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The effect of crop protection and agrotechnical factors on sunflower in the Hajdúság region
Published October 5, 2010

Extreme weather conditions are becoming more and more frequent in the crop years, thus increase the risk of sunflower production.
The objective of researches into plant production is to minimize these effects as much as possible. In this sense, the optimization of
agrotechnological factors is of high importance. Within these factors, the ...appropriate crop technology (sowing time, crop density)
and optimized, rational crop protection technologies are important, especially in the highly sensitive sunflower cultures. The effect of
sowing time, crop density, and fungicide treatments on the yield of sunflower hybrids was analysed in different crop years in 2008
and 2009. In each case, the infection was highest with the early sowing time and at the highest crop density level (65000 ha-1). When
one fungicide treatment was applied, the rate of infection decreased compared to the control treatment. The further decrease of the
infection rate was less after the second fungicide treatment.
In the humid year of 2008 the crop yield was the highest at 45000 ha-1 crop density level in the control treatment and at 55000 crop
ha-1 crop density level when fungicides were applied. In the draughty year of 2009 the maximum yield was gained at 55000 ha-1 crop
density level in the control treatment and at 65000 crop ha-1 when fungicides were applied. In 2008 and 2009 as regards the crop
yield, the difference between the optimal and minimal crop density levels was higher in the fungicide treatments than in the control
treatment (in 2008: control: 517 kg ha-1; one application of fungicides: 865 kg ha-1; two applications of fungicides: 842 kg ha-1), (in
2009: control: 577 kg ha-1; one application of fungicides: 761 kg ha-1; two applications of fungicides: 905 kg ha-1).
In each and every case, the first treatment with fungicides was more effective than the second. In 2008, the highest yield was
obtained with the third, late sowing time in each fungicide treatment. The differences between the crop yields with different sowing
times was less than in 2009, when the results of the second treatment exceeded those of the first and third treatment in each case.

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Woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa /Thunb./ Kunth), a recently occured invasive weed in Trans-Tisza Region and a trial for control in maize
Published June 2, 2015

To the effective control of invasive weeds are essential to prevent establish, if has already happened obstacle to massive accumulation, and promoting the efficient and rapid eradication, if it is possible. The Woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa /Thunb./ Kunth) belongs to weeds which “hard to control” especially in corn. One of the difficul...ties of effective control is the prolonged emergence causing avoidance of several individuals the contact with pre-emergent herbicides. Another problem arises due to the intensive use of post-emergence herbicide products with short duration of action. To optimalize of timing of treatment is essential for successful control of later emerging weeds. The recently established Woolly cupgrass in Hungary shows resistance or reduced susceptibility to substantial portion of herbicides used in corn. The data collected from small-plot trials demonstrates that application of sulfonylurea or selective monoctyledonous herbicides can be effective against the Woolly cupgrass.

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The effect of location on the incidence of brown rot blossom and shoot blight infection on apricot
Published September 14, 2005

The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of brown rot blossom and shoot blight and caused by Monilinia laxa. Assessments of incidence were made on cv. Bergeron (susceptible to brown rot) in a flatland and a hilly growing area (at Cegléd and Gönc, respectively). In 2004, when spring and summer weather conditions were wet and cold, inci...dence reached 95 % for blossom blight and 33 % for shoot blight in the untreated plots. Blossom blight incidence was 1.5-2 times higher in the flatland area compared to the hilly growing area. During the blooming period of apricot, two (at flower bud stage and at full bloom) and three (at flower bud stage, at full bloom and at petal fall) fungicide applications were necessary for the successful control at Gönc and Cegléd, respectively. The difference between the two orchards was due to the fact that blooming started one week later in the hilly region (at Gönc) than in the flatland region (at Cegléd), therefore, the critical weather period coincided with blooming in the orchard in the hilly region only partially.

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A dual infection of two microscopic fungi on common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) in Hajdúság region (East-Hungary)
Published May 16, 2017

Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) is one of the most noxious and invasive weed species in Hungary. A. syriaca invades arable lands, horticultural and forestry plantations, natural and semi-natural habitats too. In cases of field crops it can cause considerable yield losses mostly in maize (2–10%), soybean (12–32%) and sorghum (4–29%)..., but only with high rate of coverage. It can also increase these problems that the common milkweed can be serve as reservoir and host for viruses, other pathogens and pests.
Because of the importance of common milkweed and in spite of demand to develop effective biological control, until now has not been developed a proper control program against A. syriaca. The aim of our research was to identify the necrotrophic fungal pathogens, which were involved in notable disease occurrence on this weed in different parts of Hajdúság region of Eastern-Hungary in 2016.
To the isolation of fungi from leaves and their identification were based on morphological colony characters on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). To the description of conidia features were used PDA for Alternaria and synthetic low-nutrient agar (SNA) for Fusarium species, respectively. The examination of axenic cultures revealed that the fungi isolated from the leaves of common milkweed were Fusarium sporotrichioides and Alternaria alternata.

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Mass occurrence of a Phoma-like fungus on common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) in Hajdúság region, East Hungary
Published June 14, 2017

Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is one of the most important, allergenic weed species in Hungary. A. artemisiifolia invades both a broad range of often disturbed areas (brownfields) and either undisturbed ones like waste lands, roadsides, riverbanks and railway tracks. In field crops it can cause considerable yield losses mainly in ...sunflower, maize, cereals and soybean. In Hungary many inhabitants suffer from allergy caused by Ambrosia pollen which results a serious human-health risk. The aim of the control is to prevent flowering and seed propagation of A. artemisiifolia. Until now the occurrence of numerous pathogenic fungi which attack common ragweed plants have been identified in Hungary, however there is not yet available biological weed control program because of shortage in acceptable effectiveness, and endangering cultural plant species. During our weed surveys in the region of Hajdúság (East-Hungary) we found numerous common ragweed plants showing heavy necrotic lesions on leaves and stems. The objective of this study was to identify the fungus which was isolated from diseased tissues of common ragweed (A. artemisiifolia). The identification of fungus based on morphological characters of colonies and features of conidia and chlamydospores developed on malt extract agar (MEA) plates. After examination of axenic cultures we revealed that the fungus isolated from the leaves ands stems of common ragweed was a Phoma-like species.

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Preliminary estimation of the efficacy of Fusarium sporotrichioides Sherb. as biological control agent against common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.)
Published June 30, 2018

A study of fungi responsible for severe leaf spots of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in the Hajdúság region (East Hungary), Fusarium sporotrichioides and Alternaria alternata were isolated from infested leaf tissues. F. sporotrichioides was the most virulent fungus in pathogenicity tests conducted on healthy leaves of common milkweed ...plants. Inoculation of common milkweed (A. syriaca) in different growth stages with F. sporotrichioides yielded similar symptoms as the original ones. Spray mixtures containing 1.0×106 conidia/ml gave effective control when common milkweed plants were sprayed until runoff occurred. Laboratory (wet chamber) and field experiments showed that asexual spores of the fungal pathogen, F. sporotrichioides, exhibited bioherbicidal activity against common milkweed (A. syriaca).

More efficient control efficacy was observable on elder plants (at flowering stage) than younger ones. These results initiate that this fungus may be a biocontrol agent for controlling this invasive weed but should clarify its hosts because it could infect cultivated plants as well.

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Study of some physiologic properties of different genotype sweet corn hybrids
Published July 31, 2012

The effect of nutrient-supply (control, N120+PK) and two different genotypes on the physiologic properties of sweet corn has been investigated in the crop-year of 2011 on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság region. The experiments were carried out at the Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen in Debrecen-Látókép. The experiment was ...sewn in two different sowing times: the 21st April can be considered as an early, while the 19th May as a late sowing time. The two involved hybrids were Jumbo and Enterprise. The applied plant density was 65 000 plants per hectare.
Our aim with this experiment was to study the plant production, just as the main affecting factors of its development and dynamics, like nutrient-supply and genotypes. We aimed to study and analyse the relationships between these factors and plant production. In this study following parameters were measured and calculated: photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll-content (SPAD-value), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD). Regarding the analysis of photosynthetic activity values no obvious relationship between the measured values and the applied hybrids, just as nutrient-supply has been revealed. 
Analysing the SPAD-values it can be stated that the chlorophyll-content of the measured leaves showed an increasing tendency due to the nutrient-supply. The highest values have been measured in the intensive cob development phase of the early sowing time plots.
Regarding the LAI-values we have found significant differences between the fertilizer treatments in both sowing time treatments. In case of the leaf area duration values – that is derived from the LAI values – nutrient-supply has positively affected the duration of the assimilation area.

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Application of molecular genetic methods for species Equus caballus – Literature review
Published August 29, 2017

In this study our aim was to provide a comprihensive overview of the most commonly used methods in molecular genetic studies related to Equus caballus. Thus we are dealing with the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA, with microsatellites and also with single nucleotid polimorphism as SNP. The advantages and drawbacks of each method were also ex...plored.

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Genetic diversity study in Hungarian coldblooded horses
Published August 29, 2017

Because of the feeding technology innovation, accelerated transport and communication facilities breeds of high performance breeds replaced local autochone breeds worldwide. These latter species however have an important role in gene conservation. Hungarian cold-blooded horse breeding stock are lacking pedigree, the actual founder breed mares not known. For this reason, it is an major priority defining the genetic backround of the existing flock, for that breeding could operate with purposeful using of origin maternal founders. In the present study 195 cold-blooded Hungarian mares tail and mane sample were analized. Our analysis was carried out between 15531–15752 base pairs in mithocrondial DNA D-loop region, which reported a total of 222 base pairs. Fourtyone polymorphic sites were determined, which resulted in 39 haplotypes (h=39). The average pairwise differences were k=6.825. High haplotype and nucleotide diversity values were observed (Hd=0.968±0.003, π=0.026±0.003). Based on the previously defined variable positions of haplotypes defined by Jansen et al (2002), we groupped our haplotypes into haplogroups. 23 percent of the studied population (45 mares) belonged to haplogroup F1. Nearly 97% of the analyzed population was classified into one of eight  haplogroups defined by al. (2002). This study gives genetic information nearly 25% of the Hungarian population. Another possibility would be patterning more mares or involving more genetic marker in the study which will assuming the possibility of a more comprehensive analysis.

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Examination of the Effect of Transaction Costs in the Hungarian Beef Sector
Published May 4, 2004

technical and economic characteristics, which give rise to high levels of uncertainty and greater control in the supply chain. In order to investigate the role of different transaction costs in marketing behavior, we carried out research in the central region of Hungary among beef retailers and wholesalers. This research is based on primary dat...a collection and examines the motivation of choices in the beef sector on distinction among different marketing channels and the role of transaction costs in procurement. Since this case can be regarded as a qualitative choice situation the hypothesis that transaction cost’s variables are significant is judged by the application of multinomial logit model in order come up with the variables that can influence the supply chain structure and the choice of different marketing channels. This analysis enabled us to explore the structure in data and confirm or reject the expected interrelations of causative variables. Our
1 A szerző témavezetője Dr. Fertő Imre.
2 A kutatás az OTKA F038082 sz. „Vertikális koordinációs és integrációs modellek az élelmiszer-gazdaságban” c. programja keretében valósult meg.
3 A szerző köszöni Dr. Fertő Imrének és Dr. Szabó G. Gábornak, a Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Közgazdaságtudományi Kutatóközpont tudományos főmunkatársainak a kutatás során nyújtott nagy értékű segítséget. results partly support and contradict the basic predictions of transaction cost economics.

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Occurrence and damage of the alfalfa root longhorn beetle (Plagionotus floralis Pallas, 1773) in old alfalfa stands in Hungary
Published November 10, 2010

The alfalfa root longhorn beetle is a pest of small importance in old alfalfa stands. It is rarely cited in the international, national literature, or even mentioned in specialized manuels. Plagionotus floralis is common in Hungary but its population density is low. It is a polyphagous species but it has importance - regarding the references ... only in alfalfa. This paper analyses data gained in old alfalfa fields at two different regions of the country (Máriabesnyő, Debrecen). Damage of P. floralis was 56% in the roots of an 8-year-old stand in Máriabesnyő. Lenghts of tunnels were between 3 and 22 cm. In spite of the tunnels the alfalfa plants were viable. There was no root longhorn beetle in the 15-year-old Debrecen stand, however it has been found former in the region. The reason for the important density of P. floralis in Máriabesnyő could be the considerable diversity and covering of flowering weeds around the field. Adults of P. floralis feed on flower pollen and nectar. As to the Debrecen area,weeds were cut regularly, so the edge vegetation was poor. Present conditions (no pest control on alfalfa fields, overuse of old and failing alfalfa stands, many untrained growers) favour the reproduction and possible damage of alfalfa root longhorn beetle. 

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Genetic diversity of the Hungarian draft horse assessed by mitochondrial DNA
Published October 24, 2016

Hungarian draft is a horse breed with a recent mixed ancestry. It was developed in the 1920s by crossing local mares with draught horses imported from France and Belgium. To genetically characterize the breed and to set up the basis for a conservation programme, we have employed a molecular marker: a 256-bp D-loop mitochondrial DNA fragment. We... analyzed 124 horses representing Hungarian draft horses to assess the maternal phylogeography of the breed. Sequence analysis of a 256-bp segment revealed a total of 34 haplotypes with thirty-four polymorphic sites. High haplotype and nucleotide diversity values (Hd=0.953±0.001; π=0.024±0.001) were detected. The average number of pairwise differences were k=5.998. This breed counts 800 mares today, and only survive due to breeding programmes, this way each haplotype frequency depends on the extent to which mares are involved into the breeding. The reduced number of surviving maternal lineages emphasizes the importance of establishing a conservation plan for this endangered breed. Due to the revealed 34 polymorphic sites we could presuppose twelve maternal linages, which could be a first step for making a breeding programme.

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The effect of agrotechnological factors and the cropping season on sweetcorn (Zea Mays L. convar. saccharata Koern.) production in a humid year
Published October 5, 2010

We have examined the effect of three agrotechnological factors (sowing time, fertilization, crop density) and four genotypes on the yield
of sweetcorn on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság region in 2009. The experiment was set up at the Látókép Research Site of the University of
Debrecen. We have included two sowing times (27 April, 26 ...May), six nutrition levels (control, N30+PK, N60+PK, N90+PK, N120+PK,
N150+PK) and four genotypes (Jumbo, Enterprise, Prelude, Box-R) at two crop density levels (45 thousand ha-1).
In the humid cropyear of 2010 the amount of precipitation exceeded the 30-year average by 184 mm in the cropping season; the average
temperature exceeded the same by 0.8 C on the average of the examined months. The circumstances were most favourable for sweetcorn
production with the first sowing time, thus, this was when the yield of all hybrids was the highest.
With early sowing time, the highest yield (23437 kg ha-1 yield) was obtained with Enterprise at 45 thousand ha-1 crop density level at
N150 + PK nutrition level. The highest yield of the other three hybrids was 22253 kg ha-1 (Jumbo) 22286 kg ha-1 (Box-R) and 1873 kg ha-1
(Prelude). With the second sowing time, the highest yield was obtained with Enterprise again (22237 kg ha-1) at 65 thousand ha-1 crop
density level. With this sowing time the yield of Jumbo, Box-R and Prelude was 20888 kg ha-1, 17796 kg ha-1 and 17401 kg ha-1, respectively.
We found that the highest yield was obtained at the highest nutrition levels (N120 + PK, N150 +PK) with the first sowing time, while the same
was obtained at lower nutrition levels (N90 + PK, N120 + PK) with the second sowing time.

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Influence of phytophagous mammals environment-forming activity on the soil invertase fermentative activity in conditions of mining impact region
Published November 3, 2010

Excretorial and fossorial activity of mammals is an important part of environment-forming activity. Mammals have influences on important biogeocenotic processes, especially on the soil processes. Determination the maintenance of soil invertase as one of diagnostic description the ecological state allowed defining limits of oscillation index in ...dump areas and in clean (control) native areas. The obtained results of the investigation indicate the soil depth, duration of experiment and type of area influence on soil invertase activity with the high statistical level of significance. Positive influence is revealed on invertase activity changing on dump areas, where an active excretorial and fossorial activity of phytophagous mammals was observed.

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Site and hybrid-specific agrotechnical models in sweet corn production
Published November 20, 2011

The effect of three agrotechnical factors (sowing time, fertilization, plant density) and two genotypes on the crop yield of sweet corn was examined on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság region in two different crop years. Compared to the 30-year average, the climate was dry and warm in 2009 and humid in 2010. The experiments were conducted at th...e Látókép Research Site of the University of Debrecen. In the experiments we applied two sowing times (end of April, end of May), six fertilization levels (control, N30+PK, N60+PK, N90+PK, N120+PK, N150+PK) and two crop density levels (45 thousand ha-1, 65 thousand ha-1). The hybrids we used were Jumbo and Enterprise. As regards the requirements of sweet corn production, the crop year of 2009 was dry and warm. The effect of moisture deficiency was more adverse on the crop yields with the second sowing time. On the contrary, the other examined year (2010) was significantly humid; the precipitation was 184 mm above the 30-year average and the temperature was average.
In the dry and hot crop year, the best yields were obtained with the hybrid Jumbo (25677 kg-1) at 65 thousand ha-1 plant density level on the average of the fertilization levels. The crop yields of Enterprise were also the highest at high plant density level (24444 kg ha-1). With the second sowing time the highest yields were obtained at the higher plant density level (65 thousand ha-1) with both hybrids (Jumbo 18978 kg ha-1, Enterprise 18991 kg ha-1), which confirmed the good adaptation capability of these hybrids at high plant density level. In humid crop year with early sowing time the highest yielding hybrid was Enterprise (at 45 thousand ha-1 crop density level 20757 kg-1), at the same time, Jumbo was best yielding at the higher plant density level (18781 kg-1). With the second sowing time the highest crop yield was obtained with Enterprise again (20628 kg ha-1 at 65 thousand ha-1 plant density level). With this sowing time the average yields of Jumbo, was 18914 kg ha-1 respectively. We found that dry crop year and early sowing time provided the best conditions for sweet corn production; the highest yields were obtained under these circumstances, which might be the results of the outstanding water management of chernozem  soils.

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Studies of Expression of Peptaibol Synthetase of Trichoderma reesei
Published December 6, 2005

Because of the potential importance of peptaibols in the biological control of plant diseases, a transgenic, a T. reesei strain carrying a tex1-promoter: goxA fusion plasmid was constructed for furthur studies. The peptaibol synthetase gene (which is highly similar to T. virens tex1) was identified in the genome sequence of T. reesei. A 900 bp ...5’ upstream noncoding fragment, presumed to include the promoter region of tex1, was cloned into the pSJ3 plasmid (which contains the Aspergillus niger goxA gene encoding glucose oxidase). Finally, we transformed T. reesei with the tex1-promoter: goxA fusion containing pSJ3 plasmid.

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