In this paper, we analysed the results of maize sowing time experiments conducted by the Department of Crop Sciences and Applied Ecology of the University of Debrecen Agricultural Sciences Centre, during the period from 1997-1999. We made the experiments at the experimental garden of DE ATC, on a chernozem soil with lime deposits.
In 1997, w
We examined the following standards: yield, seed moisture content at harvest, thousand kernel mass, duration of flowering, emergence time and profitability.
In 1977, the emergence times, in order of sowing, were: 24, 12 and 9 days. Yields of the sowing times were the following, in mean, for the five hybrids: in the early sowing time (10. Apr.) 11,81 t/ha, in the optimal sowing time (25. Apr.) 11,67 t/ha, and in the late sowing time (15. May) 12,9 t/ha. The seed moisture content of the five hybrids at harvest was 8% less in early sowing time, than in the late sowing time. The thousand kernel mass was the biggest in late sowing time, but we could not prove any significant connection attributable to the effect of sowing time. We examined
profitability, too. Of the five hybrids, four attained the greatest profit with the early sowing time in 1997.
In 1998, the emergence times, in the order of sowing, were: 21, 10 and 11 days. Yields of the sowing times were the following, in mean, for the six hybrids: 08. Apr. 10,34 t/ha, 25. Apr. 11,02 t/ha, 15. May 11,52 t/ha. There were no significant differences between yields in 1998. The seed moisture content of the six hybrids at harvest was 7% less for the early sowing time, than for the late sowing time. In 1998, the profits were greatest for the
early and traditional sowing times.
In 1999, the numbers of days from sowing to emergence were 18, 9 and 9 days, in the order of sowing times. Yields of the sowing times were the following, in mean, for the three hybrids: 13,25 t/ha, 12,51 t/ha and 12,34 t/ha, in the order of sowing times. The seed moisture content of maizes at harvest was 6% less with an early sowing time in the mean of all hybrids. In 1999, hybrid maizes gave big profits with early sowing times.
Summing up the results of the three years, we can conclude that we get a significant yield increase and reduced seed moisture content at harvest if we apply the early sowing time, which can considerably increase the efficiency of maize cultivation.
Sowing time is an important crop technology element of maize. We studied the effect of this factor on the growth and production of maize in an experiment carried out near Hajdúböszörmény, in 2003 and 2004, and near Debrecen, in 2005.
The soils of the experiments were humic gley soil and chernozem. Weather in both years differed greatly.
In 2004 and in 2005, there were favorable and rainy seasons. The distribution and quantity of precipitation were suitable between April and September. The average temperature was also suitable for maize.
In 2003, we tested seven hybrids at four sowing times. Hybrids with a shorter vegetation period gave the highest yield at the later sowing time, while the hybrids with a longer vegetation period gave them at the earlier sowing time. The yield of PR34B97, PR36N70, PR36M53 hybrids were the best at every sowing times. The moisture loss of hybrids in the late maturity group was faster in the maturity season, but the seed moisture content was higher than the hybrids with early sowing time. The seed moisture content was very low due to the droughty year. In two hybrid cases, this value was higher than 20% only at the fourth sowing time.
In 2004, we examined the yield and seed moisture contents of nine hybrids. In the favorable crop year, the yield of every hybrid was the highest at the second and third sowing times. Yields of PR34H31 and PR38B85 hybrids were significant. The seed moisture content at harvest was higher than the previous year, due to the rainy season. In the case of hybrids sown later, this value was higher by 30%. However, we noticed that this value was lower at the earlier sowing time, than at the later.
In 2005, we applied three sowing times. Unfortunately, the results of the third sowing time could not be analyzed, due to the low plant density. The yield of the six hybrids varied from 12 to 14 t/ha at the first sowing time. At the second sowing time, the yields fluctuated and each hybrid had the lowest yield, except the PR37D25 hybrid. At the latest sowing time, the yield of the PR34B97 hybrid was the lowest. However, this low yield was due to damage from the Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera) imago. The moisture content at harvest of the hybrids varied from 16 to 24% at the first sowing time. Yields at the second sowing time were higher. The low yield of the PR34B97 hybrid coupled with a higher seed moisture content. In addition, the maximum value of the LAI was more favourable at the first sowing time, and ranged between 5-5.5 m2/m2.
The crop year had a more dynamic effect on maize than the sowing time. First of all, the quantity and distribution of precipitation played an important role in respect to yield safety.
The crop technology of maize has two important elements, sowing time and plant density. In 2003 and 2004 we studied the effect of these two factors on the growth and production of maize in an experiment carried out near Hajdúböszörmény.
The soil of the experimental plots was meadow soil.
Weather in both years was differed greatly. 200
In 2004, we could talk about a favorable and rainy season. The distribution and quantity of precipitation was suitable between April and September. The average temperature was also suitable for maize.
Results of the sowing time experiment:
In 2003, we tested seven hybrids at four sowing times. Hybrids in the early maturity group gave the highest yield at the later sowing time, while the hybrids of the long maturity group gave it at the earlier planting time. The yield of PR34B97, PR36N70, PR36M53 hybrids was the best at every planting time. The moisture loss of hybrids in the late maturity group was faster in the maturity season, but the seed moisture content was higher than the hybrids with early sowing time. The seed moisture content was very low due to the droughty year. In two hybrid cases, this value was higher than 20% only at the fourth sowing time.
In 2004, we examined the yield and seed moisture content of nine hybrids. In the favorable crop year, the yield of every hybrid was the highest at the second and third sowing time. Yields of PR34H31 and PR38B85 hybrids were significant. The seed moisture content at harvest was higher than the previous year due to the rainy season. In the case of hybrids sown later, this value was higher by 30%. However, we noticed that this value was lower at the earlier sowing time than at the later.
The crop year had a more dynamic effect on maize than the sowing time. First of all, the quantity and distribution of precipitation played an important role in respect to yield safety.
Results of the plant density experiment:
We tested the reaction of hybrids at four plant densities (45,000, 60,000, 75,000 and 90,000 stock/ha) every two years. In 2003, the tested seven hybrids reached the highest yield at the 90,000 stock/ha in the face of a droughty year. The effect of forecrop and favorable nutrients caused these results. In the rainy 2004 year, the yield grew linear with the growing plant density. The yield of the best hybrids were 14-15 t/ha at the 90,000 stock/ha.
Such a high plant density (90,000 stock/ha) couldn’t adaptable in farm conditions in rainy season. It is practical to determine the interval of plant density besides the optimum plant density of hybrids which gave correct yield. The farmers have to use the low value of this interval due to the frequent of the droughty years.
The effect of sowing date on maize development and yield was studied in field experiments. The experiment was set up at the experimental garden of the University of Debrecen Centre of Agricultural Sciences Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Sciences in 2005 and 2006 on calcareous chernozem soil. Six hybrids with different genetic chara...cteristics and vegetation period were tested (Sze 269, DK 440, PR37D25, NK Cisko, Mv Maraton, PR34B97) at three different sowing dates.
2005 was a very wet year. The amount of precipitation in the vegetation period was about 150 mm higher than the average of 30 years. No significant differences were observed in temperature. However, the number of sunny hours was much lower during the summer than as usual. This had an influence on yields.
In 2006, there was no risk of inland water in spite of the large amount of precipitation at the beginning of the year. The amount of water available for plants was satisfactory during the season due to the favorable amount of precipitation. Therefore, plants suffered less from the heat in July. However, hail on 22 July caused significant damage. The number of sunny hours in the summer was high enough. The warm, dry autumn helped the water release of plants.
In 2005, the results of the third sowing date could not be evaluated due to the large number of missing plants. The yield of hybrids ranged between 12-14 t/ha for the first sowing date. For the second sowing date, yields ranged between wider boundaries. The hybrid PR37D25 has a very high yield in the case of the second sowing date, and its seed moisture content was favorably low. The yield of hybrid PR34B97 was the lowest at the later sowing date, the prime reason of this was damage caused by Diabrotica virgifera. The seed moisture content at harvest varied between 16-24% for the first sowing date. In the case of the second sowing date, higher values were measured. Hybrids Sze 269 and NK Cisko had favorable water release characteristics. The maximum value of leaf area index was the best in the case of the first sowing date (5-5.5 m2/m2).
In 2006, yields for the first sowing date ranged between 8-10 t/ha. At the second sowing date, more favorable results were obtained. The reason for this is probably that hail caused a higher damage in hybrids with the early sowing date. Plant stock with later sowing date could recover more successfully. Hybrid PR37D25 had very high yields for the second and third sowing dates. The high-yielding hybrid PR34B97 also had high yield, but this was accompanied by higher seed moisture content. Due to the warm, sunny autumn weather, the hybrids had good water-release dynamics and were harvested with a lower seed moisture content than in the previous year. For the first sowing date, the seed moisture content was around 13-14% except for hybrid PR34B97. For the second and third sowing dates, higher values were observed. Leaf area index was significantly reduced in August for all three hybrids due to the hail in July. For the first two sowing dates, the leaves of hybrid Sze 269 were the first to dry similarly to the previous year.
Year had a strong effect on the results in both years.
A polifactorial field trial with rape was carried out in the crop-years of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 at the Látókép Research Centre of University of Debrecen, 15 km away from Debrecen. The soil type of the research area was a calcaric chernozem, with a levelled and homogeneous surface. Our investigations on the dynamics of lodging proved that...rape can easily be lodged under unfavourable weather conditions, which results in a significant crop failure: In crop-year 2009 yields were 1.0-1.5 t ha-1 higher than in 2008, when the weather conditions were more unfavourable. In both crop-years the influence of sowing time on the crop yield of rape was examined in three soil cultivation systems, with ploughing, loosening or disking. Different sowing time influenced the yield of rape in both crop-years significantly. In the crop-year of 2007/2008 – due to mild winter – we got the highest yield in the first sowing time (at the end of August) with loosening (3930 kg ha-1) and disking (3727 kg ha-1), while in case of ploughing we experienced the highest yield (3770 kg ha-1) in the second sowing time. There were no significant differences between the first and second sowing time (the end of August and the beginning of September), and in the third sowing time (end of September) also a moderate crop failure (-6.7%) cold be obtained, due to the favourable weather in winter and the water supply of the crop-year 2007/2008. In 2008/2009 all the three cultivation systems showed the best yield-results in the second sowing time (ploughing: 4886 kg ha-1, loosening: 5186 kg ha-1, disking: 5090 kg ha-1), and the first sowing time hardly differed from this (-4.1%), while the late September sowing time resulted in a significant crop failure of -11.1%.
The hinge of the lupine crop cultivation technology is the sowing time and the determination of the breeding area. According to the literature the early sowing (as soon as possible to go to the soil) and larger growing area is recommended for seed production. Based on the results of our 2 years experiment, the effect of sowing time and differen...t spacing is important on yield of white lupine, and the effect of the sowing time is more significant. A decrease in the yield was observed after later sowings. The yield and the rate of its decreasing was varied in one year and among different years depending on wheather condition and sowing time.
The role of sowing time is significant for protein content of seeds. The average protein content decreased due to the later sowings in 2014, while 2015 the protein content of seeds in early sowing time and of plants sowed 4 weeks later was similar. We measured less protein content in the 2. sowing time sowed 2 weeks later than the first one. In the studied years the average protein content of seeds from different row spaces were not different.
The experiment was carried out 6 km from Debrecen, next to the main road 47 on a homogeneous field on brown forest soil. Five corn hybrids were tested in the trial (DKC 4795, DKC 4995, KWS Kornelius, NK Cobalt, PR37 N01) at three different sowing times (early – 5th April, average – 21st April, late – 10th...May). At each sowing time, three different plant densities were applied (modest – 58 500 plants ha-1, average –70 200 plants ha-1, high – 82 300 plants ha-1). The agrotechnics applied
in the experiment satisfied the requirements of modern corn cultivation.
In the study, the best yield result was achieved with the early sowing time out of the three examined sowing times (11 315 kg ha-1), which was significantly different (LSD5%=495 kg) from that of the average sowing time (10 690 kg ha-1), however, there was no statistically justifiable difference between the yield results of the early and the late sowing times. There was a significant difference also between the average and late sowing time. Our results indicate that the different sowing times resulted in a different flowering times. Consequently, the stands of early and late sowing time reached this critical stadium of growth under proper climatic circumstances (precipitation: 39 mm and 136 mm, average temperature at flowering: 18.1 oC and 20.3 oC), while flowering in the case of the average sowing time of 21st April was in the first half of July and the average temperature at flowering was warmer (23.2 oC) with only 10 mm precipitation.
In the experiment, the plant density response was also examined. According to the measured data, four of the five hybrids responded badly to the increasing plant density. We found that the plant density of 58 500 plant ha-1 gave the largest yield results (DKC 4995 11 794 kg ha-1 – NK Cobalt 10 998 kg ha-1, average of five hybrids: 11 430 kg ha-1), while the lowest yields were obtained at the plant density of 82 300 plant ha-1 (KWS Kornelius 11 037 kg ha-1 – NK Cobalt 10 019 kg ha-1, average of five hybrids 10 720 kg ha-1). The difference between the two plant densities was significant (LSD5%=494 kg), however, the 70 200 plant ha-1 plant density did not show any statistical difference from neither the 58 500 ha-1 nor from the 82 300 plant ha-1 stands. When examining the data of the hybrids separately, we found that there was a significant difference between the average yield of the lowest and highest plant densities only in the case of three (DKC 4795, DKC 4995, NK
Cobalt) out of the five hybrids (DKC 4795: 11 757 kg ha-1 – 10 857 ha-1 where LSD5% =816 kg; DKC 4995: 11 794 kg ha-1 – 10 738 kg ha-1 where LSD5%=853kg; NK Cobalt: 10 998 kg ha-1 – 10 019 kg ha-1 where LSD5%=630 kg ha-1), while a significant difference between the second and third plant densities was observed only in one case (DKC 4995: 11 726 kg ha-1 – 10 738 ha-1 where LSD5%=853 kg). In all other cases, there was no statistical difference between the different
The effect of three agrotechnical factors (sowing time, fertilization, plant density) and two genotypes on the crop yield of sweet corn was examined on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság region in two different crop years. Compared to the 30-year average, the climate was dry and warm in 2009 and humid in 2010. The experiments were conducted at th...e Látókép Research Site of the University of Debrecen. In the experiments we applied two sowing times (end of April, end of May), six fertilization levels (control, N30+PK, N60+PK, N90+PK, N120+PK, N150+PK) and two crop density levels (45 thousand ha-1, 65 thousand ha-1). The hybrids we used were Jumbo and Enterprise. As regards the requirements of sweet corn production, the crop year of 2009 was dry and warm. The effect of moisture deficiency was more adverse on the crop yields with the second sowing time. On the contrary, the other examined year (2010) was significantly humid; the precipitation was 184 mm above the 30-year average and the temperature was average.
In the dry and hot crop year, the best yields were obtained with the hybrid Jumbo (25677 kg-1) at 65 thousand ha-1 plant density level on the average of the fertilization levels. The crop yields of Enterprise were also the highest at high plant density level (24444 kg ha-1). With the second sowing time the highest yields were obtained at the higher plant density level (65 thousand ha-1) with both hybrids (Jumbo 18978 kg ha-1, Enterprise 18991 kg ha-1), which confirmed the good adaptation capability of these hybrids at high plant density level. In humid crop year with early sowing time the highest yielding hybrid was Enterprise (at 45 thousand ha-1 crop density level 20757 kg-1), at the same time, Jumbo was best yielding at the higher plant density level (18781 kg-1). With the second sowing time the highest crop yield was obtained with Enterprise again (20628 kg ha-1 at 65 thousand ha-1 plant density level). With this sowing time the average yields of Jumbo, was 18914 kg ha-1 respectively. We found that dry crop year and early sowing time provided the best conditions for sweet corn production; the highest yields were obtained under these circumstances, which might be the results of the outstanding water management of chernozem soils.
We have examined the effect of three agrotechnological factors (sowing time, fertilization, crop density) and four genotypes on the yield
of sweetcorn on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság region in 2009. The experiment was set up at the Látókép Research Site of the University of
Debrecen. We have included two sowing times (27 April, 26
N150+PK) and four genotypes (Jumbo, Enterprise, Prelude, Box-R) at two crop density levels (45 thousand ha-1).
In the humid cropyear of 2010 the amount of precipitation exceeded the 30-year average by 184 mm in the cropping season; the average
temperature exceeded the same by 0.8 C on the average of the examined months. The circumstances were most favourable for sweetcorn
production with the first sowing time, thus, this was when the yield of all hybrids was the highest.
With early sowing time, the highest yield (23437 kg ha-1 yield) was obtained with Enterprise at 45 thousand ha-1 crop density level at
N150 + PK nutrition level. The highest yield of the other three hybrids was 22253 kg ha-1 (Jumbo) 22286 kg ha-1 (Box-R) and 1873 kg ha-1
(Prelude). With the second sowing time, the highest yield was obtained with Enterprise again (22237 kg ha-1) at 65 thousand ha-1 crop
density level. With this sowing time the yield of Jumbo, Box-R and Prelude was 20888 kg ha-1, 17796 kg ha-1 and 17401 kg ha-1, respectively.
We found that the highest yield was obtained at the highest nutrition levels (N120 + PK, N150 +PK) with the first sowing time, while the same
was obtained at lower nutrition levels (N90 + PK, N120 + PK) with the second sowing time.
We did the detailed agronomy examination and assessment of sweet corn cropping technology by analysing the data of TONAVAR Ltd. The Ltd. developed a special sowing construction which is based on band application of main sowing and double growing. In main sowing they use super sweet hybrids, and in double growing they use normal sweet varieties.... In double growing sugar peas and the sweet corn can be cultivated together successfully. In every two years appearing sugar peas has a good effect on the sweet corn growing in monoculture. At the same time
the long-term successfulness of this questionable onto the illnesses of the peas because of the considerable sensitivity.
According to our examinations in main sowing the optimal period is between May 1. and 30., and in double growing the optimal period of sowing is between June 1. and 20. The optimal plant density is different too for the two sowing time. For super sweet hybrids the optimal plant number is 60-63 thousand/ha and for the normal sweet that is 65 thousand/ha.
Our examinations show that soil pest (defence with soil sterilisation in sowing time), Diabrotica virgifera, Helivoverpa armigera, Ostrinia nubialis are the greatest danger for the sweet corn quantity and quality.
The use of herbicides is the most efficient in the postemergens in main sowing and preemergens in second crop.
Our examination shows that the efficient sweet corn growing cannot be imagined without irrigation. The most efficient irrigation is in main sowing in the critical fenophase of crop time. In double growing the initial irrigation, and the crop irrigation are the most efficient. Based on the production data verifiable that beside the application of the discribed growing technology in the 2005-2007 years the average yield was 20,9t/ha of main sowing, and 17,8t/ha of second crop on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság.
Sowing time, nutrient supply and plant number play crucial roles in the yield stability of maize. The productivity of various hybrids, each with its own genetic characteristics, was tested for three different sowing times and five different fertilizer doses. The highest yields were achieved at the third sowing time (17. V.), which is unusual, b...ecause the second half of the summer was rainy and was favourable for late sowing. The seed moisture content at harvest was higher than the optimal 14-15% at the third sowing time, the hybrids, which have intensive bleeding dynamics, couldn’t reach the lower seed moisture content at harvest of the early sowing. In that case we have to decision whether the plus yield of the third sowing time cover the drying costs.
Some hybrids produced the highest yields by N 120, P2O5 75, K2O 90 kg/ha active agent but the higher fertilizer doses depress the yield. The other part of the hybrids were able to produce high yield by bigger fertilizer doses. On the whole the agro-ecological optimum of the NPK fertilization was N 120-160, P 25-100, K 90-120 kg/ha active agent, but the N 80, P2O5 50, K2O 60 kg/ha fertilizer doses was the most effective.
The millet is a very special plant with good adaptation that gives the possibility for the late sowing and secondary production. However the effects of late sowing modifies the efficiency of the agrotechnological elements. The exainations – focused on this aspect – was conducted in the DU RINY and DU RIK in small plots in four replications...in 2014. Among the examined factors (sowing time, nutrient supply, growing area) sowing time had the largest effect. The effectiveness of the agrotechnological elements decreases under unfavourable circumstances caused by the late sowing.
The agrotechnical elements modifies the yields in the examined genotype. Sowing time had the biggest effect on the yields of millet. The genotype „Maxi” had the highest yield in the different treatment variations.
The yield differences were significant between the sowing time and plant density variations, but the nutrient supply had not significant effect (the rate of precipitation was unfavourable in 2014 season).
We studied the effect of planting time on plant pathological factors, leaf area index and yield production by applying various fungicid treatments on two different sunflower genotypes in 2013.
By delaying planting time, both the extent of Diaporthe, Alternaria and Phoma infections decreased. The differences between the volume of infecti...ons were significant in the case of the early and late sowing time results. The application of fungicide treatments induced a notable decrease in the extent of infections for all three pathogens examined. The LAI-values varied between 0.3 and 5.6 m2/m2 in 2013 depending on the hybrid, sowing time and treatment. Stocks planted at distinct times reached maximum leaf coverage at different times. The planting time and the fungicide treatment had a significant effect on the formation of the leaf area. In the case of average and late planting times, fungicide treatments elongated the preservation of the green leaf area.
With respect to the yield amount, average planting time (27 April, 2013) turned out to be optimal in 2013 (control – NK Ferti: 4.621 kg ha-1, PR64H42: 4.196 kg ha-1; double-treated: NK Ferti: 5.282 kg ha-1, PR64H42: 5.090 kg ha-1). Fungicide treatments resulted in significant yield growth in all cases during our research.
We applied Person correlation analysis to evaluate the hybrids’ sensibility to infections and our results varied in the case of Diaporthe and Phoma (r=-0.343*, -0.379**). Infections of the three pathogens were significantly reduced by delaying the planting time and applying fungicides. Late sown stocks preserved the green leaf area for a longer period. Besides, the application of the fungicide treatment and the hybrid itself also led to the preservation of the green leaf area. However, pathogens examined notably decreased the leaf area by the end of the growing year. The fungicide treatment had a remarkable effect on yield growth (r=0.603**). Furthermore, the presence of higher LAI-values in the period prior to August also induced higher yields.
We made plant physiology examinations in Arkaso winter oilseed rape hybrid substance: relative chlorophyll content (SPAD) and leaf area index (LAI) measurements. The experiment was set in University of Debrecen Agricultural Sciences Center at Látóképi Experimental Station in four replications, in two different sowing times (I. sowing date on... 08/22/2014 and II. sowing date on 09/09/2014 sowing againhappened because of the incomplete germination in the second subtance 01/10/2014) Three different plant density 200, 350 and 500 thousand ha-1, under the same nutrient supply, 45 cm row spacing. The experiment was green crop of winter wheat. The relative chlorophyll content (SPAD) and leaf area index (LAI) measurements were made in seven different times. We measured the maximum value of chlorophyll content in the first sowing time at 500, and the second sowing time at 350 thousand ha-1 plant density. The measurement results proved that there was a linear relationship between the number of plants and the LAI. The maximum leaf area index values we measured in both the sowing time at 500 thousand ha-1 reached.
The millet is a very special plant with good adaptation that gives the possibility for the late sowing and secondary production. However the effects of late sowing modifies to the efficiency of the agrotechnological elements. The examinations – focused on this aspect – was conducted in the DU CAS RINY in the small plots in four replications... in 2013. The largest effect was recorded in the sowing time of the examined factors (sowing time, nutrient supply, growing area). The effectiveness of the agrotechnological elements decreases under unfavourable circumstances caused by the late sowing. The examined factors did not affect in the protein content and milling rate, except in the latest sowing time when protein content was significantly the highest.
The field research was carried out at the experimental farm of the University of Debrecen at Látókép on calcareous chernozem soil in Hungary. We examined the effects of the sowing time and the fungicide treatment on the yield, oil yield and oil content of two different genotypes of sunflower hybrids (NK Ferti, PR64H42) in 2012 and 2013. We a...pplied three different sowing times (early, average, late) and two different treatment levels of fungicides (control =no fungicides applied, double fungicide protection).
During our research, we received better results in 2013 than in 2012. The application of different planting times affected the yield and oil yield production and the oil content as well. The optimal circumstances for yield and oil yield production were provided by late planting in 2012, while by average planting time in 2013. The highest oil yield results were reached by late plating in both years (except for hybrid PR64H42 in the double treated parcels where average plating time turned out to be more effective). The correlation between the plating time, the yield and oil yield production and the oil content was strong in 2012 (r=0.600**, r=0.639**, r=0.590**). On the other side, in 2013, the correlation was medium between the planting time, the yield production and the oil content.
We applied Pearson’s correlation to analyze the effect of the double fungicide treatment on the yield and oil yield production (2012: r=0.498**, r=0.407**). These results were better in 2013 (r=0.603**, r=0.623**), besides, the double fungicide treatment also increased the oil content (r=0.315**).
Extreme weather conditions are becoming more and more frequent in the crop years, thus increase the risk of sunflower production.
The objective of researches into plant production is to minimize these effects as much as possible. In this sense, the optimization of
agrotechnological factors is of high importance. Within these factors, the
and optimized, rational crop protection technologies are important, especially in the highly sensitive sunflower cultures. The effect of
sowing time, crop density, and fungicide treatments on the yield of sunflower hybrids was analysed in different crop years in 2008
and 2009. In each case, the infection was highest with the early sowing time and at the highest crop density level (65000 ha-1). When
one fungicide treatment was applied, the rate of infection decreased compared to the control treatment. The further decrease of the
infection rate was less after the second fungicide treatment.
In the humid year of 2008 the crop yield was the highest at 45000 ha-1 crop density level in the control treatment and at 55000 crop
ha-1 crop density level when fungicides were applied. In the draughty year of 2009 the maximum yield was gained at 55000 ha-1 crop
density level in the control treatment and at 65000 crop ha-1 when fungicides were applied. In 2008 and 2009 as regards the crop
yield, the difference between the optimal and minimal crop density levels was higher in the fungicide treatments than in the control
treatment (in 2008: control: 517 kg ha-1; one application of fungicides: 865 kg ha-1; two applications of fungicides: 842 kg ha-1), (in
2009: control: 577 kg ha-1; one application of fungicides: 761 kg ha-1; two applications of fungicides: 905 kg ha-1).
In each and every case, the first treatment with fungicides was more effective than the second. In 2008, the highest yield was
obtained with the third, late sowing time in each fungicide treatment. The differences between the crop yields with different sowing
times was less than in 2009, when the results of the second treatment exceeded those of the first and third treatment in each case.
We carried out the tests in the flood meadow soil formed on the alluvial cone of Nagykereki, Sebes-Körös belonging to the Bihar plane small region. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of the different sowing date of maize on the yield trend based on a comprehensive study conducted for 6 years (2007–2012).
The sowing date...of maize hybrids is a factor that significantly influences yield, however, its effect is not significant in each crop year. In the years when the date of sowing has a modifying effect, the reliable yield level can be reached with optimal sowing date management (24 April).
The advantage of early sowing (10 April) proved to be dominant in the year of 2012, the seeds were placed into the still wet soil therefore shooting was more balanced. Maize seeds sown at the time of optimal (24 April) and late (10 May) sowing dates were placed into the already dry soil, which deteriorated germination and the strength of early initial development that had an effect on the yield.
Maize is one of Hungary’s major cereals. In the 1970s and 1980s, we were in the frontline regarding yields and genetic advancement. However, yield fluctuation in maize has increased to 50-60% from 10-20% since the 1980s, which was partly caused by the increase in weather extremes due to climate change and by agrotechnical shortcomings.
The agroecological optimum fertilizer dosage was N 40-120, P2O5 25-75, K2O 30-90 kg ha-1 active ingredient at a plant density of 60-90 thousand plants ha-1 depending on the hybrid and the year.
Our aim was to work out such new maize fertilizer methods and models which can reduce the harmful effects of fertilization, can
maintain the soil fertility and can moderate the yield fluctuation (nowadays 50-60 %).
The soil of our experimental projects was meadow soil. The soil could be characterized by high clay content and pour phosphor
medium potassium contents. In the last decade, out of ten years six years were dry and hot in our region. So the importance of crop-rotation
is increasing and we have to strive for using the appropriate crop rotation.
The yields of maize in monoculture crop rotation decreased by 1-3 t ha-1 in each dry year during the experiment (1983, 1990, 1992,
1993, 1994, 1995, 1998, 2000, 2003, and 2007). The most favourable forecrop of maize was wheat, medium was the biculture crop rotation
and the worst crop rotation was the monoculture.
There is a strong correlation between the sowing time and the yield of maize hybrids, but this interactive effect can be modified by the
amount and distribution of precipitation in the vegetation period. At the early sowing time, the grain moistures were 5-12 % lower compared
to the late sowing time and 4-5 % lower compared to the optimum sowing treatment.
There are great differences among the plant density of different maize hybrids. There are hybrids sensitive to higher plant density and
there are hybrids with wide and narrow optimum plant densities.
The agro-ecological optimum fertilizer dosage of hybrids with a longer season (FAO 400-500) was N 30-40 kg ha-1 higher in favourable
years as compared to early hybrids.
We can summarize our results by saying that we have to use hybrid-specific technologies in maize production. In the future, we have to
increase the level of inputs and have to apply the best appropriate hybrids and with respect to the agroecologial conditions, we can better
utilize the genetic yield potential.
The effect of nutrient-supply (control, N120+PK) and two different genotypes on the physiologic properties of sweet corn has been investigated in the crop-year of 2011 on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság region. The experiments were carried out at the Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen in Debrecen-Látókép. The experiment was...sewn in two different sowing times: the 21st April can be considered as an early, while the 19th May as a late sowing time. The two involved hybrids were Jumbo and Enterprise. The applied plant density was 65 000 plants per hectare.
Our aim with this experiment was to study the plant production, just as the main affecting factors of its development and dynamics, like nutrient-supply and genotypes. We aimed to study and analyse the relationships between these factors and plant production. In this study following parameters were measured and calculated: photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll-content (SPAD-value), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD). Regarding the analysis of photosynthetic activity values no obvious relationship between the measured values and the applied hybrids, just as nutrient-supply has been revealed.
Analysing the SPAD-values it can be stated that the chlorophyll-content of the measured leaves showed an increasing tendency due to the nutrient-supply. The highest values have been measured in the intensive cob development phase of the early sowing time plots.
Regarding the LAI-values we have found significant differences between the fertilizer treatments in both sowing time treatments. In case of the leaf area duration values – that is derived from the LAI values – nutrient-supply has positively affected the duration of the assimilation area.
Three agrotechnical factors (sowing time, fertilization, plant density) and the effect of two different genotypes on the yields of sweet corn was studied, in the dry and warm crop-year of 2009 on a chernozem soil in the County of Hajdúság. The experiments were carried out on the Látókép Research Station of Debrecen University. The experime...nt involved two sowing times (21 of April and 19 of May), six fertilizer levels (control, N30+PK, N60+PK, N90+PK, N120+PK, N150+PK) and two genotypes (Jumbo, Enterprise). Four plant density levels, 45 thousand ha-1, 55 thousand ha-1, 65 thousand ha-1 and 75 thousand ha-1 were used. In the early sowing time the highest yield was obtained with 65 thousand ha-1 plant density level and N120+PK treatment of Jumbo (18169 kg ha-1), while the maximum yield of Enterprise was 17818 kg ha-1 with 75 thousand ha-1 plant density level and N90+PK dose. In case of the late sowing time both hybrids gave the highest yield with 75 thousand ha-1 plant density level and N30 +PK
treatment, with a crop yield of 13143 kg ha-1 (Jumbo) and 14324 kg ha-1, ( Enterprise).
We examinated three agrotechnical factors in 2011, 2012 and 2013 (sowing time, nutrient factor and plant density), as well as five different effects of genotypes on the crop of corn, on brown soil in the Hajdúság. The experiment was set next to the 47 main road in Debrecen, at the 6th kilometre stone.
In the present process...ing I would like to touch on the effects of sowing time and plant density, as I do not have the chance to present the whole experiment results here. It is true for all three years that the humidity factors differ from the long years’ average, so the genotypes had different reactions on it. According to our results we found out that the late sowing time’s result had the most successful crop yield result with 9975 kg ha-1, while examining the plant density the result of the highest plant density proved to be the best with 9967 kg ha-1.
We take the critical season in corns’ life cycle process into consideration when examining the results: June, July and August months’ humidity and temperature markers. According to the results in the tested 3 months we had 227 mm humidity with 10 days, when the average temperature was over 25 °C. The same factors in 2012 were 135.5 mm humidity with 37 days of average temperatures of 25 °C and in 2013 we recorded 102.5 mm humidity with 24 of these days.
Our goal is to help the farmers in the Hajdúság with the results of our sowing times, hybrid choice and plant density results.
In the crop season of 2010 (rainy year), we studied the effect of three agrotechnical factors (sowing time, fertilization, plant density) and four different genotypes on the agronomical characteristics of sweet corn on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság. The experiments were carried out at the Látókép Experimental Farm of the University of Deb...recen. In the experiment, two sowing dates (27 April, 26 May), six fertilization levels (control, N30+PK, N60+PK, N90+PK, N120+PK, N150+PK) and four genotypes (Jumbo, Enterprise, Prelude, Box-R) were used at two plant densities (45 thousand plants ha-1, 65 thousand plants ha-1). The amount of precipitation in the season of 2010 was 184 mm higher, while the average temperature was 0.8 oC higher in the studied months than the average of 30 years. Weather was more favourable for sweet maize at the first sowing date, if we consider the yields, however, if we evaluate the agronomical data and yield elements (number of cobs, cob length and diameter, the number of kernel rows, the number of kernels per row) it can be stated that the size of the fertile cobs was greater at the second sowing date due to the lower number of cobs. The largest number of fertile cobs was harvested in the case of the hybrid Enterprise (72367.9 ha-1) in the higher plant density treatment (65 thousand ha-1) at the fertilization level of N120+PK when the first sowing date was applied. The largest cobs were harvested from the hybrid Box-R (cob weight with husks: 516.7 g, number of kernels in one row: 45.7) at the lower plant density (45 thousand plants ha-1) in the second sowing date treatment. Cob diameter and the number of kernel rows were the highest for the hybrid Prelude.
Many authors, both in Hungary and abroad, have reported on experiments carried out to determine the role of sowing time in maize, but the results are often contradictory. This is hardly surprising, since the maize plant exhibits enormous genetic variability and the hybrids created through selection and inbreeding may have very specific requirem...ents as to sowing date. The year effect, too, often complicates the efforts of scientists to provide clear guidance to farmers on the optimal sowing date for each hybrid.