Presently, the process of regionalization is slowly progressing in Hungary. The regional institutional system is young and the institutional experiences are limited. The Hungarian regional development agencies are operated with a limited number of personnel and their budget is only a fraction of EU regional agencies of similar size. There is no... unequivocal cooperation between regional development agencies and county development agencies. In the absence of these, the strategical objectives of the region cannot be aligned and the application of consistent development policies cannot be achieved. In the past five-six years the supports from EU Pre-Accession Funds, along with the new tools of regional development policies, have all contributed to the development of the North Great Plain Region. Phare projects – beside supporting development – have played a significant role in forming the approach of individuals who are actively involved in regional development, in promoting cooperation among cross-border and other regions, as well as in preparing the regions to accept EU structural funds. Prior to the May 1st, 2004 EU accession of Hungary, the North Great Plain Region received 24-25% in direct regional development funds in the Nineties. The support per capita in the case of TFC, TEKI and CÉDE has exceeded the national average. The North Great Plain Region has received support from investment type agricultural supports, the Employment Fund and the Touristical Directives that well exceeded the national average, from the sectoral resource funds. However, the applicants of the North Great Plain Region have received little support in the case of environmental, water management and especially road development supports. About 200 applications have been submitted for the SAPARD calls nationally, 32 of these were from the North Great Plain Region. The significance of cooperation among sub-regions is demonstrated by the fact that, except for 15 settlements in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, all have submitted an application. The efforts of inhabitants is highlighted by the high number of submitted applications, as well as by the significant degree of own contribution. Still, the GDP of the North Great Plain Region has not increased, the rate and tendency of unemployment does not sufficiently reflect the positive effect of supports. The Regional Development Directive has provided support for the development of many small- and medium size enterprises, but their effect did not ensure a sustained economic growth.
The greatest difficulty is that the number of dedicated professionals who are skilled in regional politics and regional development is few. However, advantages of our EU accession can only be exploited if a group of highly skilled professionals is provided on local, county, regional and national level as well. Thus, we need a group of professionals who are informed about the European Union, the EU support forms and most of all about the operation of Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds to establish the suitable institutional background for professionally handling the funds obtained from the EU, to prepare the professional documents to access the funds and to generate development projects to efficiently use the funds as well as establishing connections with the institutions of the EU. Appropriate share from funds coming from the EU is only possible if the country, certain regions, counties and sub-regions can achieve rapid results in the areas listed above.
We revealed and assessed those macroeconomic data which enabled us to identify the outstanding role of agriculture and within it that of fruit production. Based on this, it can be said that soil is the most important natural resource of Hungary. The appropriate combination of the additional resources required for production, labour and assets c...an provide a comparative advantage for the Northern Great Plain Region.
The Northern Great Plain Region is one of the most underdeveloped regions in Hungary, so its development is a political objective. When analysing the economic sectors in the region, the important role of agriculture is obvious and it is also clear that the industry and the tertiary sector can only have an alternative income generating role in the future also. Therefore, it is important that the regional development funds of Hungary and the European Union are directly or indirectly aimed at improving agricultural development and competitiveness.
This paper tries to find connection between sustainable landscape and spatial development policy of the Northern Great Plain region on the basis of specific examples explained in scientific literature. Searching for the common roots of spatial development and sustainability the paper explains two interpretations of sustainability from the view...point of landscape, than the most significant element of current landscape change – the polarization of landscapes – will be introduced. This trend in landscape change basically determines the direction of spatial development. This paper analyses the Northern Great Plain region from two different approaches. In the first grouping the region is exposed from the view point of spatial development. In the second partitioning the area is divided into subject matters based on the principles of sustainability and polarization of landscape. This research – analyzing development plans and strategies – considers the current situation within the subject matters.
This paper tries to find connections between sustainable landscape and spatial development policy of the Northern Great Plain region on the basis of specific examples explained in scientific literature. Searching for the common roots of spatial development and sustainability the paper explains two interpretation of sustainability from the view...point of landscape, than the most significant element of current landscape change, the polarization of landscapes, will be introduced. This trend in landscape change basically determines the direction of spatial development. This paper analyses the Northern Great Plain region form two different approaches. In the first grouping the region is exposed from the view point of landscape. In the second partitioning the area is divided into subject matters based on the principles of sustainability and polarization of landscape. This research – analysing development plans and strategies – considers the current situation and the tasks of the future within the subject matters.
The most important endeavour of European Union’s regional policy is to moderate disparities. An emphasised strategic objective of member states, based on the principle of solidarity, fairness and justice, is to develop regions and almost forty percent of the common budget is devoted to achieving this objective.
Hungary, as a full EU member
The differences in development among the regions are significantly influenced by the economic characteristics of the specific region, quality and quantity of human resources, accessability of the region and other factors influencing local quality of life beside natural conditions.
The new spatial structure was formed by change of regime, processes of the nineties, primarily the economic renewal based on foreign capital investments and the crisis phenomena in parallel with these. The economic, political and social consequences of the transformation significantly changed spatial structure and increased disparities. New disparities formed which were further aggravated as a consequence due to the formation of the eastern-western slope and local crisis zones. As a result of the outstanding development of the capital, the long term differentiation of regional development differences can also be detected when examining the regional distribution of Hungarian gross domestic product. The collapse of heavy industry and agricultural mass production based on the eastern markets primarily affected the north-east counties in the eastern part of the country.
Strengthening regional competitiveness is of key importance for the region, which requires the application of consistent development policy. The most important is economic development which, if it operates well, also infers the possibility of establishing welfare infrastructures. Drawing in external sources to ease the significant lack of capital is important for the processing industry and the development of supplier networks. Agricultural development also plays an important role in transforming economic structure, since the characteristics of the region, its traditions and long term competitive advantages are favourable, therefore it is going to represent a higher ratio within the economy than the EU average. The modernisation of the agricultural sector can be promoted by supporting market accession, quality agricultural production and stimulating producer-retailer cooperation. The development of transportation and informatics infrastructure as well as human resource development plays a significantly important role in the development of the region.
In conclusion, the implementation of such a consistent regional development policy is required in the future, based on the strengths of the region, that serves the most efficient utilisation of regional development funds through the implementation of regional policy principles and prevents the irreversible decay of the region while promoting rapid development.
Hungary can be divided into 7 regions, of which I am writing about the Northern Great Plain Region in this article. The Northern Great Plain consists of the counties Hajdú-Bihar, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok, and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg. There are 389 settlements in the region, which can be considered rather few. The population of the region is nearl...y 1.5 million, which is nearly 15% of the total population. This region is one of the most disadvantageous regions in Hungary, with its economic indicators ranking the lowest of all regions. Nevertheless, as regarding education and agriculture, the region is considered to be a prominent area.
Most of the enterprises operating in Hungary belong to the group of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) which means that their total number of staff is less than 250. The aim of the study is to examine SMEs operating within the North Great Plain region. It provides a short summary of the general characteristics of the region, the situation and...significance of SMEs based on the data 2009 and it also clarifies the relevant definitions. The data shows that the enterprise type that is most characteristic in the the region is joint venture (the most popular type is Ltd). It can be laid down as a fact that the number of micro and sole entrepreneurs is also significant in the area. It is also clear that the majority of small enterprises deals
with commerce, while most of the medium enterprises are involved in industry (processing industry). As a continuation of the examination, size of investments, influx of foreign capital, ratio of employed people and grant opportunities are also to be evaluated since these factors influence the operation of enterprises as well.
1.5 million people live in the large region containing 3 counties, which makes it the second most populated region after Central Hungary. Its economy and land use are still defined by agriculture and it has been the least developed region in the country for a long time. In the country this region has the second lowest GDP per capita and employm...ent rate. In contrast to the low values of the economic indicators the region has high potential for innovation. The University of Debrecen is located in the region having one of the widest range of education and intensive research and development is also a characteristic of the region.
An important ambition of EU regional politics is the reduction of disparities. An important strategical objective of the Commission is to terminate underdevelopment and to ensure the development of the regions based on the principles of solidarity, equity and justice. The commission has dedicated forty percent of its common budget to achieve th...ese goals. The differences in development are significantly influenced by the economic characteristics of the specific region, the quality and quantity of human resources, the accessibility of the region and factors influencing local quality of life.
The new spatial structure has been formed by the processes of the change of regime, the events of nineties and the economic renewal based onforeign capital investments parallel with crisis phenomenon. The economic, political and social consequences of the transformation have significantly transformed spatial structure and increased disparities. New disparities have formed, which strengthened due to the formation of east-west slopes and local crisis zones. The outstanding improvement of the capital resulted in great regional development differences, which can be detected when examining regional distribution of gross domestic product. The Eastern part of the country was most heavily affected by the collapse of heavy industry and agricultural mass production based on the Eastern markets.
It is of key importance for the region to strengthen regional competitiveness, which requires the application of consistent development-politics. Economic development is the most important, which can also draw the possibility of establishing welfare infrastructures. It is important to develop the processing industry, the supply networks and to ease the lack of capital it is also important to involve foreign capital. Developing agriculture plays an important role in transforming the structure of the economy. Since the conditions of the region, its traditions and long-term competitive advantages are favorable, thus can represent a greater ratio in the economy than the EU average. The modernisation of the agricultural sector can be promoted by supporting marketing, quality agricultural development and producer-retail cooperation. It is also highly important to promote development in transportation and informatics infrastructure and human resources.
In the future – based on the strength of the region – it is necessary to achieve such a consistent regional development politics, which by validating the principles of regional politics, serves the interest of utilizing regional development supports most efficiently and prevents the irreversible underdevelopment of the region and promotes fast development.
In my research I aimed to examine the previous theories about consumer habits and behaviors as well as the preference of different fruit species in the Northern Great Plain Region. Furthermore, I also wanted to know if there are any correlations between the product atributes that influence fruit consumption and different ages, genders and incom...e categories.
The importance of my research field is reflected in the fact that issues in connection with foodstuffs, healty diet and food safety have been highly emphasized recently.
I belive in order to live longer we need to pursue healthy diet that is rich in fruits and vegetables. It seems, however, not every can follow this lifestyle in their every day diet since most people prefer junk food that contains harmful ingridients.
The role of retaining population in agriculture is stronger and more significant in the long run in the North Great Plain Region compared to other regions. The region has a significant processing industry along with a good basis for producing raw materials, developed food processing capicity and high quality agricultural products typical of the... region. The GDP in agriculture, forestry and game management is somewhat higher than the national average.
Variety is of cardinal importance when establishing the quality of horticultural products and determining the product value. The Hungarian breeding results of apple, quince, apricot, cherry, raspberry, red and black currant are promising.
The regulation system of EU the vegetable and fruit market is based on Retail Cooperatives Producers. With the establishment of national vegetable- and fruit production and retail organizations, the market regulation, production and quality development issues of the sector can be handled and solved. Reaching EU standards in fruit production can only be achieved with up-to-date plantation systems and breed selection. A key issue in development is establishing the required financial resources for investments and updating production. In order to reach these standards, significant state subsidies and good credit conditions are needed. By solving these tasks, the sector is expected to become self-financed without government help.
The pursuit of safer production, improving quality and increasing yields require the establishment of up-to-date irrigation systems. The improvement of family farms, motivating land concentration is necessary for increasing average size of plants. Establishing the above mentioned conditions is important since the vegetable-fruit sector is of great significance in the employment of rurally based population, improving their living conditions and executing rural development programs.
In 2003, the area, which was monitored according to the requirement of organic farming, was 116 thousand hectares in Hungary, and included almost 1700 works, which produce organic products. This is some 2% of the cultivated land of Hungary. The increase of organic farming areas has slowed down in recent years. In these conditions the optimal 30...0,000 hectares cannot be achieve in 2006.
In 2003, the area which was cultivated according to the regulations of organic farming was more than 33 thousand hectares in the North Great Plain Region, and monitored 250 enterprises the associates of the monitor organization. The challenge of the coordinators of the organic farming in the region are to fortificate the processing industry. The goal is to increase the added value of the products.
The practice of the conception and park-like economic development (between market economy circumstances) seems to be novel in our country. The first industrial parks have been established decentralized, with a local initiation, with some determining foreign undertakings early in the 90 years. Since then the increase of the number of the parks i...s high also the areas which have weaker economic level. We have make attention (in
the development politics) to the industrial parks working in the most harmful micro-regions, where the capital task is to extension of the employment, and to involvement of the capital. In the Northern Great Plain Region there are 31 industrial park at the ends of 2007. There are developed infrastructure and service in the big part of the parks. The smaller part of the parks cannot live on its title of industrial park, because of regional position, and concerned their management troubles. But the extension and developing of the park’s economic is very important in the region.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The most important instrument of social advancement and economic development is the education system. The educational qualification of the population of Hajdú-Bihar county is continuously improving, however the census data of the year 2001 show that the educational qualification of the population of the county did not reach the national average. The educational qualification of the county’s population is higher at the county seat and in other cities and lower in small municipalities. The county’s ratio is strongly influenced by the data of the county seat Debrecen and that of Hajdúszoboszló sub region.
It can be told about the second half of the XXth century that, apart from preferring the large-scale growing of field plants and the largescale
livestock farming, corresponding to the central political will of the communist era, the significance and innovation output of
horticultural education in Debrecen was rather of follow-up trait, of
research work, and then even this activity was stopped. According to a survey finished in 1997, the mentioned institute had no invention,
granted patent, protection for registered model or any application for patent in progress at the Hungarian Patent Office. Until this time, invention activity at the University of Agricultural Sciences was of medium standard. In the National Patent Office, seven patent applications related to agricultural production and nine patent applications for other fields submitted under the inventors’ names were recorded. In the same period, the Cereal Research Institute (Szeged) led the absolute innovation list of Hungarian agricultural R+D institutions and university education institutes by submitting 164 own patent applications. Both in domestic and international terms, the horticultural innovation conducted at the University of Agricultural Sciences, despite the individual research results and achievements deserving recognition, without appropriate background – remained unnoticed. Let us put it this way: for the past decades, the light of the Debrecen Flower Carnival has not been thrown on the horticultural teachers and researchers of Debrecen.
The authors of this study seek the answer to the question how to develop, in the first decade or decades of the 21st century, the university-level
horticultural scientific training, the horticultural innovation and the scientific co-operation between companies and universities in Debrecen and
in the North Great Plain Region and – in a w
of the prospects of past, present and future, they drew the following conclusions. The reconstruction of agriculture, horticulture and food industry
is a part of reforming Hungary's countryside. Horticulture, producing high added value, will be able to decisively contribute to the plan whereas
the value presently produced in an agriculturally cultivated area of 1,000 euros/hectare can reach 2,000 to 3,000 euros in the next two decades.
A necessary and indispensable precondition to achieving this is the strengthening of the innovation output of the Hungarian horticultural sector.
Despite the numerous technical criticisms formulated in connection with the serious problems of Hungarian agricultural and horticultural
scientific innovation, no progress has been made in this field for the past one and a half decade. The scientific research of this topic hardly
continued or did not continue at all, the up-to-date surveys and in-depth analyses were missing. The objective, basic principles and tasks of the
Act CXXXIV of 2004 (TTI) enacted concerning research-development and technological innovation are clear and progressive. The co-operation
between the National Research Technology Office and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the setting up of the Innovation Fund are heartening
opportunities. These – along with the new Higher Education Bill to be passed – may as well be suitable for restarting the Hungarian agricultural
and horticultural scientific innovation. In our opinion, this requires a new, well-considered national agricultural programme, which can be
conceived in the framework of the "Ferenc Entz National Horticultural Plan" proposed by us for horticulture. In the most eastern Hungarian
university knowledge centre, at the University of Debrecen, the continuing of the horticultural scientific innovation strategy started in the last
decade may be the focal point and generator of the development of the so-called "Hungarian Horticultural Triangle”, or "Hungarian
Horticultural Cluster". This region comprises the Northern and Southern Great Plain Regions and the area between the Danube and Tisza
Rivers. Here, about 70 to 75% of the total Hungarian horticultural commodity stock is produced. The objective of the HORT-INNOTECH
DEBRECEN programme planned in 2004 by the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Science is to establish the horticultural scientific
research-development and technological innovation structure and knowledge base of the Hungarian Horticultural Triangle / Hungarian
Horticultural Cluster. In harmony with this, the objectives are to bring about competitive, new horticultural products, to improve the conditions
of utilising them, to enhance the competitiveness of enterprises based on technological innovation, to make use of the research-development and
innovation opportunities available in the regions in an efficient manner, to as full extent as possible, to encourage the creation of places of
employment producing high added value in the field of horticulture, to improve the technical skills of those employed in horticultural researchdevelopment and to promote their enhanced recognition by the society.
The crisis of the hungarian agricultre is continuous since the ’80s. The compensation is made a dual farm system, which has created barriers to efficient agricultural production. It is confirmed by the economic indexes as well. But the most important natural resources of our country is still the land. Over the past 20 years, the government wa...s not able to work out strategic aims and adequate system for the hungarian agriculture. In the past three decades the clusters has become the most common tool in economic development worldwide. Clusters always base on some local knowledge, and a country can be competitive on the industry in which the resources are concentrated. So the question is, is it possible to „clusterize” the
agriculture and through this develop the rural economic.
As a result of the processes of hungarian economy and society the increase in territorial differences is noticeable in the last few days. The changes in society's status, the rate of increase and the level of development can be tracked for example in the diverse variation of labour market. In my study I would like to demonstrate the typical pro...cesses of labour market based on the time scale between 2000-2007, and I also want to reveal the root causes of the change in unemployment rate. The source of data is a regular, representative labour-survey by the Hungarian Central
Statistical Office based on interviewing people, as well as registration on place-hunters by the Employment and Social Office together with the summary of governmental subsidy. I targeted the age-groups between 15-74 years in my analysis, but the results are not modified by the over 65 years old population because of their small economical importance. I define the status of labour market by markers among others like economical activity, employment rate, unemployment rate, and I also consider the change in the amount of registered place-hunters in the period examined. My aim is to determine the responsible coefficients of the change in unemployment rate.
Box tree moth shows (Cydalima perspectalis) rapid spread in Europe. In Hungary it appeared first near to the western border of the country in 2011. In the eastern part of Hungary the first specimen was caught in 2015 with blacklight trap. Here we summarize its distribution in northern part of the Alföld (Great Hungarian Plain) on the basis of...blacklight, pheromone and feeding attractant traps. We publish five new distribution data from northern part (4 from Hungary, 1 from Transcarpathia) and two from southern part of the Alföld. Beyond that the flight of three generations was observed both in the year 2015 and 2016.
My study examined the competitiveness of Balmazujvaros, in regard to tourism. The town is situated in the Northern Great Plain region, in Hajdu-Bihar county, 22 km from Debrecen, together with Egyek, Hortobagy and Tiszacsege joined the statistical subregion of Balmazujvaros. Comparing with the neighbouring settlements, it has similar geographic...al features and posesses thermal water that was determined to be medicinal, which is a feature of the region. Balmazujvaros as a typical country town as it has a dominant agricultural character. It gained town status in 1989. Part of the town is situated in the National Park of Hortobagy.
The first part of my study is to determine the number of rival settlements from the viewpoint of tourism. I will analyze the results of a questionnaire given to tourists in Balmazujvaros between June 15 August 31 2003, and introduce the primary results. The SWOT analysis will show the primary and secondary information and the examination of the results.
If we take into account the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of this town, we can make the following conclusion: tourism is an opportunity with a well-developed infrastructure, a third sector, subsidies and improved local interest. A sound and well-defined marketing strategy is essential for Balmazujvaros, in order to overwhelm its strong rivals