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European Funds and the Evaluation of Their Application in the Northern Great Plain Region
Published December 6, 2005
191-198

Presently, the process of regionalization is slowly progressing in Hungary. The regional institutional system is young and the institutional experiences are limited. The Hungarian regional development agencies are operated with a limited number of personnel and their budget is only a fraction of EU regional agencies of similar size. There is no... unequivocal cooperation between regional development agencies and county development agencies. In the absence of these, the strategical objectives of the region cannot be aligned and the application of consistent development policies cannot be achieved. In the past five-six years the supports from EU Pre-Accession Funds, along with the new tools of regional development policies, have all contributed to the development of the North Great Plain Region. Phare projects – beside supporting development – have played a significant role in forming the approach of individuals who are actively involved in regional development, in promoting cooperation among cross-border and other regions, as well as in preparing the regions to accept EU structural funds. Prior to the May 1st, 2004 EU accession of Hungary, the North Great Plain Region received 24-25% in direct regional development funds in the Nineties. The support per capita in the case of TFC, TEKI and CÉDE has exceeded the national average. The North Great Plain Region has received support from investment type agricultural supports, the Employment Fund and the Touristical Directives that well exceeded the national average, from the sectoral resource funds. However, the applicants of the North Great Plain Region have received little support in the case of environmental, water management and especially road development supports. About 200 applications have been submitted for the SAPARD calls nationally, 32 of these were from the North Great Plain Region. The significance of cooperation among sub-regions is demonstrated by the fact that, except for 15 settlements in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, all have submitted an application. The efforts of inhabitants is highlighted by the high number of submitted applications, as well as by the significant degree of own contribution. Still, the GDP of the North Great Plain Region has not increased, the rate and tendency of unemployment does not sufficiently reflect the positive effect of supports. The Regional Development Directive has provided support for the development of many small- and medium size enterprises, but their effect did not ensure a sustained economic growth.
The greatest difficulty is that the number of dedicated professionals who are skilled in regional politics and regional development is few. However, advantages of our EU accession can only be exploited if a group of highly skilled professionals is provided on local, county, regional and national level as well. Thus, we need a group of professionals who are informed about the European Union, the EU support forms and most of all about the operation of Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds to establish the suitable institutional background for professionally handling the funds obtained from the EU, to prepare the professional documents to access the funds and to generate development projects to efficiently use the funds as well as establishing connections with the institutions of the EU. Appropriate share from funds coming from the EU is only possible if the country, certain regions, counties and sub-regions can achieve rapid results in the areas listed above.

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Regional Development Differences in Hungary and the Northern-Great Plain Region
Published March 4, 2005
62-71

The most important endeavour of European Union’s regional policy is to moderate disparities. An emphasised strategic objective of member states, based on the principle of solidarity, fairness and justice, is to develop regions and almost forty percent of the common budget is devoted to achieving this objective.
Hungary, as a full EU member... state, will get a new chance for underdeveloped regions, especially for the Eastern-Hungarian as well as the North Hungarian and North Plain Region.
The differences in development among the regions are significantly influenced by the economic characteristics of the specific region, quality and quantity of human resources, accessability of the region and other factors influencing local quality of life beside natural conditions.
The new spatial structure was formed by change of regime, processes of the nineties, primarily the economic renewal based on foreign capital investments and the crisis phenomena in parallel with these. The economic, political and social consequences of the transformation significantly changed spatial structure and increased disparities. New disparities formed which were further aggravated as a consequence due to the formation of the eastern-western slope and local crisis zones. As a result of the outstanding development of the capital, the long term differentiation of regional development differences can also be detected when examining the regional distribution of Hungarian gross domestic product. The collapse of heavy industry and agricultural mass production based on the eastern markets primarily affected the north-east counties in the eastern part of the country.
Strengthening regional competitiveness is of key importance for the region, which requires the application of consistent development policy. The most important is economic development which, if it operates well, also infers the possibility of establishing welfare infrastructures. Drawing in external sources to ease the significant lack of capital is important for the processing industry and the development of supplier networks. Agricultural development also plays an important role in transforming economic structure, since the characteristics of the region, its traditions and long term competitive advantages are favourable, therefore it is going to represent a higher ratio within the economy than the EU average. The modernisation of the agricultural sector can be promoted by supporting market accession, quality agricultural production and stimulating producer-retailer cooperation. The development of transportation and informatics infrastructure as well as human resource development plays a significantly important role in the development of the region.
In conclusion, the implementation of such a consistent regional development policy is required in the future, based on the strengths of the region, that serves the most efficient utilisation of regional development funds through the implementation of regional policy principles and prevents the irreversible decay of the region while promoting rapid development.

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The correlation of foreign language proficiency, employment and regional competitiveness in the North Great Plain Region of Hungary
Published July 16, 2007
74-82

Employment is one of the basic factors when evaluating a region’s competitiveness. Boosting employment figures will also increase individual income. However, the creation of jobs alone will not solve the problems of unemployment, as labour force with skills matched to labour market demands should also be available. Continuous development of t...he labour force, adjusted to recent needs in the labour market, can contribute to a region’s competitiveness. Mismatches between education and labour market requirements would be too expensive, especially for backward regions like the North Great Plain Region of Hungary. Foreign language education should also be adapted to the changing economy when selecting target languages and language skills. A workforce equipped with contemporary and needed second language skills can be an element in making a region attractive for investors. Although current trends show signs of improvement, Hungary and especially the North Great Plain Region still does not have much to offer in this respect. The paper examines the reasons for the low level of second language acquisition among Hungarians and the population of the North Great Plain Region and explores the ways foreign language knowledge could promote economic development.

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The social basis of regional development in the North Great Plain Region
Published September 18, 2014
57-65

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">It is a widely accepted practice in the European Union to break down countries into regions according to their stage of development, their cultural and economic characteristics. The basis of this methodology is the EU-conform MOTS system, which distinguishes territorial units on five levels. Besides the MOTS system, Hungary uses another system, too, which is the basis of our public administration, and whose roots go back to the times of King Saint Stephen: the county system. In Hungary, developmental decisions are taken by a county’s general assembly; at the same time, from an economic point of view the characteristics and competitive advantages of a county can be defined more precisely than those of a region.

Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County and Hajdu-Bihaur County may be described with completely different characteristics, albeit both of them are part of the North Great Plain Region. On a county level economically important and justified developmental areas may be mapped more precisely.

Hajdu-Bihar County is the 4th most populous county in Hungary. With 80.2% of the population living in cities, the county is significantly urbanized. 2010 statistics show that the birth rate per 1,000 people in the county is practically the same as the birth rate of the country and that of the North Great Plain Region. Following the trends in developed countries, mothers now tend to give birth in an older age. Almost half (44.5%) of the children in Hajdu-Bihar County are born after their mother’s 30th birthday.

The general health condition of the population of Hajdu-Bihar County can be described with various indicators. In terms of medical and hospital care no difference can be observed between regional and national data, the county’s health care does not straggle behind. In sum, with the health care system of the county, estimated life expectancy of men is higher than the regional average, and in case of women it is higher than both the regional and national average, according to the given year’s mortality.

Children’s ratio among the county’s population is 15.9%, which is more than 1% over the national average. The ratio is higher in case of girls and boys alike. The income of the county’s population depends not only on labour income but also on social benefits. According to the analysis, the proportion of old-age pensioners and those receiving pension-like allowances within the whole population is somewhat lower in the county than the national average. The number of children receiving child-welfare and daytime care is prominent in the county.

The number of families and children receiving child-care allowance has not changed significantly in recent years. All important elements of social benefits have increased in the last decade. The quality of life of the county’s population is largely affected by the presence (or absence) of basic infrastructure in their environment. Research conducted at the settlements of the county shows that currently the greater part of the population has access to basic public utility services which form part of everyday services. Although they affect the general quality of life, the network of roads and passenger traffic have their real significance in terms of economic development. The county’s modern, paved road-system had already been built earlier.

Roads and pavements in inner-city areas have been paved up to 70%. The technical condition of roads and pavements can seriously impede the population’s mobility and it may hinder the development of certain settlements and districts.

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The impact of employment and income circumstances on the development of regions
Published July 24, 2014
15-19

The economic condition of an area is fundamentally determined by the extent of employement, as well as the size and composition of its active population. No sustainable economic growth is possible without the necessary amount of employees with the proper skills.

As regards the proportion of employees, i.e. economically active people is ...significanlty lower in Hungary than not only in Western Europe, but also countries which joined the EU recently. One of the reasons for this fact is the low amount of part-time employment and the other is the phenomenon that the number of agricultural employees – who had a significant role – greatly decreased in the county.

The employment level of the population in the county is nearly identical as that of the North Great Plain region and it is lower than the country average. The activity proportion, i.e. the joint proportion of employees and unemployed people in the population between 15–74 years of age is 3 percentages lower than the country average. The proportion of unemployed people greatly varies depending on the small regions of the county. The proportion of registered unemployed people in the population of active age is the lowest in Debrecen and the highest in the Hajdúhadház small region. The unemployment of career-starters is a further problem to deal with.

The composition of employees in the county is different than the country average. When compared in terms of different economic sectors, it can be observed that agriculture, game management, forestry and fishery are more significant than the country average. Of the provider sectors, the proportion of financial activity, real estate matters and economic services is lower, while that of accommodation services and hospitality is higher than the country average.

There are regional differences similar to unemployment in terms of the income size which is the basis of personal income tax per taxpayer.
The income level in the North Great Plain region is lower than the country average mainly in terms of income paid for work, where this difference is 23%, while it is only 5% in the case of social income. Altogether, the income and expenditure data of the North Great Plain region are not favourable.

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Situation of small and middle sized enterprises in Northern Great Plain Region
Published July 18, 2012
69-72

Most of the enterprises operating in Hungary belong to the group of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) which means that their total number of staff is less than 250. The aim of the study is to examine SMEs operating within the North Great Plain region. It provides a short summary of the general characteristics of the region, the situation and ...significance of SMEs based on the data 2009 and it also clarifies the relevant definitions. The data shows that the enterprise type that is most characteristic in the the region is joint venture (the most popular type is Ltd). It can be laid down as a fact that the number of micro and sole entrepreneurs is also significant in the area. It is also clear that the majority of small enterprises deals
with commerce, while most of the medium enterprises are involved in industry (processing industry). As a continuation of the examination, size of investments, influx of foreign capital, ratio of employed people and grant opportunities are also to be evaluated since these factors influence the operation of enterprises as well. 

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Possibilities of ecological farming in the North Great Plain Region
Published May 23, 2006
69-71

Agriculture plays a significant role in the North Great Plain Region. Organic farming is a sustainable farming method controlled by regulations. Active environmental protection and conservation play significant roles in organic farming, along with food quality and safety, originality and the monitoring of products. Organic farming offers opport...unities to create employment, social safety and high profitability. As a result of these characteristics, organic farming could become one of the most important means of developing our region in the future.

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The Role of Organic Farming in Hungary and in the Northern Plain Region
Published December 6, 2005
273-276

In 2003, the area, which was monitored according to the requirement of organic farming, was 116 thousand hectares in Hungary, and included almost 1700 works, which produce organic products. This is some 2% of the cultivated land of Hungary. The increase of organic farming areas has slowed down in recent years. In these conditions the optimal 30...0,000 hectares cannot be achieve in 2006.
In 2003, the area which was cultivated according to the regulations of organic farming was more than 33 thousand hectares in the North Great Plain Region, and monitored 250 enterprises the associates of the monitor organization. The challenge of the coordinators of the organic farming in the region are to fortificate the processing industry. The goal is to increase the added value of the products.

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Public finance resources and regional distribution of rural development
Published September 18, 2014
73-77

...x; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: normal; orphans: 2; widows: 2; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Rural development, more specifically the economic development of counties have three public finance resources: the municipality, the central budgetary and the labour market fund resources. Based on the provisions of public finance, there are currently five provisions of the municipality resources of rural development: supporting settlements struggling with employment problems, supporting multi-purpose small regions, supporting settlements which are in a difficult position through no fault of their own, supporting public utility development and supporting holiday resorts. The opportunity of increasing investments is using EU funds. The structural change has a favourable direction, the proportion of the economic development program and regional developments increased in the recent years, but their share is still low. The proportion of agricultural and rural development programs which are important from the aspect of rural development is a less favourable phenomenon. Furthermore, the share of human and social development somewhat decreased, but it is still high. Apart from the regional programs, the Budget Act does not specify the regional distribution of budgets, only the professional purposes of uses, of which it is possible to conclude to which county development can be requested resources for.

Between 2008 and 2011, the 13–15% share of the North Great Plain region was close to the population share of 14.7%. In 2012, there was a turn of events in which the necessity of developing the region was shown. In this year, not only the proportion, but also the absolute extent of development resources increased. Therefore, the region could use resources of 16.9 billion HUF in 2010, 31.4 billion HUF in 2011 and 56.3 billion HUF in 2012. In order to properly use these resources, determined utilisation structure is necessary to be performed. The distribution of development purposes provides an explanation for the backward position of the economic performance of Hajdú-Bihar county.

Of the development resources available for four years, the region spent only 12.2% on economic development.

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Changes in the Hungarian law and in the classification system regarding to ’people living with disabilities’ between 2008 and 2013
Published August 12, 2013
43-55

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Nowadays employment is a hot topic in Hungary. The rate of inactive people on the labour market is very high. Many kinds of supplies are provided by the State for example for the group “people living with disabilities”. It is very difficult to provide job for these people after their rehabilitation. Statistical figures show, that the highest ratio of “people living with disabilities” can be found in the North Great Plain Region of Hungary (30 per cent of the total number of “people living with disabilities”).

The employment of these people means extra costs for enterprises. At the same time the complete accessibility of workplaces is still not realized in many cases in Hungary yet. Currently only a few enterprises are specialized to employ people living with disabilities in the North Great Plain Region. Unfortunately most of the enterprises don’t want to employ them. New workplaces for these people should be created by the utilisation of European Union and national available sources in order to integrate them into the job’s world in long run. I represent the changes in the law and in the classification system in this area.

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Innovation activity of the agricultural enterprises in the North great Plain region
Published November 13, 2012
237-240

Economic changes have significantly accelarated in the 21th century. In this turbulent market environment enterprises are forced to adapt continously as they must be flexible in order to meet changing market needs. To achieve flexibility companies require innovation. The economic relevance of innovations is significant in every market sector an...d agriculture is no exception. Re-dynamizing agricultural  nnovations is a possibility for the outburst of the Hungarian agriculture. Agricultural enterprises have to face competitors as well and they should give priority to efficiency, sustainability and competitiveness in order to preserve their position in BOTH global and domestic markets. This study examines the innovation potential of the agricultural enterprises in the North Great Plain region based on public databases and case studies.

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Examination of the sub-regions in the North Great Plain Region
Published July 16, 2007
158-163

Before Hungary joined the European Union – in order to gain access to the sources of Structural Funds and to create the expected regional information service – a build up of five-level territorial system was indispensable. Both in the EU and in Hungary, there are significant differences among regions. The aim of regional policy is to reduce... differences regarding development and living standards, in order to guarantee a reasonable living standard and income for every region’s inhabitants in the EU.
In Hungary, during the last decade, the effects of regional difference grew. While the advantage of the leading capital and its agglomeration and the eastern and western parts of Transdanubia was growing, meanwhile the most undeveloped areas' rates of development remained under the mean. The underdeveloped areas are in the northeastern part and in Southern Transdanubia. The developmental differences lead to such great social asymmetries, that these simply beg for remedying.
In this study, I would like to present the sub-regions of the North Great Plain Region and uncover the possible reasons of the developmental differences.

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Will there be a horticultural triangle (cluster)? Thoughts about the reconstruction of the Hungarian horticulture between two European regions
Published September 14, 2005
21-27

The authors of this study seek the answer to the question how to develop, in the first decade or decades of the 21st century, the university-level
horticultural scientific training, the horticultural innovation and the scientific co-operation between companies and universities in Debrecen and
in the North Great Plain Region and – in a w...ider sense – in Hungary to a standard being competitive even in European terms. With the synthesis
of the prospects of past, present and future, they drew the following conclusions. The reconstruction of agriculture, horticulture and food industry
is a part of reforming Hungary's countryside. Horticulture, producing high added value, will be able to decisively contribute to the plan whereas
the value presently produced in an agriculturally cultivated area of 1,000 euros/hectare can reach 2,000 to 3,000 euros in the next two decades.
A necessary and indispensable precondition to achieving this is the strengthening of the innovation output of the Hungarian horticultural sector.
Despite the numerous technical criticisms formulated in connection with the serious problems of Hungarian agricultural and horticultural
scientific innovation, no progress has been made in this field for the past one and a half decade. The scientific research of this topic hardly
continued or did not continue at all, the up-to-date surveys and in-depth analyses were missing. The objective, basic principles and tasks of the
Act CXXXIV of 2004 (TTI) enacted concerning research-development and technological innovation are clear and progressive. The co-operation
between the National Research Technology Office and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the setting up of the Innovation Fund are heartening
opportunities. These – along with the new Higher Education Bill to be passed – may as well be suitable for restarting the Hungarian agricultural
and horticultural scientific innovation. In our opinion, this requires a new, well-considered national agricultural programme, which can be
conceived in the framework of the "Ferenc Entz National Horticultural Plan" proposed by us for horticulture. In the most eastern Hungarian
university knowledge centre, at the University of Debrecen, the continuing of the horticultural scientific innovation strategy started in the last
decade may be the focal point and generator of the development of the so-called "Hungarian Horticultural Triangle”, or "Hungarian
Horticultural Cluster". This region comprises the Northern and Southern Great Plain Regions and the area between the Danube and Tisza
Rivers. Here, about 70 to 75% of the total Hungarian horticultural commodity stock is produced. The objective of the HORT-INNOTECH
DEBRECEN programme planned in 2004 by the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Science is to establish the horticultural scientific
research-development and technological innovation structure and knowledge base of the Hungarian Horticultural Triangle / Hungarian
Horticultural Cluster. In harmony with this, the objectives are to bring about competitive, new horticultural products, to improve the conditions
of utilising them, to enhance the competitiveness of enterprises based on technological innovation, to make use of the research-development and
innovation opportunities available in the regions in an efficient manner, to as full extent as possible, to encourage the creation of places of
employment producing high added value in the field of horticulture, to improve the technical skills of those employed in horticultural researchdevelopment and to promote their enhanced recognition by the society.

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Additional information for the interpretation of the practice of rural development in the light of the corporate relations of the Agricultural Centre, University of Debrecen in the North-Great Plain Region
Published October 10, 2008
65-69

In the spirit of the Lisbon strategy, the European Union has set out the primary aims of innovation development and competitiveness. A potential method to reach these aims is to enhance the relation between science and practice and to apply scientific results. This is the case at the Agricultural Centre of the University of Debrecen as well, si...nce the tighter and looser cooperations of the institution provide a scientific structure, which is now a significant prerequisite for Hungarian agro-innovation, primarily for rural development processes in the North Great Plain Region. The present study, based mostly on empirical findings, strives to analyze the field of activities in relation to rural development performed by the Agricultural Centre, University of Debrecen.

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Settlement network, demographic circumstances, healthcare, social service and educations in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county
Published September 18, 2014
105-113

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county shares its borders with three countries: Romania, Ukraine and Slovakia. The county is part of the North Great Plain Region, it is the third largest county of Hungary in terms of its population. The peripheric geographical location of the county gained importance by the EU accession, as the county represents a significant part of the eastern border of the EU.

Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county is one of the counties of the Great Plain with significant population in the outlying areas, out of the six counties of the Great Plain the population of outlying areas is the lowest in the county, its ratio has been significantly reducing in the past decades. In the six counties in 1990 the population of the outlying areas represented 22.3% of the total population, whereas in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county the ratio was 13.6%. The ratio has dropped to 6.2% and 4.1% respectively.

The major aim of economic development is the improvement of the living conditions of the population, first and foremost by increasing family incomes. There are two main determining factors of family income level: employment ratio and the sectoral structure of employment.

Between 1992–2010 the number of employees in the financial sector decreased from 89 000 to 75 000, whereas the number of employees in the non-financial sector grew dynamically from 40 000 to 65 000. Structural change was significant. In the non-financial sector the proportion of the two main employment fields (education and healthcare) swapped. The number of employees in the education sector decreased from 16 000 to 14 000, while the number of employees in the health and social care sector grew from 11 000 to 22 000.

On the basis of statistics the number of kindergarten and primary school children reduced in the given period, while the number of secondary school aged children increased. In 1999 the number of secondary school children was 1/5th compared to the number of primary school children, whereas in 2010 their number almost reached 1/2. The student number in higher education doubled, which is a favorable phenomenon, though its structural changes raise some problems. The lack of technical trainings hinders exigent industrial development.

Since 1990 the education level of the population has significantly improved, the number and proportion of secondary school students and university graduates have risen much more dynamically than in other regions of the country. In the county the proportion of secondary school students increased 63% more than the national average, while in the case of university graduates the county passed the average national growth by more than 54%. Due to the effect of structural changes the proportion of university graduates in the corresponding age group improved, its backwardness compared to the national average has ameliorated from 34% to 29%, in the group of secondary school graduates the disadvantage has moderated from 26% to 21%. The computer and internet supply, as well as the number of teachers and students enrolled in secondary education institutions have developed dynamically in the county. Their growth has much excelled the national average.

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Relationships of Fruit Production and Regional Development in the Northern Great Plain Region
Published December 6, 2005
181-187

The role of retaining population in agriculture is stronger and more significant in the long run in the North Great Plain Region compared to other regions. The region has a significant processing industry along with a good basis for producing raw materials, developed food processing capicity and high quality agricultural products typical of the... region. The GDP in agriculture, forestry and game management is somewhat higher than the national average.
Variety is of cardinal importance when establishing the quality of horticultural products and determining the product value. The Hungarian breeding results of apple, quince, apricot, cherry, raspberry, red and black currant are promising.
The regulation system of EU the vegetable and fruit market is based on Retail Cooperatives Producers. With the establishment of national vegetable- and fruit production and retail organizations, the market regulation, production and quality development issues of the sector can be handled and solved. Reaching EU standards in fruit production can only be achieved with up-to-date plantation systems and breed selection. A key issue in development is establishing the required financial resources for investments and updating production. In order to reach these standards, significant state subsidies and good credit conditions are needed. By solving these tasks, the sector is expected to become self-financed without government help.
The pursuit of safer production, improving quality and increasing yields require the establishment of up-to-date irrigation systems. The improvement of family farms, motivating land concentration is necessary for increasing average size of plants. Establishing the above mentioned conditions is important since the vegetable-fruit sector is of great significance in the employment of rurally based population, improving their living conditions and executing rural development programs.

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Regional economic achievements and reindustrialisation in Hajdú-Bihar county
Published July 24, 2014
65-74

The North Great Plain region is one of the backward regions of Hungary. The low level of economic development is mainly due to the lack of industrial development. The region is poor in natural resources, its main resources are land, natural gas fields, carbon dioxide, thermal water and the clay mineral stock.
The structure of GDP per capita ...of the county is different than the country average mainly because of the high proportion of agriculture.
The proportion of the industry and the building industry is not significant. Of the various service provider sectors, trade, transport and telecommunications have a small proportion, while financial and economic service providers have even lower share, which is due to the fact that these sectors are mostly concentrated in Budapest. The share of public and human service prodivers is higher than average due to the University of Debrecen.
The GDP which expresses the economic development of the county in a complex way increased four times its previous value in nominal value between 1995–2009. However, if the real value is considered, the increase is less than 25%, as opposed to the country average, which was less than 40%.
The most complex index of the development level of an economy is GDP expressed either in nominal or real value. If expressed in dollars, GDP is suitable for international comparison with the correction based on the purchasing power parity per person.
The county represents 4.3% of the people employed in the industrial sector in Hungary, while its share in industrial production is only 3.3% which is lower than the regional and population share of the county within Hungary. As regards industrial production per person, Hajdú-Bihar was the 10th county in Hungary; therefore, it is considered to be a less industrialised county.
The product structure of GDP is suitable for drawing useful development conclusions, but the result is more reliable if the income creation ability is also analysed on the basis of the employment structure.

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The role of agriculture in regional development
Published July 24, 2014
25-30

Agriculture is the leading national economic sector of Hajdú-Bihar county. The proportion of employees in this sector and the share of pro ducts produced in this region is above the country average. The contribution of agriculture to the GDP is 6.3%, as opposed to the average value of the country (3.3%). Based on their primary activity, 8% of ...the enterprises in the county are classified as agricultural and forestry companies, while this proportion is only 5.3% in the whole country.

Nearly three quarters (71.1%) of the sowing area is occupied by maize and other cereals, mainly wheat. This proportion is slightly more than the country average (69.2%). The proportional area of oil crops - including sunflower – and roughage is nearly the same as the country average. However, there is a significant difference in vegetable production. Due to the higher intensity of vegetable production, the area occupied by vegetables is three times the country average. 19.4% of the crop products, 23.5% of animal products and living animals, 25.8% of the income generated by production factors and 29.8% of net enterprise income of Hungary originates from the North Great Plain region.

The facilitation of creating local markets, e.g. local public food supply, satisfying the needs of food trade with local goods, the necessary awareness raising actions, secondary and higher education of experts, as well as the more specific and targeted utilisation of development resources are agricultural development tasks.

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Farms in the system of European supportpolicy
Published October 10, 2008
79-83

Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has been having a great past, it is over numerous direction and structure changes in the last half century. After the Treaty of Rome, the harmonization of he agricultural structure and the production of Member States has been launched, during which the economic changes in the world and in Europe were continuousl...y being kept track of. By using common experience, they strived to develop an agricultural sector that supplies the Member States of the Community with food, while the competitiveness and living circumstances of family farms are being improved. The general directions outlined in Stresa in 1958 were significantly redrawn owing to the transformed market conditions and EU accessions. The subsidization of family farms and the improvement of their profitability are having a stressed importance nowadays, too. Our country, as the fully qualified member of the European Union tries to meet its obligations undertaken in the accession treaty and therefore to develop an agricultural sector carrying out diversified agricultural production with a healthy age structure. The aim of the study is to specifically overview the issue of common agricultural policy by stressing the main development points and to introduce the Hungarian conditions of family farms. Besides, there will be an evaluation of the research works examining the income conditions of family farms in the North Great Plain region.

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The R&D and innovation activity of agribusiness enterprises in Hajdú-Bihar County
Published May 6, 2013
67-71

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Economic changes have significantly accelarated in the 21th century. In this turbulent market environment enterprises are forced to adapt continously as they must be flexible in order to meet changing market needs. To achieve flexibility companies require innovation. The economic relevance of innovations is significant in every market sector and agriculture is no exception. Re-dynamizing agricultural innovations is a possibility for the outburst of the Hungarian agriculture. Agricultural enterprises have to face competitors as well and they should give priority to efficiency, sustainability and competitiveness in order to preserve their position in BOTH global and domestic markets. This study examines the innovation potential of the agricultural enterprises in the North Great Plain region based on own databases and case studies.

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Examination of the current and idel organisational culture and leadership elements at the municipalities of the North Great Plain region
Published March 20, 2013
117-125

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The connection between organizational culture and leadership has been examined by several researchers (Schein, Schmircik, Bass) and it is proven that there is a link between them. The leader shapes the organizational culture and at the same time the organizational culture shapes the leader too. The middle managers of local governments place the major emphasis on the dimension of goal orientation for the future. From the leadership perspective they find charismatic, goal and team oriented leadership necessary for the future.

The local governments have to answer the challenges of the rapidly changing environment. Quick responses and adjustments are only possible if the leader possesses a clear future vision and not only sets short-term goals but plans for the future and estimates the necessities on the long run. It is important to have a leadership with utmost dedication to the organization and to the objectives of the organization. The leaders must raise the interests of the employees, involve them in the process of setting goals and in finding ways to meet those goals, and that the employees should no longer strive to realize their own personal ambitions but focus on the common objectives. This brought transformational leadership to light.

The leader establishes and shapes the organizational culture but the individuals and teams working for the organization have impact on the organizational culture as well. This becomes apparent in the organizational culture as middle managers would place the major emphasis on performance orientation. Performance orientation is a dominant motivation based on excellence, hard work, pre-calculated risk, fore planning, goal orientation and regular feedback, which shapes the leadership too, as the leader has to change as well, in order to run the organization.

Scheins’ standpoint reflects the best the relationship between the organizational culture and the leadership. Schein claims that organizational culture and leadership are interwoven phenomena, as the leader shapes the culture but after a while the organizational culture itself shapes the leader too.

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Characterization of Hungarian touristical turnover 2006-2009 – focus on health tourism
Published May 2, 2012
47-50

Tourism is one of the biggest and mostly increasing branch all over the world. Since it is getting more and more significant in Hungary as well in this article I analyze the turnover of Hungarian tourism on the basis of guest nights spent on commercial lodgings. I examine its changes in time and its territorial spreading. Finally I explore the ...health touristic volume, because it is one of the most important touristic product of Hungary and the North Plain Region and the infrastructure based upon preserves unique opportunities both for health and wellness tourism.

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Bioenergy production: are the objects realistic??
Published July 28, 2008
53-58

Currently we do not have the possibility to define our energy reserves, since we do not know the magnitude of extant material resources. The known petroleum (crude) supply will be sufficient for about 100 years at the longest, and according to the latest estimates in 2008 we will reach and even exceed the maximum level of oil extraction, and af...ter this it is going to decrease.
Hungary has good givens to go upon the way of sustainable energy economy according to experts, however a coherent government policy that lasts for not just one period is essential, and a sound economic- and agricultural policy is needed as well. According to the FVM’s under-secretary in Hungary more than 1 million hectares can be disposable for energy crop production. This would mean that 20 percent of the fields would be taken away from food production and on these fields energy crops would be grown. But we also have to take into consideration that the increase in energy plant production could happen at the expense of food production. If we would like to ensure the food for Hungary’s population from national sources we have to make calculations in determining energy need. In my research I set out the objective to determine the level of that specific turnover and marginal cost which supports the profitability of grain cultivation. With these indicators it is possible to analyze the economy and competitiveness of growing energy crops in the region of the North Plain. The alternatives of using cereals and rational land use should be also considered. A developing bio-fuel program can be a solution for the deduction of excess grain that is typical in Hungary for several years in the cereals sector. The pressure on the national market caused by excess grain can be ceased or moderated, and therefore the storage problems would decrease as well.

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Interactions of the scientific results and practice in the biodiesel plant in Mátészalka, in the eastern tri-border area of Hungary
Published October 20, 2009
23-27

This study summarises the observations about the operation of the first Hungarian model-like biodiesel plant (which has a producer background). In order to efficiently and safely operate the applied technology and to produce biodiesel that conforms to international standards, it was indispensable to apply the scientific results in practice and ...to develop a cooperation with the University of Debrecen (Centre of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering). The biodiesel plant has a significant importance from the aspects of the Eastern tri-border area and the North Great Plain region. 

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Information and Communication Technologies in tourism
Published November 20, 2011
49-53

Technological progress and tourism have gone hand in hand for years. Information communication technology (ICT) and tourism are two of the most dynamic motivators of the emerging global economy. Tourism can be considered as one of the most profitable sectors of the Hungarian economy, and in rural areas it is often the only successful economic a...ctivity.
Development of ICTs and the expansion of the Internet have changed dramatically in the past few decades. This process is noticeable in
Hungary, as well. Platform of tourism increasingly get to the Internet nowadays, which is vitally important because tourism is an information-intense industry. Therefore, it is critical to understand changes in technologies in order to maintain the crucial role of this sector in the Hungarian economy.
The aim of my study is to support the significance of tourism in Hungary and especially in the North Plain Region with the help of statistical data. Then, I try to show how ICTs appear in this sector and emphasize the role of these tools with some concrete examples.

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