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  • The effects of agrotechnological factors on winter wheat yield in humid cropyear
    162-167
    Views:
    75

    The effects of crop rotation, nutrien supply and crop protection technologies, as well as the appearance of the main ear- and leafdiseases
    (powdery mildew, helminthosporium leaf spot, leaf rust, fusarium) were studied on the crop yields of winter wheat variety MV
    Pálma during the 2009/2010 crop year. The experiments were conducted in triculture (pea – wheat – corn) and biculture (wheat – corn), at
    five nutrition levels, with the use of three crop protection technologies (extensive, conventional and intensive) at the Látókép Research Site of
    the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences. Our results proved that the appearance of leaf- and ear-diseases were
    significant in the wheat cultures during the 2009/2010 crop year, because of the rainy, warmer than usual weather, the lodging, and the huge
    vegetative mass developed. The most severe infections by the four examined diseases after pea and corn pre-crops were observed at
    extensive crop protection levels, when fertilizers were used at the highest dose.
    Following corn pre-crop, in the case of all the three crop protection technologies the maximum rate of wheat yield results were achieved
    at N150+PK level. The highest yield was reached at intensive crop protection level (6079 kg ha-1). In triculture, in case of all the three crop
    protection technologies the maximum yields were achieved at N50+PK level; in extensive technology 5041 kg·ha-1 yield, in conventional
    technology 6190 kg ha-1 yield was realised, while in the intensive technological model the yield was 7228 kg ha-1.
    The relationship between yield and fertilizer amounts, the rate of pathogen contaminations, crop protection technologies and pre-crops
    was defined with correlation analysis in case of different crop rotations during the 2009/2010 crop year. Based on the results of the
    experiment, we found that in stands after corn pre-crop strong positive correlation was established between the crop protection level and the
    crop yield (0.543), the nutrient levels and the emergence of the four examined pathogens, and between the nutrient levels and the yield
    (0.639). Extremly strong positive correlation was observed between crop protection and yield (0.843) in triculture. Strong positive
    correlation was detected between the nutrient levels and the presence of the four examined pathogens, as well as between nutrient and
    lodging (0.688). Strong negative correlation was between the crop protection level and the four examined diseases both in biculture and
    triculture.

  • Impact of the integration of lupine (Lupinus albus) into crop rotation on the extent of soil compaction in the Westsik longterm field trial
    529-537
    Views:
    83

    In order to reduce or eliminate soil compaction, rational crop rotation and appropriate sequence of crops have an increasingly important role in addition to mechanical and tillage solutions. In this respect, introduction of greening in recent years has been a major step, which focuses on aspects of environmentally conscious, soil conserving farming and the improvement of biodiversity. The cornerstone of this strategy is the cultivation of crops that have a beneficial effect on soil properties, such as the use of nitrogen-fixing plants and green manure plants in the cultivation system that have a beneficial effect on soil structure. In our examinations, penetrometer measurements were carried out in the second longest crop rotation-based field experiment in Europe in order to quantify the effects of green crops and crop rotation strategies on soil resistance. Our aim was to evaluate and compare the impact of lupine (Lupinus albus) on the penetration resistance of soil on sour sandy soils. At the time of the penetration resistance measurement, different crop rotations had a significant effect on the development of the parameter in the examined soil layer. The most favourable penetration resistance values were found in the crop rotation, which included lupine as a green manure. The favourable effect is dominant below the cultivated layer (0–40 cm), which is statistically verified. The values of penetration resistance of the cultivated soil layer of lupine sown as primary green manure did not differ significantly from the values measured in the case of the fallowing-based crop rotation. Therefore, the use of lupine green manure instead of fallowing could be worth considering by practical application due to its favourable effects on soil penetration resistance. The use of lupine green manure after the production of rye cultivation resulted in penetration parameters similar to fallowing, irrespective of the green crop and the applied amount of nitrogen fertilizer, which justifies the cultivation of the crop as green manure. In the case of potato cultivating, recorded compaction within the cultivated layer is an obvious consequence of mechanical compaction during harvest; therefore, machinery operations are decisive for the development of penetration resistance values of the cultivated layer. In addition to the beneficial effect of lupine as a green manure crop on soil condition, its nitrogen-fixing ability is also important; it stresses the utilisation of the crop of sour sandy soils for the sake of proper soil management. 

  • Study of plant production modells with different intensity in winter wheat production
    51-60
    Views:
    90

    The effects of crop rotation, nutrient supply and plant protection technologies were examined on the yield of Mv PÁLMA winter wheat variety and on the most important diseases of ear and leaf. Our experiments were carried out on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság in 2006 and 2007, and three plant protection technologies (extensive, average, intensive) and three irrigation variations (without irrigation, irrigated with 50 mm, irrigated with
    100 mm) were applied in different crop rotation systems. 
    In the triculture crop rotation a higher rate of infection was observed than in the biculture crop rotation, because the vegetative growth was more expressed after pea and these microclimatic factors were favourable for the development of pathogens.
    In the triculture crop rotation (pea – wheat – maize) the powdery mildew, DTR and leaf rust of wheat were present in both examined years (powdery mildew 5-15%, DTR 14-42%, leaf rust 8-37% in cropyear 2005/2006, powdery mildew 12-32%, DTR 9-29%, leaf rust 8-26% in cropyear 2006/2007). Fusaria could be observed in 2006 (depending on the plant protection technologies and nutrient supply in the biculture 7-27% and in the
    triculture 5-19%). With higher amounts of fertilizers the rate of infection increased and reached its maximum at the highest dose of nutrient supply (N200 +PK).
    We observed the highest rate of infection by ear and leaf diseases in the case of the extensive technology, while this rate could be considerably reduced by the application of the intensive technology.
    Both in 2006 and 2007, yields were the highest at the N100-200+PK levels in the triculture after pea (6028-7939 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2006, 6578-8690 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2007 depending on plant protection technologies), and at the N150-200+PK levels in the biculture after maize (6096-7653 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2006, 4974-8123 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2007 depending on the plant protection technologies). The highest yield maximums were
    reached when pea was the forecrop. The yields on the experimental plots of the intensive plant protection technology was 224-2198 kg ha-1 higher (depending on the forecrop) compared to the plots where the extensive technology was used.
    The highest yield without irrigation was at the N150+PK both in biculture and triculture crop rotation. Among the irrigated variations Ö2 and Ö3 at N200+PK fertilisation resulted in the highest yield in the biculture crop rotation, while the N100+PK level in triculture system. In the biculture crop rotation the extra yield was 14-51% higher (575-1225 kg ha-1 depending on plant protection technology) when 50 mm water was irrigated, and
    15-54% higher (778-2480 kg ha-1) if 100 mm irrigation was applied comparing to the non-irrigated versions. The yield was  7-17% higher (560-1086 kg ha-1) in the Ö2 irrigation variation, and 8-23% (691-1446 kg ha-1) higher in the Ö3 irrigation variation compared to Ö1 irrigation variation (non-irrigated).
    A correlation analysis was made to reveal the connection between the yield, the amount of fertilizers, the rate of infection, the plant protection technologies and the forecrops. Strong positive correlation (0.846) was found between year and fusaria infection. Strong positive correlation was observed between fertilization and powdery mildew infection (0.525), fertilization and DTR (0.528), fertilization and yield quantity (0.683). Lower
    correlation was found between fertilization and leaf rust infection (0.409), and forecrop and yield (0.472), recpectively. Negative correlation was calcutated between plant protection technologies and DTR (-0.611), and plant protection technologies and leaf rust (-0.649).

  • The effect of crop rotation and fertilization on wheat and maize in the pedoclimatic conditions of the Banat Plain
    14-18
    Views:
    66

    The simplification of the plant cultures range and the yields in the last 10-15 years brings into the actuality the role of crop rotation and
    of fertilization on the yield level and stability for wheat and maize even on the soils with a high natural fertility. The results of the researches
    performed between the years 2006 – 2009 on a cambic low gleyed chernozem from the Banat Plain showed that the wheat cultivated in
    monoculture gives productions with 59-81% lower than that cultivated in crop rotation with other plants during 2-4 years. In maize, the yield
    obtained in monoculture is situated behind that obtained in crop rotation with 11-21%. The most favorable crop rotations for wheat were
    rape-wheat in a 4 years rotation and soybean-wheat in simple rotation of 2 years. In maize, the most favorable was the 2 years rotation
    (wheat-maize). The mineral fertilization was very efficient both in wheat (11-36%) and maize (9-31%). The organic fertilization with manure
    was very efficient for maize, the yields being superior with a mean value by 34% for a 60 t/ha dose and with 16% for 30t/ha. The fertilization
    compensates the negative effect expressed by the monocultivation only in a small measure

  • Nitrogen Supplying Capacity of Brown Forest Soil under Different Cropping Practices and 0.01 M CaCl2 Soluble Organic Nitrogen
    17-23
    Views:
    84

    The best known and most remarkable example of continuous production in Hungary is the Westsik’s crop rotation experiment, which was established in 1929, and is still in use to study the effects of organic manure treatment, to develop models, and predict the likely effects of different cropping systems on soil properties and crop yields. In this respect, Westsik’s crop rotation experiment provides data of immediate value to farmers concerning the applications of green, straw and farmyard manure, as well as data sets for scientific research.
    Although commonly ignored, the release of nitrogen by root and green manure crops has a significant impact on soil organic matter turnover. The design of sustainable nitrogen management strategies requires a better understanding of the processes influencing nitrogen supplying capacity, as the effects of soil organic matter on soil productivity and crop yield are still very uncertain and require further research. In the treatments of Westsik’s crop rotation experiment, nutrients removed from soil through plant growth and harvesting are replaced either by fertilisers and/or organic manure. Data can be used to study the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil under different cropping systems and its effect on the 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen content of soil.
    The aim of this paper is to present data on the nitrogen supplying capacity of brown forest soil from Westsik’s crop rotation experiment and to study its correlation with hundredth molar calcium-chloride soluble organic nitrogen. The main objective is to determine the effects of root and green manure crops on the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil under different cropping systems. The nitrogen supplying capacity was calculated as a difference of plant uptake, organic manure and fertiliser supply.
    The 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen test has proved reliable for determining the nitrogen supplying capacity of soils. Brown forest soils are low in organic matter and in the F-1 fallow-rye-potato rotation, the nitrogen supplying capacity was 15.6 kg/ha/year. 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen content was as low as 1.73 mg/kg soil. Roots and green manure increased the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil by more than 100%. This increase is caused by lupine, a legumes crop, which is very well adapted to the acidic soil conditions of the Nyírség region, and cultivated as a green or root manure crop to increase soil fertility.

  • Rye plant parameters in the Westsik crop rotation experiment
    39-45
    Views:
    110

    Our research work was carried out in the Westsik crop rotation field experiment in 2018. The main research purpose was to analyse the effect of the different organic and chemical fertilizers on parameters of rye. Our results revealed some differences between the different fertilization methods. One spike weight, grain weight of one spike, rye plant height, rye plant weight per m2 and 1000 seed weight in crop rotations VII, XV and VIII were different from the data of all crop rotations. This finding can be explained by the fact that crop rotations VII and XV were non-fertilized, only 23.3 t ha-1 straw manure (VII) or green lupine manure was applied as a second crop (XV). In addition, crop rotation VIII consists of four parts where we apply chemical fertilization with green lupine manure as a main and second crop. There is a positive close correlation between rye plant height and other studied characters (rye plant weight per m2, spike length, weight of one spike, grain weight per spike, spike weight per m2, grain weight per m2 and 1000 seed weight).

  • Determining elements of variety-specific maize production technology
    157-161
    Views:
    58

    Our aim was to work out such new maize fertilizer methods and models which can reduce the harmful effects of fertilization, can
    maintain the soil fertility and can moderate the yield fluctuation (nowadays 50-60 %).
    The soil of our experimental projects was meadow soil. The soil could be characterized by high clay content and pour phosphorus and
    medium potassium contents. In the last decade, out of ten years six years were dry and hot in our region. So the importance of crop-rotation
    is increasing and we have to strive for using the appropriate crop rotation.
    The yields of maize in monoculture crop rotation decreased by 1-3 t ha-1 in each dry year during the experiment (1983, 1990, 1992,
    1993, 1994, 1995, 1998, 2000, 2003, and 2007). The most favourable forecrop of maize was wheat, medium was the biculture crop rotation
    and the worst crop rotation was the monoculture.
    There is a strong correlation between the sowing time and the yield of maize hybrids, but this interactive effect can be modified by the
    amount and distribution of precipitation in the vegetation period. At the early sowing time, the grain moistures were 5-12 % lower compared
    to the late sowing time and 4-5 % lower compared to the optimum sowing treatment.
    There are great differences among the plant density of different maize hybrids. There are hybrids sensitive to higher plant density and
    there are hybrids with wide and narrow optimum plant densities.
    The agro-ecological optimum fertilizer dosage of hybrids with a longer season (FAO 400-500) was N 30-40 kg ha-1 higher in favourable
    years as compared to early hybrids.
    We can summarize our results by saying that we have to use hybrid-specific technologies in maize production. In the future, we have to
    increase the level of inputs and have to apply the best appropriate hybrids and with respect to the agroecologial conditions, we can better
    utilize the genetic yield potential.

  • Long-term experiments on chernozem soil in the University of Debrecen
    357-369
    Views:
    196

    The impact of agrotechnical management practices (nutrient and water supply, crop rotation, crop protection, genotype) on the yields of winter wheat and maize and on the soil water and nutrient cycles was studied in long-term experiments set up in 1983 in Eastern Hungary on chernozem soil. The long-term experiments have shown that nitrogen fertilizer rates exceeding the N-optimum of winter wheat resulted in the accumulation of NO3-N in the soil. Winter wheat varieties can be classified into four groups based on their natural nutrient utilization and their fertilizer response. The fertilizer responses of wheat varieties depended on crop year (6.5–8.9 t ha-1 maximum yields in 2011–2015 years) and the genotypes (in 2012 the difference was ~3 t ha-1 among varieties). The optimum N(+PK) doses varied between 30–150 kg ha-1 in different crop years. In maize production fertilization, irrigation and crop rotation have decision role on the yields. The efficiency of fertilization modified by cropyear (in dry 891–1315 kg ha-1, in average 1927–4042 kg ha-1, in rainy cropyear 2051–4473 kg ha-1 yield surpluses of maize, respectively) and crop rotation (in monoculture 1315–4473 kg ha-1, in biculture 924–2727 kg ha-1 and triculture 891–2291 kg ha-1 yield surpluses of maize, respectively). The optimum fertilization could improve the water use efficiency in maize production.

    Our long-term experiments gave important ecological and agronomic information to guide regional development of sustainable cropping systems.

  • The effect of irrigation on the yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
    143-147
    Views:
    147

    In this study, the effect of water supply on the quality and productivity of different maize hybrids was observed.

    Maize production is influenced by many agro-technical factors such as nutrient supply, plant density, environmental factors, water supply and temperature. Good soil quality and adequate technology significantly reduce the unfavourable effect of crop year. The impact of fertilization, crop rotation, irrigation and plant density on maize yield was greatly affected by crop year and crop rotation. The main constituent (69–75% dry matter concentration) of maize seed is starch, however, its increase can be achieved only to a limited extent, as increasing the starch content will reduce other parameters, especially protein content. Significant nutrient content improvements can be achieved by appropriate hybrid-site connection and the use of adequate technology. Protein content reduction with optimal water supply can be positively influenced by the appropriate nutrient supply for the hybrid.

    The experiments were carried out at the Látókép Experimental Site of Crop Production on calcareous chernozem soil. The weather of the examined year, which was partly favorable for maize and partly unfavourable in other respects, was also reflected in the development of maize and yields achieved.

    In 2019, we were examining the hybrids of Kamaria (FAO 370), P 9903 (FAO 390), DKC 4351 (FAO 370) and KWS Kamparis (FAO 350–400). Due to the dry soil condition, sowing was delayed, however, the hybrids emerged ideally because rain arrived soon after sowing, which facilitated initial development. Young plants evolved rapidly and dynamically in the case of all hybrids. In terms of heat-demanding bread, the month of May was unfavourable to temperatures below the annual average, but the higher amount rainfall helped the development. However, due to the drier period in early July, 25–25 mm of irrigation water was applied to half of the experimental areas on July 1 and 15.

    The aim of our research was to determine the best population density for hybrids under favourable soil conditions (calcareous chernozem soil). In both irrigated and dry conditions, a crop density of 75,000 crops were the most favourable for the Kamaria hybrid. The P9903 hybrid in the case of a crop density of 85 crops proved to be ideal and the DKC4351 had an optimal population density of 95,000.

    However, it should be taken into consideration that, in the case of soils with poor water management, the drought sensitivity of the crop stand may increase at a population density of 95,000.

    As a result of irrigation, yield increased and the difference between the examined plant numbers decreased. The yield growth was relatively moderate (341 kg ha-1 – 1053 kg ha-1), which makes the economicalness of irrigation doubtful in the given year.

  • Effect of tillage practices, fertilizer treatments and crop rotation on yield of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
    43-48
    Views:
    159

    This research was conducted at the University of Debrecen Látókép Research Station and is part of an ongoing long-term polyfactorial experiment. The impact of three tillage systems (Mouldboard plowing-MT, Strip tillage-ST, Ripper tillage-RT) and two levels of fertilizer treatments (N80 kg ha-1, N160 kg ha-1) along with a control (N0 kg ha-1) on the yield of maize hybrids (Armagnac- FAO 490 & Loupiac-FAO 380) cultivated in rotation with winter wheat was evaluated during a two-year period (2017–2018).

    Amongst the three tillage treatments evaluated, ripper tillage (RT) had the highest average yield (10.14 t ha-1) followed by mouldboard tillage (MT) and strip tillage (ST) with 9.84 and 9.21 t ha-1 respectively. Yield difference between RT and MT was not significant (P>0.05), as compared to ST (P<0.05). Soil moisture content varied significantly with tillage practices and was highest in ST, followed by RT and MT (ST>RT>MT). Yield of RT was 7–9% higher than MT in monoculture plots, while MT reign superior in biculture plots (monoculture: RT>MT>ST; biculture: MT>RT>ST).

    A positive interaction between tillage and fertilization was observed, with higher yield variation (CV=40.70) in the non-fertilized (N0) plots, compared to those which received the N80 (CV=19.50) and N160 kg ha-1 (CV=11.59) treatments.

    Incremental yield gain from increase fertilizer dosages was significantly higher in monoculture, compared to biculture. There was no significant difference in yield between N160 and N80 in the biculture plots (12.29 vs 12.02 t ha-1). However, in monoculture plots, N160 yield was 23% higher than the N80 kg ha-1 (N160=11.74 vs N80=9.56 t ha-1).

    Mean yield of maize in rotation with winter wheat was 28% (2.47 tons) higher than monoculture maize. The greatest benefit of crop rotation was observed in the control plots (N0) with an incremental yield gain of 4.39 tons ha-1 over monculture maize (9.92 vs 5.43 t ha-1).

    Yield increased with higher fertilizer dosages in irrigated plots. Fertilizer application greatly increased the yield of maize and accounted for 48.9% of yield variances. The highest yield (11.92 t ha-1) was obtained with N160 kg ha-1 treatment, followed by N80 kg ha-1 (10.38 t ha-1) and N0 kg ha-1 (6.89 t ha-1) respectively.

    Overall mean yield difference between the two hybrids was not statistically significant, however, yield of FAO 380 was 3.9% higher (9.06 vs. 8.72 t ha-1) than FAO 490 in monoculture plots, while in biculture plots, FAO 490 was 4.1% higher than FAO 380.

    Average yield in 2018 was 13.6% (1.24 t ha-1) higher than 2017 for the same set of agrotechnical inputs, thus, highlighting the significant effect of cropyear.

    Armagnac (FAO 490) cultivated in rotation with winter wheat, under ripper tillage and N80 kg ha-1 is the best combination of treatments for optimum yield.

  • Soil Fertility Management in Westsik’s Crop Rotation Experiment
    34-39
    Views:
    88

    The crop rotation experiment, established by Vilmos Westsik in 1929, is the best known and most remarkable example of continuous production in Hungary. It is still used to study the effects of organic manure treatment, develop models and predict the likely effects of different cropping systems on soil properties and crop yields. Westsik’s crop rotation experiment provides data of immediate value to farmers concerning the applications of fertilisers, green, straw and farmyard manure. The experiment also provides a resource of yield, plant and soil data sets for scientific research into the soil and plant processes which control soil fertility, and into the sustainability of production without environmental deterioration. The maintenance of Westsik’s crop rotation experiment can be used to illustrate the value of long-term field experiments.

  • Comparative analysis on the fertiliser responses of Martonvásár maize hybrids in long-term experiments
    111-117
    Views:
    65

    The results of experiments carried out in the Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences clearly show that in the case of hybrids grown in a monoculture greater fertiliser responses can be achieved with increasing rates of N fertiliser than in crop rotations. In the monoculture experiment the parameters investigated reached their maximum values at a rate of 240 kg/ha N fertiliser, with the exception of 1000-kernel mass and starch content. In both cases the starch content was highest in the untreated control, gradually declining as the N rates increased. Among the parameters recorded in the crop rotation, the values of the dry grain yield, the 1000-kernel mass, the protein yield and the starch yield were greatest at the 160 kg/ha N fertiliser rate, exhibiting a decrease at 240 kg/ha. Maximum values for the protein content and SPAD index were recorded at the highest N rate. It is important to note, however, that although the N treatments caused significant differences compared to the untreated control, the differences between the N treatments were not significant.
    In the given experimental year the values achieved for the untreated control in the crop rotation could only be achieved in the monoculture experiment at a fertiliser rate of 160 kg/ha N, indicating that N fertiliser rates could be reduced using a satisfactory crop sequence, which could be beneficial from the point of view of environmental pollution, crop protection and cost reduction.
    The weather in 2006 was favourable for maize production, allowing comparative analysis to be made of the genetically determined traits of the hybrids. Among the three hybrids grown in the monoculture experiment, Maraton produced the best yield, giving maximum values of the parameters tested at a fertiliser rate of 240 kg/ha N. The poorest results were recorded for Mv 277, which could be attributed to the fact that the hybrid belongs to the FAO 200 maturity group, while the other hybrids had higher FAO numbers. Maraton also gave the highest yields in the crop rotation experiment at the 160 kg/ha N level. All three hybrids were found to make excellent use of the natural nutrient content of the soil.
    It was proved that the protein content of maize hybrids can only be slightly improved by N fertilisation, as this trait is genetically coded, while the starch content depends to the greatest extent on the ecological factors experienced during the growing season.

  • The imact of crop rotation and fertilisation on the SPAD values of winter wheat on chernozem soil in a long-term experiment
    123-126
    Views:
    118

    We have carried out our outdoor field experiments at the Látókép Experimental Farm of the CAS of the University of Debrecen in the cropyear of 2012/2013 on chernozem soil in a long-term experiment. We have studied the effects of two different preceding crops (sweet corn, sunflower) on the development of the SPAD values of wheat varieties of different genotypes in the cases of control, N60+PK and N120+PK fertilizer treatments. According to our research results, we have concluded that the preceding crop, the fertilizer application and the variety selection influenced the SPAD values. According to our data, we have measured higher SPAD values after sweet corn preceding crop, the standard deviations were in a smaller range in the case of the studied varieties. After sunflower preceding crop, smaller averages were experienced with wider standard deviation range. In the case of favourable preceding crop, the differences between the varieties are more pronounced than in the case of unfavourable preceding crop. The maximal SPAD values were measured in milky ripening in the case of N120+PK fertilizer treatment.

  • The effect of drought and cropping system on the yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.)
    51-53
    Views:
    118

    Different Cropping Systems have many advantages and ensure better crop growth and yielding. Its combination with other agronomic measures can ensure optimal crop density for maximum crop growth and photosynthesis efficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different cropping systems on monoculture and biculture rotations [maize- wheat]. The study found that crop rotation does not have a significant effect on the grain nutrition quality, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) but has a significant effect on the Soil-Plant Analysis Development (SPAD). Yield and yield components were significantly influenced by crop rotation in this study as yield, plant height, cob weight and number of grains per row all recorded lower mean at 5% probability levels.

  • Role of some agrotechnical elements in the precision crop technology of cereals
    241-244
    Views:
    107

    The crop models and precision technology have an important role in the development of winter wheat and maize agrotechnics, which crops have determinative role in Hungarian crop production. The effects of agrotechnical elements (crop rotation, fertilization, irrigation, crop protection, plant density) were studied in our longterm experiments on chernozem soil. Our scientific results proved that the high yields, and good yield stability were obtained in the input-intensive crop models. Maize had lower ecological adaptive capacity than winter wheat. The optimatization of agrotechnical elements reduces the harmful climatic effects so we can increase the yield and yield stability of cereals agro-ecosystems. The yields of wheat varied between 2 and 7 t ha-1 in extensive and 8 and 10 t ha-1 in intensive crop models and the yields of maize ranged between 2 and 11 t ha-1 and 10 and 15 t ha-1, respectively.

  • Effect of two different cropyear and the agrotechnological factors on the agronomic characteristic of the winter weat in a lon-term experiment
    143-149
    Views:
    105

    We studied the effects of crop rotation, fertilization and crop protection technologies on occurence of the major ear- and leaf-diseases (powdery mildew, helminthosporiosis, leaf rust, Fusarium wilt) and the degree of lodging in the winter wheat variety Mv Pálma in two very different years (2006/2007=dry; 2009/2010=rainy). The experiments were carried out at the Látókép Experimental Farm of the University of Debrecen CAAES in triculture (pea-wheat-maize) and biculture (wheat-maize) at five fertilization levels by applying three different crop protection technologies (extensive, average, intensive).
    In the cropyear of 2006/2007, the disease severity of leaf diseases was higher than the average in both crop rotations in spite of the fact that the weather during the whole vegetation period was dry. Infection by powdery mildew, helminthosporiosis and leaf rust increased with increasing fertilization, the highest infection was measured at the highest fertilization level (N200+PK) in the extensive crop protection technology. According to the results, no infection of ears by Fusarium and no lodging occurred in either bi- or triculture due to the dry year. The extremely rainy weather in 2009/2010 was favourable not only for the vegetative development of the stand, but also increased the occurance of leaf-, stalk- and ear-diseases and a high degree of lodging was observed. The highest infection by powdery mildew was observed in the plots with the highest fertilizer dosage under an extensive crop protection technology. A much higher helminthosporiosis infection was measured than in the cropyear of 2006/2007. The wet weather and higher than average temperature promoted the occurence and spreading of leaf rust. Under an extensive crop protection technology, a leaf rust infection of 24% and 31% was detected after maize and pea as a forecrop, respectively, in the N200+PK treatment. As opposed to 2006/2007, the disease severity of Fusarium was 3–8% and 2–7% in the control after maize and pea as a forecrop, respectively. This value, similarly to that of other pathogens, increased with increasing fertilization levels. Due to the large vegetative mass, a significant lodging was observed in the wheat stands in both bi- and triculture (17–100%, 12–100%). 

  • Relationship between the change of soil moisture content of different soil layers and maize yield
    19-25
    Views:
    148

    The development of chernozem soil water management and its relationship with maize yields was studied in a 30-years long-term field experiment with different crop-rotation systems (mono-, bi- and triculture), in three crop years with different natural precipitation: a drought (2007), a wet (2008) and a dry (2009 one. The relevant soil layer was divided to three sub-layers: (0–60 cm, 61–120 cm, 121–200 cm) in which the development of soil moisture content was investigated during the whole vegetation. From the results it can be stated that change of the water stock of the upper soil layer (0–60 cm) was the most intensive. Both the direct effect of natural precipitation and irrigation could be observed in the most obvious way in it. Yield result of maize and the highest water supply deficit values in the vegetation were compared in our work too. According to the results it was revealed that among the three studied crop rotation systems it was the monoculture, the success of production of which depends the most of water supply. The most favourable crop rotation system was the triculture from both the aspect of the yield of produced crops and the favourable soil properties too.

  • Results of weed surveys in greening plants
    53-57
    Views:
    63

    Greening crops play an essential role in Hungary's agriculture. Weeds can also cause many problems during the development of greening plants. Our research aimed to evaluate the weed control properties of greening crops sown with different germination rates. Analysis of the effect of crop rotations on weed density. Comparison of weed growth in control, fertilised and greened areas. In October of 2021, a weed survey was carried out in lupin (Lupinus albus L.), common vetch (Vicia sativa L.), oil radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L.) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum eculentum Moench). During the weed survey, we determined the different weed species and their abundance. In terms of seed rates, the higher seed rates for lupin, oil radish, and buckwheat may be worth choosing for weed suppression. Plots in rotation III had the lowest weed incidence of all greening crops. The probable reason for this finding is that there was no prior greening in rotation III. For greening, the choice of buckwheat and oil radish will result in higher weed pressure. The most important weeds were the cereals sown before the greening crop. Fertilised plots had minimally fewer weeds than control plots. Research results show the difficulties of weed control in herbicide-free greening crops.

     

  • The influence of crop rotation and nutrition regime in winter wheat on the phytomass remains and the deposits of weed seeds remained in the ground
    10-13
    Views:
    124

    An important problem refers to soil weeds seed bank with special reference to brown luvic soils and relationship between vegetal remains
    (roots + stub) and nutrition regime – crop rotation plant. A great number of seeds can be found in first 20 centimeters of soil (plowing
    layer). This fact causes a high weeds density, which has a negative effect on the cultivated plants leading to partial or total crop loss.

  • The role of green manure crops in Hungarian plant production
    49-53
    Views:
    194

    According to the data of KSH (Hungarian Central Statistical Office), the sowing area of cereals in the crop year 2016 was over 2.56 million ha, on which winter wheat and maize were produced in a rate of around 50–50%. Regarding these data it is obvious that the domestic cropping structure has been simplified and become unilateral. This unfavourable crop rotation system causes several problems. The number of Hungarian livestock decreased in the past decades. The amount of manure was 24 million tons in 1960, but only hardly 4.5 million tons of organic manure was applied in 2016. Therefore, the importance of other possibilities, alternatives for organic matter recovery have become enhanced. This is especially important from the aspect of sustainable plant production. The fact that the European Union has introduced new directives for subsidiaries in 2015 has to be noted as well.

    The objective of the set experiment is to find new technological solutions that are suitable for the execution of sustainable plant production by inadequate crop rotation, organic substance recovery conditions or under more unfavourable climatic conditions.

  • Evaluation of the role of common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) green manure in crop rotations
    161-171
    Views:
    120

    Common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) is an annual legume, grown as green manure provide rapid soil cover, can increase soil moisture and organic matter content and reduce soil erosion during fall. During the fallow period, legumes grown as catch crops are known by releasing large amounts of mineral nitrogen (N) for the subsequent crop. By taking advantage of these benefits, it is possible to increase the yield of the next crop in an environmentally friendly and sustainable way. The goal of this study was to determine the value of common vetch as a green manure, considering its effect on soil conditions and the yield of next crops. We examined three different common vetch seed rate as a green manure in a crop rotation with triticale, oat and corn. Next to the green manured treatments, we used fertilized and bare fallow control treatment for comparison. In our study we evaluated the aboveground biomass weight of spring vetch green manure and its effect on the moisture content of the soil. We examined the green manure’s effect on the next crops plant height and yield. We found that the moisture content of the green manured plots was significantly higher during summer drought. On the green manured plots, 37.9% higher triticale yield, 50% higher oat yield and 44% higher corn yield were measured compared to the control plots. The insertion of spring vetch green manuring into crop rotations could be a good alternative to sustainable nutrient replenishment methods. It can be used to reduce the input needs of farming, reduce carbon footprint, contribute to the protection of soils and increase the organic matter content of the soil.

  • The irrigation influence under the soil, microclimate and plants in maize from Crişurilor Plain
    180-186
    Views:
    69

    The paper is based on the researches carried out in the long term trial placed on the preluvosoil from Oradea in 1976, for establishing
    the soil water balance. In the irrigated variant the soil moisture was determined 10 to 10 days for maintaining the soil water reserve on
    irrigation depth (0 – 50 cm for wheat and bean, 0 – 75cm for maize, sunflower, soybean, sugarbeet, potato and alfalfa 1st year and 0 – 100
    cm for alfalfa 2nd year) between easily available water content and field capacity. Thus, an average irrigation rate of 2560 m³/ha was used
    in the 9 experimental crops. The average of the annual rainfall for the 1976 – 2008 period was of 625.0 mm. The technologies used were
    correlated with the needes of the crops, such as melioration crop rotation, chemical fertilizers in accordance with the chemical export on the
    yield, manure (40 t/ha) was used in potato and sugarbeet. After 33 years of the irrigation use the soil structure degree (38.62%) did not
    decrease when compared to the unirrigated maize – wheat crop rotation (37.01%). Bulk density, total porosity, penetration resistance and
    hydraulic conductivity have worse values than the ones in the unirrigated variant. The humus content is very close to the humus content
    determined in 1976, the phosphorus and the potassium content increased very much in comparison with the initial content (117 ppm vs 22.0
    ppm); (180.0 ppm vs 102 ppm). The use of the adequate fertilization system and of the irrigation water with a good qaulity did not determine
    a decrease of the pH value of the soil. The irrigation determined the improve of the microclimate conditions, the increase of the plant water
    consumption, yield gains very significant statistically and higher protein content of the maize grains.

  • Researches regarding the influence of the some technological elements on water use efficiency in maize from Crisurilor Plain
    5-9
    Views:
    132

    Plain and the influence of the hybrid, plant density, crop rotation, nutrient supply, weeds and irrigation on water use efficiency were studied.

    Choosing of the hybrid with the best water use efficiency is very important because a hybrid from 500–600 FAO group (Fundulea 376) in unirrigated conditions and a hybrid from FAO group over 600 (Fundulea 365) obtained the biggest water use efficiency; the hybrid Fundulea 365 obtained the highest irrigation water use efficiency, 20.1 kg yield gain 1 mm-1 irrigation water.

    One of the most known hybrid in the area is Turda super and the highest water use efficiency was obtained using the plant density of 55 000 plants/ha in unirrigated variant and 70 000 plants/ha in irrigated variant. The highest irrigation water use efficiency, 20.7 kg yield gain 1 mm-1, was obtained at 70 000 plants ha-1.

    In maize monoculture was obtained the lowest values of the water use efficiency in unirrigated and irrigated variant: in the wheat-maize crop rotation the values were higher than in maize monoculture and in the wheat-maize-soybean were registered the highest values. The same situation was registered regarding the irrigation water use efficiency.

    Farm manure (30 t ha-1) and especially manure (30 t ha-1) +chemical fertilizers (N90P45) determined a higher values of the water use efficiency in comparison with the control. In the variant with organic + mineral fertilization was registered the higher value (19.4 kg yield gain mm-1) of the irrigation water use efficiency.

    Water use efficiency was much lower in the variant with weeds in comparison with the variant without the weeds; the differences were of 69% in unirrigated variant and of 64% in irrigated variant, very significant statistically. Irrigation water use efficiency from variant with weeds was lower than the value registered in the variant without weeds; the difference (68%) was very significant statistically.

    In average in period 1976–2012, the irrigation determined the increasing in water use efficiency with 22%, 19.4 kg mm-1 vs. 15.8 kg mm-1, but not in all the years caused the irrigation increasing in water use efficiency in comparison with unirrigated maize.

    The results research emphasized the need of the optimization for technology elements studied and a better water use efficiency will be obtained.

  • Nutrient and water utilisation analyses of maize on chernozem soil in a long-term field experiment
    77-82
    Views:
    165

    We have conducted our research at the Látókép Research Farm of the University of Debrecen RISF Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences during the cropyears of 2007, 2008 and 2009, on chernozem soil. In the case of crop rotation three models were set (mono-,bi- [wheat, maize] and triculture [pea, wheat, maize]). The five nutrient levels applied during the treatments were as follows: control [untreated], N60P45K45, N120P90K90, N180P135K135, N240P180K180. The conclusion of our results was the following: the crop rotation, the nutrient supply and the amount of precipitation all influenced the quantity of maize yield. As an effect of the increasing nutrient doses yield increase was experienced compared with the control treatments. In the average of the years the highest increase in yield excess/1 kg of NPK fertilizer was measured in the case of the monoculture (13 kg ha-1). As a consequence of is soil extorting effect the monoculture responded more intensively to the nutrient supplementation than the biculture or the triculture in the studied cropyears. In addition, we have observed that the three-year average yield amount per 1 mm precipitation was significantly influenced by the nutrient reserve of the soil. In the monoculture during the control treatment this value was 25 kg mm-1, the value measured in the case of the biculture turned out to be more favourable (42 kg mm-1).

  • Investigation of harvest index influencing agrotechnical and botanical factors in hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.)
    123-128
    Views:
    111

    The biggest problem of Hungarian crop farming is mass production and the simple crop rotation based on cereals. There was a decrease in sowing area of protein crops which raises crucial issues in crop rotation and land use. Therefore, growing papilionaceous plants, which are now considered to be alternative plants, should be taken under close examination. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) belongs to the family of papilionaceous plants and it can be grown in light weak soils.

    In Hungary, hairy vetch was used as green forage at first, but it later became a green manure plant.  Nowadays, it is used as a cover crop and its sowing seed has a good export market. In low fertile soils it is able to produce a big amount of green yield (25–40 t ha-1) even in spring while its seed yield could be 0.4–0.5 t ha-1 at farm level. In addition to its morphological characteristics hairy vetch is grown mainly with a supporting plant, i.e. triticale in many cases.

    Our purpose was to test the harvest index and its agrotechnical and botanical factors of hairy vetch in different cropping systems.