Search



Show Advanced search options Hide Advanced search options
Comparative Senses-based Investigation of Traditional and Modern Apple Cultivars
Published May 4, 2004
70-74

Apple consumption has significantly decreased over the last 10-15 years in Hungary. While consumption of fresh apple was 25 kg/person/year before the change of regime, today it hardly exceeds 10 kg according to careful estimations. In spite of the fact that the former dull cultivar structure (Jonathan, Starking, Golden Delicious) has widened wi...th numerous new cultivars, apple consumption in Hungary has not increased. Unfortunately, customers do not or scarcely know most of these new cultivars.
In a survey conducted among the students of five Hungarian universities, we gathered information about comsumer opinion of both and older cultivars.
Numerous questonnaires – 592 – were filled out on 8 cultivars (Jonagold, Novajo, Topaz, Golden Reinders, Idared, Pinova, Braeburn, Jonathan, Starking) about the qualitiy parameters that determine the value for consumption. The results clearly show that besides the old cultivars, such cultivars are preferred that are known worldwide, such as Jonagold, or Golden (free of russetting) or the resistant Topaz.
Promotion of these cultivars and creating the possibility of their supply can help to increase a fresh apple consumption.

Show full abstract
32
104
Effect of M9, MM106 and Seedling Rootstocks on Sunburn-Sensitivity of 33 Apple Cultivars, and Sunburn Effects on Fruit Quality
Published December 6, 2005
236-247

The purpose of this study was to investigate the sunburn-sensitivity of 33 apple cultivars grafted onto 3 rootstocks (M9, MM106 and seedling) in a commercial orchard at Nagykutas (in the western part of Hungary). The authors also searched for any relationship between fruit quality parameters and the frequency of sunburn on the fruit surface....>During the observations, the cultivars had rootstock-specific properties in respect to sunburn-susceptibility. Accordingly, the injury decreased in the order M9, MM106 and seedling rootstocks. The differences in the sensitivity were founded on the foliage-morphological characteristics of trees, caused by the growing vigour of the rootstocks. Accordingly, the highest value of sunburn injury was observed on M9 rootstock, because this rootstock has a dwarfing effect on the grafted main cultivars. Thus, the vegetative area of these trees grew very slowly and the foliage was not compact enough to protect the fruits from the strong rays. The largeness and density of the foliage increased in the order M9, MM106 and seedling rootstocks. Relationships were also demonstrated between the diameter of the upper part of crown, the size of leaves, the number of fruits per tree and the injury from sunburn.
The damage values showed, that the gravity of symptoms did not decrease below a well-defined level of dimension on fruit. Determined potential area of injury was necessary for the symptoms to become visible.
The authors categorized the cultivars in the respect of values of sunburn frequency: I. „Not sensitive”, II. „Moderately sensitive” and III. „Very sensitive” categories were constituted. Generally, the Gala cultivars showed low damage (or were free of symptoms), in contrast, Golden mutants suffered relative strongly. The most sensitive cultivar was Jonica on all three of rootstocks.
We searched for any relationship between the fruit quality parameters and the frequency of sunburn. A significant correlation was found in the cases of fruit weight and colour-coverage. The latter can be related to that fact that highly colour covered fruits are found on the peripherial part of crown, so these are exposed to stronger sun rays

Show full abstract
34
89
Effect of Rootstocks on Blooming Capacity and Productivity of AppleCultivars
Published December 14, 2004
14-20

The experiment with three different rootstock cultivars was set up in a commercial apple orchard at Nagykutas, which is situated in the western part of Hungary. The aim of our two-year-study was to determine the effect three different growing rootstock cultivars (M9, MM106 and seedling) on the flowering and productivity of 33 apple cultivars. O...ur observations included the following measurements: the date of the beginning and the end of flowering, flower density, fruit density, fruit numbers per tree and tree productivity. According to our results, it was found that the different growing rootstocks have a great determining effect on the above measurements. Our results showed that the flowering period was similar for all cultivars on the three different rootstocks. However, the flowering and the fruit setting decreased in the order M9, MM106 and seedling rootstocks. In contrast, the fruit number per tree followed, in decreasing order, MM106, seedling and M9 rootstocks.

Show full abstract
34
73
Comparison of Integrated and Conventional Production of Young Nonbearing Apple Orchards
Published December 14, 2004
3-5

The large number of pesticide applications in apple orchards creates serious problems with pesticide residues and their side effects on beneficial organisms, the environment and human health. This is the reason behind the search for new systems for apple protection.
The investigations were made in apple orchards of the Institute of Agricultu...re at Kyustendil, during the period from 1997-1999. Three scab resistant cultivars grafted on rootstocks MM106 were planted in 1996. The orchard was divided into four plots. Two plots were treated as „conventionally” and the other two were treated as „integrated” according to the general principles, rules and standards of integrated apple production.
The key disease during the experimental period was powdery mildew, which can be controlled only with pruning of infected clusters and shoots during the first three years after planting. The key pests in the orchard during the nonbearing period were the green apple aphid and San Jose scale. In the integrated plant protection system, it is possible to reduce the number of insecticide treatments depending on the density of the main pests.

Show full abstract
32
51
Evaluation of vegetative and generative characteristics of some ‘Gala’ cultivars
Published March 5, 2015
15-20

The aim of this study was to evaluate the production characteristics of new ‘Gala’ apple cultivars (‘Gala Venus Fengal’, ‘Gala Decarli- Fendeca’, ‘Galaval’, ‘Jugala’, ‘Gala Schnitzer (S) Schniga’), which can be described with superior and earlier fruit surface coloration and with larger fruit size comparing with the orig...in cultivar, however they are less well known in our country. The place of our experimental is located in the Nyírség representing adequately the ecological conditions of the surrounding areas, so the gained results can be easily adapted in the biggest apple production site of Hungary. According to the results it can be stated that among the 3–4 years old ‘Gala’ trees, which will achieve the maximal yields just in the next years regarding yields the ‘Fengal’ and the ‘Fendeca’ cultivars are emerged (43–46 t ha-1).

Furthermore they reached also excellent fruit quality (70–75 mm diameter). The fruit quality of the ‘Galaval’ is also optimal, but the yields are notably smaller. The ‘Jugala’ produced lower yields and the coloration of the variety is also insufficient. In the case of the ‘Schniga’ the excessive increasing yields can cause quality loss easily.

Show full abstract
76
116
N-Phenyl-Phthalamic Acid and Fertilization Effects on Flowering, Fruit Set and Fruit Quality of Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
Published October 11, 2006
24-28

On seven apple cultivars (Gala Must, Gloster, Granny Smith, Idared, Jonagold, Jonathan Csány 1, Mutsu), the authors studied the influence of N-phenyl-phthalamic (PPA) acid and fertilization on flowering, fruit set and fruit quality in the years 2003-2004. The research results showed that PPA application extended the flowering time of the most ...cultivars. Fruit set of apple cultivars increased in many cases when regulator was applied. The additional nutrient supply could increase the fruit set too. The increase of fruit set increased the number of fruit per tree. Quality parameters determined by fertilization and fruit number per tree. For example, when N-phenyl-phthalamic acid was applied without fertilization the fruit number per tree increased considerably however, it caused a considerable frittering away. The reason for this is that fruit set was high and fruit received not enough nutrition for growing up. The skin colour of fruits was decreased in several cases by the treatments. In one respect the enlarged fruit number was shaded the others and the fertilization increased the vegetative shading leaf area.

Show full abstract
43
46
Nutrient Supply Effects on the Fruit Quality of Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
Published December 6, 2005
230-235

The aim of our two year study is to research the effect of nutrient supply on apple fruit quality, and to explore the relationships between selected fruit quality parameters.
Observations were made in Kálmánháza (in the eastern part of Hungary), on a commercial apple orchard. In this experiment, we studied the nutrient supply reaction of ...four apple cultivars (Golden Delicious, Granny Smith, Idared and Jonathan Csány) under different N and NPK doses. The following fruit quality parameters were studied: fruit diameter, fruit height, fruit weight, flesh firmness, colour-coverage and we studied the density of foliage.
The research results showed that N fertilization has a great effect on fruit quality. This is shown in the cases of increase of fruit size (fruit diameter, fruit height, fruit weight). The increase is proportional with the N doses, accordingly the highest positive difference was observed by using 100 kg/ha N doses. It is important to note that moderate N doses (75 kg/ha) plus P and K additions also had positive effects. There approached the values of 100 kg/ha N, and even exceeded its values in the cultivar Golden Reinders. The increased N doses enlarged the standard deviation, on the other hand, this parameter was low in the cases of balanced NPK fertilization. The nutrient supply increased the vegetative area (density of foliage) in addition to the generative parts, in particular only N fertilizer. However the denser foliage hindered the growth of fruit weight and colour-coverage, and also decreased the fruit quality and the flesh firmness of cultivars, which have a negative effect on storageability.
A linear correlation was demonstrated between the fruit weight and colour-coverage, or between fruit weight and flesh firmness. The character of their relationship was similar, but the direction differed: high fruit weight was with high colour-coverage, but with low flesh firmness.

Show full abstract
37
65
Effect of Ozone Exposure on Phytopathogenic Microorganisms on Stored Apples
Published December 14, 2004
9-13

The aim of our study was to clarify the effect of ozone exposure on several phytopathogenic fungi on stored apple fruits under different storage conditions. The study was conducted at Bistrita, Romania, in the storehouse of an experimental apple orchard in 2002 and 2003. Two widely grown apple cultivars (‘Jonathan’ and ‘Golden Delicious...) were used. General microbial examination of the fruits was made during storage in order to identify the most important storage pathogens. Efficacy of six ozone treatments was evaluted on fruit decay caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Monthly observations (January, February, March and April) were made of the degree of decay and three measurements were assessed (disease frequency, disease intensity and degree of attack). Our results showed that the most important phytopathogenic fungi during storage was blue mold, caused by species of Penicillium. Disease frequency of apple fruits was very high on cv. ‘Jonathan’, much higher than on cv. ‘Golden delicious’. Ozone treatments (25 ppm ozone for 0.5 and 1.5 hours in November) caused significantly lower disease incidence on stored apple than all other ozone treatments. For longer storage, it seems that additional ozone treatments in February increased treatment efficacy. Cv. ‘Golden delicious’ seemed to be more resistant to storage diseases than cv. ‘Jonathan’ both on the untreated and treated fruits. The effect of the ozone treatments was also the most effective when 25 ppm ozone was applied for 0.5 and 1.5 hours in November.

Show full abstract
39
77
Quality comparison of selected apple cultivars under ULO-storage
Published May 23, 2006
62-75

Our examination was carried out in the 103 ha apple orchard of the Kasz-Coop Ltd.. The plantation works with modern varieties standing on M9 root stock, planted in a tree density of 2500 tree/ha and treated with professional integrated technology. The date of harvest is defined by a combination of several ripening analyses methods. The orchard ...has its own ULO-system warehouse.
Used in the experiment were four apple varieties: ’Idared’, ’Golden Reinders’, ’Jonagold’ and ’Braeburn’.
While under ULO-storage, we took 20-25 piece samples 6 times regarding the four varieties, from which 5-5 pieces were kept under three weeks’ shelf life, measured on a weekly bases. In our research, we analysed the dynamics of the flesh firmness and the refractometric value under ULO-storage and three weeks’ shelf life, and the standard deviation dynamics of the refractometric value under ULO-storage.
Analyses were based on the following measurements: flesh firmness, refractometric value and number of mature seeds.
We looked for morphological and morphological-quality correlations.
Through these we described the dynamics of the flesh firmness and the refractometric value under ULO-storage and three weeks’ shelf life for each variety. We referred to the stability of these attributes and to the dynamics of their change. Later, with the help of these, and also considering our practical experience related to the measurements, we characterised the four varieties.
We found a positive correlation between the seed number and the flesh firmness in the case of the ‘Idared’, ‘Jonagold’ and ‘Braeburn’ varieties, but no correlation was found in the case of ‘Golden Reinders’ in this concern. We visualized the standard deviation dynamics of the refractometric values under ULO-storage. This allowed us to categorise the varieties.

Show full abstract
46
29
Previous data on the relationship between the intensity of pruning and the degree of damage in integrated and organic applegrowing systems
Published May 27, 2001
47-52

In Hungary, fruit growers are increasingly interested in environmentally friendly growing methods, such as organic and integrated systems. Vital is the establishment of a strengthened system of cultivar-pruning-plant protection in production technology. Consequently, our aim was to examine the susceptibility of apple cultivars to diseases and p...ests and the effect of pruning technique on diseases and pests in organic and integrated growing systems.
Two pathogens (Venturia inaequalis, Podosphaera leucotricha) and two pests (Leucoptera malifoliella, Pannonychus ulmi) were observed in organic and integrated systems under „strong” and „weak” pruning techniques. Our results on six cultivars showed that the pathogens and pests infested the trees more in the organic system, as compared to that of integrated production. The pruning technique affected mainly the susceptible
cultivars to diseases and pests. The „weak” pruning technique caused a higher level of diseases and pests infestations than the „strong” pruning technique, especially in the organic growing system. The likely reason is that the shoots grow fast and powerfully under “strong” pruning technique. This supports better preservation of the trees supported by susceptibility of plant tissues to diseases and pests.

Show full abstract
42
46
Effect of Auxin-Synergistic Preparation and Fertilization on Fruit Setting and Fruit Quality ofApple
Published December 14, 2004
21-26

On seven apple cultivars (Gala Must, Gloster, Granny Smith, Idared, Jonagold, Jonathan Csány and Mutsu), the author studied the influence of N-phenyl-phthalamic acid (Nevirol 60 WP) and fertilization on fruit setting and fruit quality.
The research results show that by using Nevirol 60 WP and applying fertilization, we can improve the fruit... setting and number of fruit per tree. As a result of this process, the yield amount will increase.
Nevirol 60 WP has a great effect on the improvement of yield amount, especially by good nutrient supply. There is a significant difference between the reactions of different cultivars. The most sensitive to these treatments were the cultivar Gala Must and Granny Smith. Before using Nevirol 60 WP we have to take into consideration that the increased yield needs a higher nutrient supply; otherwise, fruit mass, diameter and fruit height will decrease, and the yield will frittered away. In the study, the most favourable effect of Nevirol 60 WP was detected under additionally fertilized conditions by the author.

Show full abstract
43
55
The effect of rootstocks on the fruit quality parameters of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
Published September 14, 2005
39-43

The authors studied the effect of rootstocks with different growing vigour on fruit quality of different cultivars. Research results shows that best fruit diamter and fruit weight of all cultivars are for M9 rootstock. Similar tendency was found in skin colour, but in the case of Granny Smith, MM106 rootstock is more favourable because the gree...n skin colour is necessary for the consumers’ acceptance. Seedling rootstok has some unfavourable effects on fruit quality, thus its usage is not expedient.

Show full abstract
39
48
1 - 12 of 12 items