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New challenges in soil management
Published September 5, 2018
91-92
Soil management represents two important tasks that are harmonization of the soil protection with demands of the crop to be grown on the given land under prevailing farming condition. Further goals are to preserve and/or develop the soil physical, biological and chemical condition and to avoid the unfavourable changes of the soil biological a...ctivity and the soil structure. Classical authors emphasised the importance of creating proper seedbed for plants. In the physical approach, tillage was believed to play an important role in controlling soil processes. Consequently, the period of several centuries dominated by this approach is referred to as the era of crop-oriented tillage (Birkás et al., 2017). The overestimation of the importance of crop requirements resulted in damaging the soils, which inevitably led to turn to the soil-focused tillage. Since the first years of climate change, as the new trends have raised concern, tillage must be turned into a climate-focused effort with the aim of reducing climate-induced stresses through improving soil quality.
The development of soil management has always been determined by the economical background. At the same time, deteriorating site conditions have contributed to the conception of new tillage trends by forcing producers to find new solutions (e.g. dry farming theory in the past or adaptable tillage theory nowadays). Győrffy (2009) recited the most important keywords were listed in 2001 and that seemed to be important in the future of crop production. These keywords (endeavours) were as follows:
− Biofarming, organic farming, alternative farming, biodynamic farming, low input sustainable agriculture;
− Mid-tech farming, sustainable agriculture, soil conservation farming, no till farming, environmentally sound, environmentally friendly, diversity farming;
− Crop production system, integrated pest management, integrated farming, high-tech farming;
− Site specific production, site-specific technology, spatial variable technology, satellite farming;
− Precision farming.
Győrffy’s prognosis proved to be realistic and the efforts mentioned above have mostly been implemented. New challenges have also appeared in soil management in relation to the last decades. The most important endeavours for the future are:
1) Preserving climate-induced stresses endangering soils.
2) Turn to use climate mitigation soil tillage and crop production systems.
3) Applying soil management methods are adaptable to the different soil moisture content (over dried or wet may be quite common).
4) Use effectual water conservation tillage.
5) Use soil condition specific tillage depth and method.
6) Adapting the water and soil conservation methods in irrigation.
7) Preserving and improving soil organic matter content by tillage and crop production systems.
8) Considering that stubble residues are matter for soil protection, humus source and earthworm’ feed.
9) Site-specific adoption of green manure and cover crops.
10) Applying site-adopted (precision) fertilization and crop protection. Considering the development in agriculture, new endeavours will occur before long.
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The effect of irrigation on the yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
Published May 20, 2020
143-147

In this study, the effect of water supply on the quality and productivity of different maize hybrids was observed.

Maize production is influenced by many agro-technical factors such as nutrient supply, plant density, environmental factors, water supply and temperature. Good soil quality and adequate technology significantly... reduce the unfavourable effect of crop year. The impact of fertilization, crop rotation, irrigation and plant density on maize yield was greatly affected by crop year and crop rotation. The main constituent (69–75% dry matter concentration) of maize seed is starch, however, its increase can be achieved only to a limited extent, as increasing the starch content will reduce other parameters, especially protein content. Significant nutrient content improvements can be achieved by appropriate hybrid-site connection and the use of adequate technology. Protein content reduction with optimal water supply can be positively influenced by the appropriate nutrient supply for the hybrid.

The experiments were carried out at the Látókép Experimental Site of Crop Production on calcareous chernozem soil. The weather of the examined year, which was partly favorable for maize and partly unfavourable in other respects, was also reflected in the development of maize and yields achieved.

In 2019, we were examining the hybrids of Kamaria (FAO 370), P 9903 (FAO 390), DKC 4351 (FAO 370) and KWS Kamparis (FAO 350–400). Due to the dry soil condition, sowing was delayed, however, the hybrids emerged ideally because rain arrived soon after sowing, which facilitated initial development. Young plants evolved rapidly and dynamically in the case of all hybrids. In terms of heat-demanding bread, the month of May was unfavourable to temperatures below the annual average, but the higher amount rainfall helped the development. However, due to the drier period in early July, 25–25 mm of irrigation water was applied to half of the experimental areas on July 1 and 15.

The aim of our research was to determine the best population density for hybrids under favourable soil conditions (calcareous chernozem soil). In both irrigated and dry conditions, a crop density of 75,000 crops were the most favourable for the Kamaria hybrid. The P9903 hybrid in the case of a crop density of 85 crops proved to be ideal and the DKC4351 had an optimal population density of 95,000.

However, it should be taken into consideration that, in the case of soils with poor water management, the drought sensitivity of the crop stand may increase at a population density of 95,000.

As a result of irrigation, yield increased and the difference between the examined plant numbers decreased. The yield growth was relatively moderate (341 kg ha-1 – 1053 kg ha-1), which makes the economicalness of irrigation doubtful in the given year.

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Nutrient deficiency and effects of various nutrition technologies on crop health
Published December 15, 2019
109-113

The impacts of climate change on crop production are increasingly noticeable. Extreme weather conditions – such as devastating droughts, which occur more often – have serious effects on crop conditions, thus damaging their defence ability against pathogens and pests. Therefore, in order to achieve high-quality and high yielding crops, it is... urgent to elaborate new technologies that improve general condition of crops and prevent development of nutrient diseases. Those crops which suffer from the lack of certain nutrients are more sensitive and their tolerance against diseases are decreased. Nitrogen – as the most influencing macronutrient in yield – is also essential in maintaining crop health. Nevertheless, due to the complicated processes in soil (such as leaching, denitrification), the utilization of nitrogen is not nearly complete, therefore nitrogen stabilizers may be needed to maximize this factor. The use of these stabilizers can be promising where plants with high nitrogen content are grown, although further experiments are needed in which impacts of nitrogen stabilizers on crop protection aspects are examined as well, since there is a close correlation between exaggerated nitrogen fertilizing and sensitivity to pests. During my research I am going to examine the combined effect of foliar fertilizer and nitrogen stabilizer on crop health. Furthermore, my goal is to find clear correlation between pathogens and the different technological variants of nutrition.

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Crop Load, Fruit Thinning and their Effects on Fruit Quality of Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
Published October 11, 2006
29-35

Crop load, a quantitative parameter used by industry, is generally defined as the number of fruit per tree. It is often expressed in terms of number of fruit per trunk cross-sectional area (fruit/TCSA). Crop load is the most important of all factors that influence fruit size, and the removing of a part of the crop is the most effective way to i...mprove fruit size.
The potential size of a given pome fruit is determined early in the season and growth proceeds at a relatively uniform rate thereafter. This uniform growth rate permits the accurate prediction of the harvest size of the fruit as early as mid-summer. The growth rate, once established, is not easily altered, and fruit numbers, therefore, can affect fruit size only within definite limits and maximum effectiveness requires adjustment in fruit numbers relatively early in the season. It was established, that „thinning does not change a potentially small fruit into a large fruit, but rather insures that a potentially large fruit will size properly.” Emphasis should be on estimating fruit numbers rather than fruit size.
Fruit thinning can quickly reach the point of diminishing returns. Rather than a high percentage of large fruits, the objectives of thinning should be the elimination of the smallest fruits, improved fruit quality and annual production. Fruit thinning is accomplished by hand or chemical thinning. Chemical thinners are separated into categories as bloom thinners and post-bloom thinners. Early removal of potential fruit (blossom thinning) is currently used in many apple producing areas to enhance flower initiation for next year’s crop and thus, return bloom. It also results in reduced competition for photosynthates. Blossom thinners usually have a caustic effect on floral parts.
The amount of fruit left on a tree should be determined by the vigor and general condition of the tree. Leaf area per fruit affects the number of spurs flowering the following season. It can be difficult to separate timing and fruit number effects in crop loading studies, as abscission rates after hand thinning of retained flowers/fruitlets tend to very with the time of hand thinning.

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Effects of plant density on photosynthetic characteristics and yield of maize under irrigation condition
Published May 23, 2019
115-118

Maize plant response to plant density is an essential agrotechnical factor used for determining grain yield. Three plant densities (60,000 ha-1, 72,500 ha-1, and 85,000 ha-1) were used in this study to ascertain the effect of photosynthetic parameters and grain yield. Results show a significant difference in the... photosynthetic parameters (SPAD, NDVI, LAI) and plant height for plant density of 85,000 ha-1. Grain yield and stem diameter were not significantly affected between the different plant densities.

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157
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Strategic Steps in the Sheep and Goat Branches
Published December 4, 2001
61-68

The balance of the sheep and goat branches can be summarised as follows:
If the increase in stock size, specific yields, genetic improvement and modernisation are not realised, several thousand shepherds will lose their jobs and possibilities to work, and their families will lose their only source of livelihood.
Several hundred hectares o...f grassland will become weedy and the costs of crop protection will increase in these regions. Pollen pollution, the number of allergic ailments and medical costs will increase, mentioning only the main disadvantages. Its financial requirement is nearly equal to the one required for development without any essential compensation or production.
In order to develop a competitive branch, a subsidisation of 10-20 billion HUF is needed until the accession of Hungary to the EU, depending on the scale and progressivity of development. The subsidisation and realisation of the strategic steps would result in:
– the establishment of a registered livestock with 1.5 million ewes, which would ensure better market position for the branch in the EU (5%),
– the establishment of a competitive and marketable branch with a production value of 15-25 billion HUF, calculated using the present price level (after accession, the branch would be self-operating and profitable, with the 6-8 billion HUF/year normative subsidisation by the EU),
– the establishment of a genetic potential which would ensure our participation in profitable international breeding animal market, which provides extra profit,
– the establishment of a sheep husbandry with better genetic potential and phenotypic performance, producing a quality of international level,
– the maintenance of the workplace of more than 10.000 people (saving 3-5 billion HUF/year of the budget),
– the maintenance of the condition of growing areas of grasslands with their advantages (crop protection and public health) whose financial effect is considerable.

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Economic questions of maize production on different soil types
Published November 13, 2012
289-292

The requirements and objective of cultivation are in constant change. For example, different cultivation systems are developed for the purpose of soil protection, the preservation of its moisture content and on soils with various precipitation supply or production site conditions. Traditionally, one of the most important cultivation aims is cro...p needs. Further cost saving in fertilisation and crop protection can only be achieved by reducing the quality and quantity of production or it cannot be achieved at all. Furthermore, the costs can be significantly reduced by means of the rationalisation of cultivation. Energy and working time demand can also be notably reduced if ploughing is left out from the conventional tillage method. The key requirement of economicalness is to perform the cultivation at the optimal date, moisture level and the lowest possible cost.
Within production costs, the cost of cultivation is between 3–17%, while they are between 8–36% within machinery costs. It is the vital condition the usability of each technological method to progressively reduce costs. Our evaluation work was carried out with the consideration of the yield data obtained from cooperating farms and the experiment database of the Institute for Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen. Three technological methods (ploughing, heavy cultivator and loosening tillage) were used on several soil types which differ from in terms of cultivability (chernozem, sandy and sandy clay soils) from the economic/economical aspect. We examined the sectoral cost/income relation of maize production as an indicator plant. The maize price during the analytical period was 45 thousand HUF per t. On chernozem soils, the production of maize can be carried out on high income level, while maize production on sandy soils has a huge risk factor. The role of cultivation is the highest on high plasicity soils, since they have a huge energy
demand and the there is a short amount of time available for each procedure in most cases.

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The efficiency of the different elements of spring barley growing organic technology in the conditions the eastern steppe of Ukraine
Published May 16, 2017
209-213

The effectiveness the use of new nutrient complexes is studied. It is set that a combination of nutrient complexes with organic and organicmineral nutrition background promotes to good growth and development of plants during the growing season, provides the best parameters of crop yield structure and the crop yield and economic efficiency of sp...ring barley cultivation in the condition of the Eastern Steppe of Ukraine.

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Alternatives of sewage sludge use in the crop production
Published May 16, 2012
83-87

The produced plants reduce the greenhouse effect because they fix CO2 that contributes to the causing of the greenhouse effect with about 50%. The production of fertilizers is not only a costly process but it needs a considerable energy at the same time. Nowadays, the reduction of the proportion of the fertilizer is significant. One ...of the reasons of this is that during the production such by-products are produced in a big quantity in which the necessary vegetal nutrients can be found in a considerable measure these enrich the organic matter of soil. The latter is essential condition for the microorganisms in the soil, without which the sustainable plant cultivation can not be achieved. Besides high prices of artificial fertilizers the utilization of the wastes is economically justified. Finally the other reason for the reduction of a usage of artificial fertilizer is that the wrong use of the fertilizer may cause environmental pollutions. I examined the cultivation application of the sewage sludge in laboratory circumstances during my work.

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Technological development of sustainable maize production
Published May 16, 2017
83-88

In our research we examined the effect of the hybrid, the nutrient supply, the number of plants and the abiotic factors (temperature, amount of precipitation) on the yield, crop quality and yield stability of maize. We devoted special attention to the natural nutrient utilization ability and fertilizer reaction of maize.
The experiment took ...place in Hajdúszoboszló on chernozem soil, on a nearly eight ha field. The size of one plot was 206 m2, this it was a half-industrial experiment. We tested six hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing seasons. I analysed the correlation between the nutrient supply and the yield of maize hybrids with control treatment (treatment without fertilization) and with N 80, P2O5 60, K2O 70 kg ha-1 and N 160, P2O5 120, K2O 140 kg ha-1 fertilizer treatments. Yield increasing effect of the fertilizer also depended on the number of plants per hectare at a great extent. The number of plants of the six tested hybrids was 60, 70, and 80 thousand plants per ha.
In Hajdúszoboszló, in 2016 the amount of rainfall from January to October was 605 mm, which was more than the average of 30 years by 160 mm. The yield of hybrids without fertilization changed between 9.63–11.6 t ha-1 depending on the number of plants.
The six tested hybrids is 10.65 t ha-1 in the average of the stand density of 60, 70 and 80 thousand plants per hectare without fertilization, while it is 12.24 t ha-1 with N80+PK fertilizer treatment. That increase in the yield is 1.6 t ha-1, it is significant.
Da Sonka hybrid is sensitive to weather, it is able to produce 6 t ha-1 additional yield in case of favourable condition. However, it has a low stress tolerance. The most stable yields were observed at Kamaria and Pioneer hybrids. The effect of vintage is also an important factor on the yield. In average, the yield of maize was 6.81 t ha-1 in 2015, which was a drought year and 11.86 t ha-1 in 2016 that was a favourable year.

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Effect of sowing time and planting space on change of yield and protein content of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.)
Published February 3, 2016
85-89

The hinge of the lupine crop cultivation technology is the sowing time and the determination of the breeding area. According to the literature the early sowing (as soon as possible to go to the soil) and larger growing area is recommended for seed production. Based on the results of our 2 years experiment, the effect of sowing time and differen...t spacing is important on yield of white lupine, and the effect of the sowing time is more significant. A decrease in the yield was observed after later sowings. The yield and the rate of its decreasing was varied in one year and among different years depending on wheather condition and sowing time.

The role of sowing time is significant for protein content of seeds. The average protein content decreased due to the later sowings in 2014, while 2015 the protein content of seeds in early sowing time and of plants sowed 4 weeks later was similar. We measured less protein content in the 2. sowing time sowed 2 weeks later than the first one. In the studied years the average protein content of seeds from different row spaces were not different.

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