my essay ...the useage of Internet and the possibilities it can provide play a significant role.After a brief description of the IT position of Hungarian agriculture I am introducing some programs, which can be used in the management’s decision-supporting system. Besides the Hungarian experiences the West European surveys also comfirm the application of Information Technology.

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The significance of local meteorological stations in research planning
Published December 1, 2020

The goal of research planning is to optimize human and material resources while maximizing efficiency. If there are databases that can be used as a substitute for own data collection, effective research can be facilitated by reallocating resources. In the case of environmental studies, the knowledge of the climatic conditions of the study p...eriod is known to be a key factor in research planning process.

 In the present study, the data of our meteorological station in our research area (known as “Szamárháti Tanya”, Kesznyéten, Hungary) was compared with the measurements of meteorological stations operated by the competent water authority. Stations were taken into the study within a 10 and 20 km radius over a period of 21 months, to determine which provided more relevant data from the area.

During the evaluation of results, the relationship between the local and regional weather stations were determined, and deductions were made from the obtained results to support the decision which of the targeted investigations could be of greater benefit. 

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Economic questions of precision maize production on chernozem soil
Published November 13, 2012

It is one of the main topical objective to establish the conditions of sustainable farming. The sustainable development in crop production also calls for the harmony of satisfying human needs and providing the protection of environmental and natural resources; therefore, the maximum consideratio of production site endowments, the common impleme...ntation of production needs and environmental protection aims, the minimum load on the environment and economicalness. Precision farmin encompasses the farming method which is adjusted to the given production site, the changing  technology in a given plot, the integrated crop protection, cutting edge technologies, remote sensing, GIS, geostatistics, the change
of the mechanisation of crop production, and the application of information technology novelties in crop production. Modern technology increases efficiency and reduces costs. The efficiency of crop production increases by reducing losses and the farmer has access to a better decision support information technology system. In addition, we consider it necessary to examine the two currently most important economic issues: “is it worth it?” and “how much does it cost?”. During the analysis of agricultural technologies, we used the precision crop production experiment database of KITE Zrt. and the Institute for Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen.
During our analytical work, we examined three technological alternatives on two soil types (chernozem and meadow). The first technology is the currently used autumn ploughing cultivation. We extended our analyses to the economic evaluation of satellite navigationassisted ploughing and strip till systems which prefer moisture saving. On chernozem soil, of the satellite-based technological alternatives, the autumn ploughing cultivation provided higher income than strip till. In years with average precipitation supply, we recommend the precision autumn ploughing technological alternative on chernozem soils in the future. On meadow soil, the strip till cultivation technology has more favourable economical results than the autumn ploughing. On soils with high plasticity – considering the high time and energy demand of cultivation and the short amoung of time available for cultivation – we recommend to use strip till technologies. 

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A growth model to predict body weight and body composition of broilers
Published December 28, 2018

Models predicting the nutrient partitioning and animal performance have been developed for decades. Nowadays, growth models are used in practical animal nutrition, and they have particular importance in precision livestock farming. The aim of the present study was to introduce a broiler model and to provide examples on model application. The mo...del predicts protein and fat deposition as well as the body weight of an individual broiler chicken from digestible nutrient intake over time. Feed intake (FI) and the digestible nutrient content of the feed are inputs as well as some animal factors like: initial BW, feed intake at 1 and 2 kg of BW, precocity and mean protein deposition. The protein and energy metabolism is represented as in the classical nutrient partitioning models. The protein deposition (PD) is driven by digestible amino acid supply and is under “genetic control”, the so-called potential PD limits the actual PD if protein is oversupplied.

The authors discuss how the model can be used to simulate the animal response upon different scenarios. Examples are given to show that the diet might be limiting if some animal trait is changed. Applicability of the model has shown through running the model by using different feed strategies (three- vs five-phase-feeding) and variations with animal factors. In conclusion, growth models are useful tools to support decision making for defining the most suitable feeds used in a broiler farm. The model presented in this paper shows a high sensibility and flexibility to test different scenarios. By challenging the model with different inputs, the animal response in terms of changes in body weight and feed conversion can be understood more by studying the shift in deposition of chemical constituents. The examples provided in the present paper shows the benefit of using mathematical models and their applicability in precision nutrition. It can be concluded that the growth model helps to apply “from desired feed to desired food” concept.

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