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Effect of genotype on the hematological parameter of TETRA-SL and Hungarian Partridge coloured chickens at young age
Published May 26, 2022
99-104

Indigenous chickens are well known for their dual-purpose function and palatable meat. However, the information on their hematology parameters is lacking and hence hampering the poultry industry production of local breeds. The main objective of this study was to examine the hematological parameters of Hungarian Partridge Coloured hen (HPC) ...and TETRA-SL (TSL) genotype and determine the hematological reference interval values. This trial was part of the larger experiment where a total of 200 chicks (HPC + TSL) were reared. For this trial the blood samples were obtained from brachial wing veins of 8 chicks of each genotype for blood hematological analysis. The results indicated that some of the hematological parameters such as red blood cells-RBC, white blood cells-WBC, hemoglobin-Hb, hematocrit-Ht, platelets-Plt, lymphocytes-LYM, and granulocytes-GRAN were significantly affected by the genotypes (p < 0.05). The genotype did not affect the mean corpuscular volume-MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin-MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration-MCHC, and GRAN (p > 0.05). The hematological reference interval values were slightly higher in the TSL genotype compared to HPC chicks. It is concluded that genotype has a significant effect on the hematological parameters. The results from this trial will be help and design the baseline reference values for the HPC genotype which will be useful in assessing the health status of these indigenous chickens.

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Some strategic aspects of animal protein production
Published September 5, 2018
11-19

The access to food shaped human societies and dietary models throughout the history of mankind. Animal protein consumption became a part of human culture. Data are presented showing the relationship of daily calorie and animal protein consumption as affected by capita GDP changes. Examples are presented how genetic improvement of animal and fod...der plants influenced the resource efficiency and the overall environmental footprint per unit product. The two examples presented are: the dairy industry of the USA the 1944 and 2007 situation, and the Hungarian broiler chicken sector considering data relevant to 1930, 1960 and 2010. In both cases, dramatic improvements in resource efficiency could be demonstrated. The agricultural area required to animal feed production was reduced by more than 80% in both cases per unit product. Future possibilities are briefly discussed, referring to the still unutilized land reserves of the Globe, the new evolving technologies in progress inclusive the CASPR/Cas 9 genetic editing methods.

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Examining the production parameters of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) juveniles under different lighting conditions
Published June 1, 2021
149-153

European perch (Perca fluviatilis) is a native predatory fish in Hungary, and a promising new species of fresh water aquaculture nowadays. The European perch can be characterized by a high stress sensitivity during the intensive rearing, thus the optimization of environmental conditions has significant importance in the early life ...stages of fish. The aim of our study was to determine whether the light intensity and darkening of the water by humic acid affect the survival and growth performance of European perch juveniles. The experiment lasted for 28 days. Rectangular aquariums were arranged in 3 lines, the test environment consisted of 24 units. The experiment was set up with 10–10 fish per aquarium, total of 240 individuals. The average wet body weight of the fish at the start of the experiment was 1.69 grams. During the experiment, 6 treatments in 4 replicates were set up. In the first row, we set up 305.6±66.0 LUX (L), in the second row 118.0±24.4 LUX (C), and in the third row (D) 17.0±8.6 LUX illumination was set up. In each row the water of four aquariums were darkened by the addition of humic acid (H) (L, LH, C, CH, D, and DH). At the end of the experiment high survival rate was observed in all treatments. Examining the survival rate, the best results were found in the strongly illuminated treatments (L; LH- SR%=100±0.00). The observed mortality was caused by cannibalism. Regarding the individual body weight, the best results were shown by the treatments where the aquariums were illuminated with lower light intensity (C: 4.66±0.33 grams) and the aquarium water was darkened by humic acid (CH: 4.93±0.15 grams). The results of the C and CH groups were significantly better compared to the other treatments, however, they did not differ statistically from each other. The darkening of the water had a positive effect on the individual body weight of fish reared under full light (L: 3.73±0.28 grams; LH: 4.33±0.28 grams), whereas in the case of fish reared in the lowest illumination, the addition of humic acid did not affect the results (D: 3.78±0.15 grams; DH: 3.80±0.26 grams). In case of SGR (C: 3.64%/day and CH: 3.74%/day) and FCR (C: 0.84 g/g and CH: 0.78g/g) the best results were obtained by the C and CH treatments, also.

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Strategic Steps in the Sheep and Goat Branches
Published December 4, 2001
61-68

The balance of the sheep and goat branches can be summarised as follows:
If the increase in stock size, specific yields, genetic improvement and modernisation are not realised, several thousand shepherds will lose their jobs and possibilities to work, and their families will lose their only source of livelihood.
Several hundred hectares o...f grassland will become weedy and the costs of crop protection will increase in these regions. Pollen pollution, the number of allergic ailments and medical costs will increase, mentioning only the main disadvantages. Its financial requirement is nearly equal to the one required for development without any essential compensation or production.
In order to develop a competitive branch, a subsidisation of 10-20 billion HUF is needed until the accession of Hungary to the EU, depending on the scale and progressivity of development. The subsidisation and realisation of the strategic steps would result in:
– the establishment of a registered livestock with 1.5 million ewes, which would ensure better market position for the branch in the EU (5%),
– the establishment of a competitive and marketable branch with a production value of 15-25 billion HUF, calculated using the present price level (after accession, the branch would be self-operating and profitable, with the 6-8 billion HUF/year normative subsidisation by the EU),
– the establishment of a genetic potential which would ensure our participation in profitable international breeding animal market, which provides extra profit,
– the establishment of a sheep husbandry with better genetic potential and phenotypic performance, producing a quality of international level,
– the maintenance of the workplace of more than 10.000 people (saving 3-5 billion HUF/year of the budget),
– the maintenance of the condition of growing areas of grasslands with their advantages (crop protection and public health) whose financial effect is considerable.

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Does the feeding frequency influence the growth performance of European perch juveniles (Perca fluviatilis) during intensive rearing?
Published May 26, 2022
123-128

The European perch (Perca fluviatilis) is a predatory fish species. Its aquaculture production is increasing worldwide. Feeding and the frequency of feeding are important elements of intensive fish rearing. The aim of our experiment was to examine the optimal distribution of the amount of feed, at the same feed rations. Th...e experiment lasted 42 days. Three treatments were applied in 4–4 replications. The first treatment was feeding twice per day (T2), the second treatment was feeding three times a day (T3), and the third group was fed four times a day (T4). 10 European perch juveniles were stocked per tank, with an individual mean body weight of 3.93 ± 0.06 g at the start of the experiment. The survival rate (S%) was above 90% for all treatments. The T2 treatments produced the most favourable harvest weight (13.96 ± 0.14 g) and specific growth rate (SGR = 3.08 ± 0.01% day-1), but no significant differences were observed between groups. In terms of feed conversion ratio, the best result was obtained by (T3) (FCR =1.06 ± 0.18 g g-1), but no significant difference was found for this indicator neither. The results of the trial indicate that the feeding frequency does not influence the production parameters.

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Carcass and the Meat Quality of Hungarian Lambs
Published May 12, 2002
65-71

The author investigated 153 lambs of nine genotypes originating from breeding flocks, and 50 lambs originating from production flocks. The investigations were performed between 1995 and 1998. The authors discuss the evaluation of comformation and fat cover according to EUROP standards. The authors also investigate the proportion of valuable mea...t by genotype, and – out of the internal value indicators – the dry-matter, protein, fat, connective-tissue and hemin contents comparing the flavour, aroma, tenderness, and oven loss of the different genotypes.

The following findings should be highlighted:
♦ The Hungarian Merino breed should be improved, as – according to EUROP standards, more than 70% of these animals were rated as quality „R”.
♦ Hungarian fattening technology has to be preserved, as the lambs reach the desired slaughter weight within a short period of time, and without over-fattening.
♦ Readiness for slaughter, typical of each genotype, has to be defined, and slaughter at proper weight be achieved.
♦ It has to be re-evaluated whether the Hungarian Merino is the only breed which can be used in Hungary, as none of the investigations really proved the special characteristics and significance of this breed.
The author summarizes the findings of the investigation in five tables.

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Application of laparoscopic artificial insemination in conventional Lacaune sheep farm using frozen-thawed semen
Published December 1, 2020
133-138

The complex anatomical structure of the ewe reproductive tract accompanied with low quality of frozen ram semen for artificial insemination, resulted in a challenge with regard to using superior genotypes for reproductive ovine performance. Hence, improved genetics in ovine management has not been efficiently and widely used especially in u...ndeveloped countries. Therefore, intrauterine semen deposition by laparoscopic insemination should be adopted in the current sheep production systems. Thus, this study aimed to assess the pregnancy rate and lambing rate of ewe inseminated by laparoscopic insemination techniques using frozen-thawed semen. The research used imported frozen semen from two rams of the Lacaune breed. Ewes were grouped according to age in years (1, 2 and 4). Before insemination, the semen was examined microscopically for its motility and viability and thereafter the laparoscopic artificial insemination technique was performed to 19 Lacaune breed ewes using frozen-thawed semen. The overall pregnancy and prolificacy rates were 31.57% and 42.10% respectively. Out of 2 ewes in the 1-year age group that were inseminated, only 1 ewe lambed representing 50%. However, from 16 ewes inseminated of four-year age group, 5 ewes lambed representing 31.25%. Significant difference based on age group was not evaluated due disproportionate of the data, (such that the data included 2 ewes in one-year-old age, 1 ewe in 2-year-old age and 16 ewes in 4-year-old age). Based on the ram semen, 33.33% and 30% of the inseminated ewes were pregnant from ram A and ram B semen respectively. However, in the case of prolificacy rate, 44.44% and 40 % of the ewes lambed from using semen of ram A and B, respectively. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in pregnancy and prolificacy rates based on semen from the two rams. In conclusion, in this research study, ram semen had no significant effect on pregnancy and prolificacy rates using laparoscopic AI on Lacaune sheep. This could be due to the fact that the rams had very good quality semen. Evaluation of ram semen, accompanied with appropriate ewe selection based on age and rightful deposition of semen could lead to better and more consistent results. Overall this could contribute to the successful application of laparoscopic artificial insemination in Lacaune sheep production systems for enhanced productivity.

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Renewable energy on animal farms: support system and practical application
Published April 23, 2014
13-17

Renewable energy applications were examined in animal farms. The investment support system for animal farms – which has renewable elements – has been summarized through analyzing the legislation and future prospects. The most important in this topic is the Animal Farm Modernization Support, which had several application periods during the 2...007–2013 CAP budgets. For analyzing practical application of renewable energies interviews and farm visits have done in Hajdú-Bihar County. The questions covered the general attributes of the farms and the details of the (existing or planned) renewable energy application. In terms of economic analysis saving, the investment return time and the employment effect were examined. The results show wide variety of applied renewable energy application. The investment supports plays great role in renewable energy projects by lowering the return time; and through additional points in application assessing, which is an incentive for farmers to include renewable energy element in their modernization projects.

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Study of changes in the strength of connection between grey cattle cows and their offspring after weaning
Published June 1, 2021
129-136

It is important to minimize stress for cattle because of animal welfare and profitability. This study aims to reveal how long after abrupt weaning the cow and her offspring show a need to rebuild the connection if physical barriers are removed and distances disappear. The research was carried out on Szamárhát Farm owned by the Tiszatáj F...oundation, Hungary. In the autumn of 2019, thirty-one calves were weaned, randomly selected from 81 grey cattle cows’ offspring. The oldest calf was 10 months old, while the youngest one was 6 months old on the day of weaning. They were divided into three groups and reunited with the cows during the first, third, and fifth weeks after weaning. Each reunion happened in the early afternoon and the cow and her offspring spent 24 hours together again. The formation and the strength of the connection were recorded for an hour three times during this period, first in the afternoon, then in the morning, and the next afternoon. It can be seen that both parties showed the need to form the connection during the first week after weaning because the bond made between them was obvious in a short time. The connections proved to be strong. However, neither the cows nor their offsprings showed any intention to form strong connections in the third and fifth weeks. In the majority of the cases, no connection was formed. 

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Bacteria in the milk of sheep with or without mastitis- mini Review
Published May 23, 2019
47-52

From a nutritional point of view, sheep milk is more valuable than cow and goat milk and the interest for sheep milk is increasing in many countries. However, sheep milk is easily contaminated during milking, handling, and transport and it is an ideal medium for bacterial propagation. Consequently, sheep milk spoils quite quickly. The proper, c...lean handling of milk is not only of sanitarian interest, but it also serves the farmers’ interests, because contaminated milk may not be distributed, and is unsuitable for producing good quality products. Following this technological trend, this review addresses the bacterial composition of sheep milk with and without mastitis. Even though sheep milk contains a lot of bacteria, this review article highlighted total plate count, Enterobacteriaceae, coliform, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter, Salmonella spp. and Streptococcus spp. Mastitis in sheep is a vital cause of mortality, reduction in milk production and early culling. The reported risk factors for mastitis in sheep were age, a case of mastitis, breed, husbandry systems, and location. The main priority should be implementation of programs to minimize human pathogenic bacteria and mastitis in raw ewe milk.

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A review on the trend of livestock breeds in Laos
Published June 1, 2021
227-237

When the livestock sector is considered an essential role in farmers' livelihood, and local breeds are still the critical component of animal breeding in Laos. Thus, there is a need to review the previous, current situation and prospects for Laos' livestock production. It aimed to study the different traits among the existing dominant local... and improved livestock breeds (cattle, pig, and goat) and a more in-depth study on the livestock sector's previous evolving and prospects. Our findings revealed that the general trend of livestock population in Laos increased year-by-year for over 45 years, except for 1995 to 2000. It was decreased by almost 22% due to the new national strategy on economic revolution.  The first foreign breeds were introduced into Laos, i.e., Large White, Landrace, and Duroc in 1980, Red Sindhi bulls in 1998, the frozen semen of Red Brahman 2003, and Bach Thao goats between 2001 to 2003. Unfortunately, many data are still not precise for introducing other foreign breeds like Boer goats, Thai Grey and Red Brahman. There were many missing data on the improvement of livestock breeds in Laos, including the local and improved breeds' reproductive and productive performance, which needs more study and research. We conclude that the semi-complex farm operation should be applied to improve livestock breeding and their productions in Laos.

 

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Investigation of the production parameters, nutrient and mineral composition of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) larvae grown on different substrates
Published May 26, 2022
129-133

During the rearing of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) larvae, the optimisation of the growing substrate has a particular importance. The application of the appropriate substrate is a fundamental pillar for intensive and safe production. The requirements for substrate include the lack of toxins, high nutrient and micro-macro element content. The... aim of this study was the evaluation of the effects of different substrates on the production parameters, nutrient and mineral composition of the mealworm larvae. The experiment lasted through 14 days. 5 treatments were set up at, where the variable was the substrate. The test system consisted of 25 units (5 treatments and 5 replicates). 10 mealworm larvae per unit, (total of 250 larvae) were used at the beginning of the experiment. Regarding the substrates, our study included sweet potato (SP), may turnip tuber (MT) and may turnip leaf (ML). In addition to the plant by-products, wheat flour (WF) and wheat semolina (WS) were used as control substrates. Trace element uptake and production parameters of the larvae were determined at the end of the experiment. Regarding the production parameters, it can be stated that the wheat semolina (0.081 ± 0.005 g) and wheat flour (0.069 ± 0.007 g) substrate used as control gave the best results for the final body weight. In terms of plant raw materials and by-products, sweet potatoes (0.063 ± 0.007) can only be recommended as substrate, while may turnip tuber and may turnip leaf produced significantly lower final body weight results (MT=0.034 ± 0.002 g ; ML= 0.036 ± 0.002 g). The nutrient composition of the larvae was not affected by the substrate, these results confirmed the high protein and fat content reported in the literature. The results with the production parameters were contradicted by the micronutrient content. Larvae reared on may turnip leaf (ML) and tuber (MT) showed the highest values for most of the macro- and microelements (potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper) tested.

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Optimal age of breeding gilts and its impact on lifetime performance
Published December 15, 2019
15-20

Age at first breeding and lifetime reproductive performance was analyzed on 17,558 F1 Landrace x Yorkshire gilts from 9 piglet producing herds of Midwest, United States entered in herds between 1st Jan 2014 and 31st July 2016. At the time of data collection Dec 2018, 15% of the sows were still active in the herds hence exc...luded from the analysis. Individual gilt data included date of birth, age in days at first mating, piglet total born by parity, lifetime piglet total born and reason for culling. Quality data checks were done before analysis to eliminate all outlier values together with sows that had no entry information for any listed category. The total database of the sows was classified into 6 classes according to age at the first mating in days 170-190(n=754), 191-211(n=4683), 212-232(n=7123), 233-253(n=3385), 254-274(n=1002) and 275-369 (n=611). Piglet total born obtained from each sow during the lifetime production was significantly (P < 0.05) greater for gilts bred between 233-253 days of age at first mating. Gilts that were bred at <233 days appeared to have a higher risk of removal by farrowing productivity as compared to the other groups. However, the results show that the risk of being culled due to health problems and conformation issues increases as the age at first mating is delayed. Overall reproductive failure appears to be the most economical culling reason across all age groups. There is a need to evaluate the best management decisions for gilt initiation in a herd to maximize her lifetime performance. The results indicate that gilts mated for the first time at the right age, 233–253 days, are more productive, both in lifetime total born and have a minimal risk of culling due to farrowing productivity.

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Current Conditions and Opportunities of Biofarming in Hungary
Published May 4, 2004
150-156

The aim of organic farming is not to maximize income, but to achieve optimal product quality. It is completed by the tightest possible material, and energy flow within the farm. Organic agriculture significantly reduces external inputs by avoiding the use of chemo-synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Instead it works with natu...re to increase both agricultural yields and disease resistance. Total independence of external resources can not be achieved in Hungary due to the small-scale of organic animal husbandry. Some materials in limited quantities can be purchased from external resources, though the group of these materials is strictly regulated. Organic farming harmonizes with the concept of European multifunctional agriculture, because besides farming, it includes social considerations, as it helps to maintain natural resources and the relationship between people and their environment, and provides a living for those living in the region.
As regards organic farming the fertility of the soil and the health of vegetation can be influenced in various ways. Farmers have to be highly skilled and able to manage a farm with great expertise. Generally it can be stated that as the use of non-organically produced products is limited, the opportunities to correct failures made by the farmer are minimal, contrary to conventional farming. Farmers must be intent on developing the tightest material- and energy flow. This means that organic farms ideally have both animal husbandry and crop production. This energy and skill demanding system of farming is compensated by state subsidies, growing market share and relatively high prices for organic products.

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Sow removal patterns in commercial breed-wean herds of Midwest, USA
Published December 15, 2019
9-14

An observational retrospective study was done to provide up-to-date information on recent sow removal patterns from 9 breed-wean herds of Midwest USA. The study comprised of sow’s removal reasons and removal types of F1 Landrace x Yorkshire gilts entered in the herds between 1st Jan 2014 and 31st July 2016. Data was extr...acted from existing database on Dec 2018 and 15% of the sows were still active in the herds hence not included in the study. Descriptive statistics showed that out of the 20,009 removed sows, planned removals comprised of farrowing productivity (FP) 3,523 (17.6%) and old age (OA) 1,785 (8.9%) while unplanned removals consisted of reproductive failure (RF) 7,786 (38.9%), health problems (HP) 2,629 (13.1%), locomotion problems (LP) 1,473 (7.4%) and conformation issues (CI) 1,350 (6.8%).‘Did not conceive’ and “No heat” were observed as the main contributing factors accounting for 37.6% and 32.9% respectively for gilts & sows removed by RF.13.5% of the gilts (Parity 0) were removed from the herds before attaining their first litter of which 64.1% of their removals was due to RF. Removal type consisted of slaughter (S) 85.0%, found dead on the farm (DoF) 10.8% and euthanized (E) 4.2%. The research findings depict an upward trend of sow RF removals in the US swine herds posing a serious concern for US swine producers. Characterization and quantification of sow removals gives a revelation on the deeper intrigues about the vulnerability of the various parity in respect to common causes of RF. This helps swine producers to decisively improve on gilt replacement selection, reproductive efficiency, health and nutrition management all aimed at increasing overall swine productivity and efficiency in management. Swine farmers in the US can now focus their efforts towards curbing unnecessary RF removal within parity specifics.

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The effect of supplemental pig milk replacer on carbohydrate metabolism – a review
Published December 28, 2018
67-71

The aim of this review is to examine the effect of milk supplementation on pigs’ carbohydrate metabolism. These parameters regulate the growth of piglets, the nutrient intake and the period of pre-weaning. Due to the increased litter size, the sow milk yield reaches an individual maximum. The individual maximum has not increased proportionall...y with the number of piglets born alive. The use of liquid milk supplementation may give the opportunity to keep these large litters. The examined hormones are insulin, insulin-like growth factor, growth hormone, growth hormone releasing hormone, ghrelin and leptin. This review seeks to find these hormones’ interactions.

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Fight Against Hunger: A Worldwide Challenge at the Onset of the Third Millenary
Published December 10, 2002
3-11

We live in such an era and face such a century, in which the growth of the- world population, the problems deriving from the population explosion will create an unprecedented and never recurring situation for Hungary and the Hungarian animal husbandry as regards the tasks and possibilities ahead us. While presently 6 billion people live on Eart...h, in the first century of the third millenary the population can reach 10-12 billion and is expected to stagnate around that number.
The Third World, the so-called developing countries struggling with enormous difficulties, makes up for 90% of the annual population growth of 80-90 million people, while the population of the developed countries is stagnant or decreasing. In this aspect, Hungary' s situation is extremely worrisome, because our population has been decreasing for two decades, and according to recent demographic forecasts could drop to 8 million in the next century if the present trend continues. This should be impeded, among others with the contribution of animal husbandry.
The author evaluates the genetical possibilities with the help of which stockbreeders can meet the requirements of the future

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Heat-No-Service: Reproductive lifetime performance of gilts inseminated on first versus second observed estrus in commercial piglet producing herds
Published May 20, 2020
77-80

Heat No Service (HNS) is an increasing managerial decision made in commercial piglet producing herds. Performance of gilts has been shown to be influenced by initial decisions made on them at their introduction in the breeding herds. Lifetime Reproductive performance comprising of parity total born piglets and lifetime total born piglets of... gilts initially bred on first observed estrus (0HNS) was compared with that of gilts bred on second observed estrus (1HNS). Stored data from Porcitec database consisted of 2.072 gilts bred on first observed estrus (0HNS) and 2.453 gilts bred on second observed estrus (1HNS) totaling to 4.525 gilts. Data was statistically analyzed using the GLM procedure of IBM SPSS version 25. The results showed a significance difference (p<0.001) in lifetime total born performance of gilts bred at 0HNS (mean 93.9) and 1HNS (mean 95.7). There was also a significant difference (p<0.001) of total born piglets in parity 1, 5 and 6 in the 2 groups. There was an observed increased parity total born and lifetime total born when first time insemination of gilts was delayed to second estrus. The findings in this study favor the 1HNS breeding with an overall increased lifetime total born. Gilts inseminated at 1HNS produce 1.57 more pigs for lifetime as compared with those inseminated at 0HNS when observation is made up to P6. Producers in piglet producing herds could re examine their decisions for increased productivity by promoting many gilts into 1HNS but still maintaining the balance between breed targets and production schedules to remain competitive and profitable in the current global swine industry.

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Changes in the relationship between Hungarian Grey cows (Bos primigenius taurus hungaricus) and their calves in the period from calving to four months of age
Published May 26, 2022
85-90

The ability of cows to care for their offsprings is a very important trait concerning beef cattle. Maternal instincts are highly influenced by breed, specific cow, and social and rearing environment. In 2020, at the Szamárháti farm of the Tiszatáj Public Foundation, we selected 15 dam-calf pairs and studied them for four months from the ...birth of the calves. We grouped calf-rearing behaviors according to strength and analyzed the related changes during the program. At the beginning of the relationship, "standing close to each other" (53%) and "suckling" (24%) characterized the pairs. After the first month, "standing or lying separated" grew by 69%, and "vocalization" by both animals fell by 66%. Even though the daily frequency of suckling decreased by 34% as the calves grew older, it remained a typical element of the relationship. Over time, the bond between the animals gradually weakened. This natural process of separation takes a month to complete.

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Investigation of the heat shock gene Hsp70 polymorphism in different sheep genotypes
Published December 16, 2012
41-45

Nowadays the climate change has an increasing effect on the animals. The warming climate brings up several problems on the area of the animal husbandry, which ones are really important. From the first time the living beings have defensive mechanisms against the heat shock. In current examination we use– from Hungary and from other countries c...ollected –samples of sheep breeds, which are living on different climate. Our fundamental assumption was, that the animals living on other climate adapted to the changes of the environment and there are differeces in their genetic background. These fixed mutations we are looking for in the HSP70 heat shock gene, but we haven’t found any polymorphism yet. We are going to involve further breeds and more individuals in the investigations.

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Examination and statistical evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of windrow composting
Published May 20, 2020
33-38

 

The treatment and utilization of plant and animal waste and by-products from agriculture is very diverse. Traditional environmental management practices for waste management have been retained through soil conservation and the applied of recycle degradable organic substances in soil. The management o...f by-products from agriculture (animal husbandry) is important because a closed loop can be created to utilize by-products (manure, feathers) from the production of the main product (eggs, meat, milk) and to form a raw material for a new product. It is important to treat the resulting by-products, especially deep-litter manure, as it has served as a basis for compost-treated manure to develop an organic-based, soil-conditioning product line. Poultry manure by itself is not suitable as a substrate for aerobic decomposition, so it has to be mixed with other substances (zeolite, bentonite, soil), because of its high nutrient capacity, it is an acidifying substance.

The aim of this study was to compost the mixture of poultry manure and hen manure by the addition of zeolite and to monitor the composting process. It was also our aim to statistically determine the effect of the zeolite on parameters describing the composting process.

The windrow composting experiments were set up in the composting area of the University of Debrecen, Institute of Water and Environmental Management. The composting experiment was 62 days long, during which the main parameters describing the composting process were continuously monitored: temperature (°C), moisture content (w/w%), electrical conductivity (mS/cm), organic matter content (w/w%), examination of nitrogen forms (w/w%). In this study, three factors were investigated: temperature, humidity, and pH. For statistical evaluation, R software and RStudio user interface were used. We developed a repeated measurement model, in which the fixed and random effects were determined for our parameters under study, and the resulting relationships were shown on interaction plots.

Based on our results, the temperature of the prisms has become independent of the ambient temperature and the composting stages can be separated in both the control and the zeolite treated prisms. In the repeated measurement model, we proved that treatment, time and treatment: time interaction were significant at both temperature and pH.

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Using the principles of precision animal husbandry in fishbreeding
Published November 13, 2012
283-287

Aquaculture species such as fish, crayfish, molluscs and plats are a wide range of products, with continuously growing demand worldwide. The reasons for this is that they are cheap and easy-toraise protein sources, thus having significance in food supply especially in developing countries in tropic regions, moreover, the premium category foodst...uffs in developed high income countries are also belonging to this category. World annual total production of 164 million tons (2009) are made up of two sources: 1) marine and inland fisheries landings that are stagnating for several years and 2) aquaculture which is growing dynamically with annual 6% rate between 2000–2009. The latter is accounting for nearly 45% of the total supply due to the depleting marine stocks caused by overfishing. Aquaculture is growing continuously also because the production is safe and can
be planned well. 
Intensive fish production systems are the representatives of precision animal production, several types exist and widespread worldwide. The modern computerized temperate water recirculation plants with several thousand m3 capacity are widespread also in Europe because they make it possible to produce even the most valuable species whole year round. A key issue in the technical/feeding outlay is to meet the demands of the cultured species the best and the operation of the system is to be safe and cost-effective. One condition for this is intensification: enable to produce more product per unit resource input or effort. The facilities need significant amount of energy, thus renewable energy sources are to be favoured for which Hungary has comparative advantages.

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Yield and sward composition responses of a native grassland to compost application
Published August 29, 2017
35-38

A major part of the animal products are based on the grasslands, due to the fact that the grassland ecosystems can be found all over the globe. In places where economical and successful crop production cannot be realized, the grassland based animal husbandry can be an efficient way of food production. In addition these ecosystems have an import...ant role in carbon sequestration, and with their rich flora – and the fauna connected to it – in conservation of biodiversity. The protection of nature, and the sustainable agriculture is getting more and more attention in the European Union, but looking at the consumers’ needs, the production of healthy food cannot be neglected either. Because of these facts, the effects of two specific composts - which are officially authorized in organic farming, in Agri-environment Schemes and Natura 2000 programs – on grass yields and sward compositions were investigated in a field trial. The investigation took place in Hungary, on a natural grassland based on solonetz soil. The first type of compost was a natural one (N) without any additional material and the other one was enriched in phosphorus (E). Both was produced by the research institute, made of sheep manure. Three rates of compost (10 t ha-1, 20 t ha-1,30 t ha-1) were tested on 3 m×10 m experimental plots. Every treatments had four replications and both type of compost had four-four control plots too, this way 32 experimental plots were included in the investigations. The yield of the pasture was harvested two-times (in May and in September) and before cutting the plots measurements on botanical compositions were made. Samples for laboratory analysis were also taken. Dry matter yield and crude protein content was measured in laboratory and with the received data the yield per unit area was calculated. Based on the research results we can say that the application of compost in any dose inflicts higher dry material and crude protein yield. The changes were partly due to some positive changes in sward composition, because of the better nutrient conditions. The research results indicate, that use of organic compost can be an efficient way to increase grass yields in a sustainable way.

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Application of different compost doses in Pinova and Golden Delicious apple orchards
Published May 6, 2013
91-94

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Nowadays the success vegetable and fruit production are unimaginable without regular nutrient management. The animal husbandry is getting decrease, thereby there is the lack of organic fertilizer and it is suggested to find alternative nutrient supply methods. One of the ways to supply the required nutrients in an environmentally friendly way is the application of composts, which is less widespread so far, which is appropriate for the requirement of organic farming.

From the year of 2010 in each year, compost doses were applied in biological apple orchards in cooperation with the Institute of Horticultural Science. In the function of the years different changes were resulted by the compost treatments in the examined parameters in case of both apple species (Golden Delicious and Pinova). It was concluded that the dry matter, ash, total acids, sugar content and the vitamin C changed versus time and species. It is supposed that the effect of compost treatments is getting visible.

According to the data higher dry matter, total acids and sugar content, (in some cases) ash were measured in case of the apple species Pinova, while the measurements showed higher vitamin C content in case of the species Golden Delicious.

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Genetic structure of the Lipizzan horse breed in Hungary through the mare families
Published May 26, 2022
71-78

Modern animal husbandry has drastically changed the genetic structure of some domestic species. The varieties, genotypes that we think we do not need at the moment can only be saved from extinction with the help of gene conservation. Traditional Hungarian horse breeds have a long history (more than 200 years) and a demonstrably different ge...netic structure from other horse breeds in Europe and the rest of the world. Consequently, their enormous genetic value is undoubted. The subject of our research was to study the structure of the mare families found in the population of the Lipizzan horse breed and the genetic structure of the Hungarian population. Out of the total 61 mare families in the world, 35 are present in Hungary. There are 11 Hungarian, 12 families of Fogaras, 7 original, 4 Croatian and 1 Slovenian mare families in the Hungarian population. The proportion of mare families in Hungary and Fogaras is almost the same. The proportion of Croatian and Slovenian families is negligible. In terms of their number, they are not significant in Hungary. For this reason they have little effect on the Hungarian Lipizzan population. Except one of the original mare families are in the same situation as the Croatian and Slovenian families. The Presciana / Bradamanta mare family is the most populous of all families due to their long stay in Hungary. The proportion of families is unbalanced. Seven mare families accounting for 56.36% of the total population. Given the basic requirements of gene conservation work, this condition is far from optimal.

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