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Evaluation of the interaction between environmental factors, cultivation and fertilisation
Published July 18, 2012
103-108

The effect of production factors on maize yield was examined in the Látókép Experiment Site of the Centre of Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen on calcareous chernozem soil between 2001 and 2003. The impact of environmental factors (precipitation, temperature, number of sunny hours), cultivation methods ...(autumn ploughing, spring shallow cultivation) and fertilisation (non-fertilised, 120 kg N + 90 kg P2O5 + 106 kg K2O, and 240 kg N + 180 kg P2O5 + 212 kg K2O) on maize yield was examined. During the three years, autumin ploughing significantly increased yield by 2.91 t ha-1 in comparison with spring shallow cultivation. The yield increasing effect of fertilisation was observed in each year, although its extent depended on the given crop year and the applied cultivation method. The higher fertiliser dose (240 kg N ha-1) did not cause significantly higher yield in either year. After the evaluation of the observed correlations, it can be established that the yield increasing
effect of fertilisation was higher in the case of autumn ploughing in comparison with spring shallow cultivation. The environmental factors (especially the extent of precipitation) significantly affected the maize yield. 

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Examination of the chlorophyll content of maize hybrids of different maturity groups at different N fertiliser doses
Published February 10, 2013
159-162

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Nitrogen fertilisation is a critical point of maize production. Five hybrids of different maturity dates were examined in a field experiment, three treatments (different application dates) and three basic fertiliser doses (0, 60, 120 kg ha-1 N) were used. At the 6-leaf-stage of maize, each fertilisation level of the 2nd and 3rd treatment was given 30 kg N ha-1 fertiliser active ingredient in addition to the basic fertiliser doses with the exception of the control plots and further 30 kg N ha-1 fertiliser was applied at the 12-leaf-stage. The final fertiliser doses were 0, 90 and 150 kg N ha-1 in the second treatment and 0, 120 and 180 kg N ha-1 in the 3rd treatment. The whole amount of the basic fertiliser (ammonium nitrate) was applied in the spring, one month before sowing.

The relative chlorophyll content of the maize leaves was measured, with a Minolta SPAD-502 measurement device. The measurements were carried out at the 6-leaf growth stage (V6) of maize on the youngest fully developed leaf of the 6th, 7th and 8th plants from the second row of each plot.

There were significant differences in the SPAD-readings measured at the V6 phenophase of maize between the hybrids (p<0.001) and the fertiliser treatments (p<0.05). The regression analysis did not show any correlation between the SPAD-values and fertilisation.

The highest significant SPAD-reading and yield were obtained by applying 120 kg ha-1 N. As a result of the regression analysis performed on yield, it can be concluded that the correlation between fertilisation and yield in the 1st and 2nd treatment was moderately close (r=0.439, r=0.480) and it was close in the 3rd treatment (r=0.513). The correlation between the SPAD-readings and yield was the closes in the 2nd treatment (r=0.639), while the SPAD-value had a 40.9% influence on yield (p<0.001).

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Growth and clorophyll content dynamics of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in different cropyear
Published May 6, 2013
101-105

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The experiments were carried out at the Látókép experimental station of the University of Debrecen on chernozem soil in a long term winter wheat experiment in the season of 2011 and 2012 in triculture (pea-wheat-maize) and biculture (wheat-maize) at three fertilisation levels (control, N50+P35K40, N150+P105K120). Two different cropyears were compared (2011 and 2012).

The research focused on the effects of forecrop and fertilisation on the Leaf Area Index, SPAD values and the amount of yield in two different cropyears. We wanted to find out how the examined parameters were affected by the cropyear and what the relationship was between these two parameters and the changes of the amount of yield.

Examining the effects of growing doses of fertilizers applied, results showed that yields increased significantly in both rotations until the N150+PK level in 2011 and 2012. By comparing the two years, results show that in 2011 there was a greater difference in yields between the rotations (7742 kg ha-1 at N150+PK in the biculture and 9830 kg ha-1 at N150+PK in the triculture). Though wheat yields following peas were greater in 2012, results equalized later on at N150+PK levels (8109–8203 kg ha-1).

Due to the favorable agrotechnical factors, the leaf and the effects of the treatments grown to a great extent in 2011, while in 2012 the differences between treatments were moderate. Until the N150+PK level, nitrogen fertilisation had a notable effect on the maximum amount of SPAD values (59.1 in the case of the biculture and 54.0 in the triculture). The highest SPAD values were measured at the end of May (during the time of flowering and grain filling) in the biculture. In the triculture, showed high SPAD values from the beginning. The same tendency could be observed in the 2012 cropyear, although increasing doses of fertilizers resulted in higher SPAD values until N150+PK level only from the second measurement. Maximum SPAD values were reached at the end of May in both crop rotation system

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The role of Debrecen maize hybrids in competitive production
Published May 23, 2006
19-21

I examined the effects of plant density and fertilisation on the yield of the maize hybrid Debreceni 377 SC, developed by the Agrárgazdaság Ltd., using the 3 year data sequence of a long term experiment set up at the Látókép experimental station of DU Center for Agricultural Sciences in years with average precipitation supply.
Based on ...the evaluation of my research results, I found that the application of higher plant densities was more favourable in years with average or higher than average precipitation supply. During the examination of fertilisation effects, it was verified that surplus yield was realised in most cases where smaller fertilisation dosage, 120 kg per hectare active substance was applied.

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Effects of production factors on the yield and yield component of winter wheat
Published May 27, 2001
26-31

The effect of major production factors (forecrop, fertilisation, irrigation, soil cultivation and soil preparation) on the yield components and yield of winter wheat were studied in a long-term  experiment set up at the Látókép Experimental Nursery of the Agricultural Sciences Centre of the University of Debrecen. The results of regress...ion analysis led to the following conclusions:
• In our experiments in 2000, after using maize as a forecrop –based on the results of analysis of regression – fertilisation determined the yield.
• After using pea as a forecrop, a N50 P35 K40 kg/ha fertiliser rate led to an economical increase in the yield of winter wheat.
• None of the determinative yield components varied significantly for winter wheat produced after using pea as a forecrop.
• There is a closed, significant correlation between plant height, spike length, plant and spike mass, the number of spikelets and grains per spike after using maize as forecrop. The thousand grain mass is different from the other yield components, because it is not part of the relation system of
those yield components.
• The increased yield of winter wheat after maize has been used as a forecrop is due to the positive change in grain number per spike yield component.

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Agronomic research in Martonvásár, aimed at promoting the efficiency of field crop production
Published November 13, 2012
89-93

The effect of crop production factors on the grain yield was analysed on the basis of three-factorial experiments laid out in a split-split-plot design. In the case of maize the studies were made as part of a long-term experiment set up in 1980 on chernozem soil with forest residues, well supplied with N and very well with PK. The effects of fi...ve N levels in the main plots and four sowing dates in the subplots were compared in terms of the performance of four medium early hybrids (FAO 200). In the technological adaptation experiments carried out with durum wheat, the N supplies were moderate (2010) or good (2011), while the P and K supplies were good or very good in both years. Six N top-dressing treatments were applied in the main plots and five plant protection treatments in the subplots to test the responses of three varieties. 
The results were evaluated using analysis of variance, while correlations between the variables were detected using regression analysis.
The effect of the tested factors on the grain yield was significant in the three-factorial maize experiment despite the annual fluctuations, reflected in extremely variable environmental means. During the given period the effect of N fertilisation surpassed that of the sowing date and the genotype. Regression analysis on the N responses for various sowing dates showed that maize sown in the middle 10 days of April gave the highest yield, but the N rates required to achieve maximum values declined as sowing was delayed. 
In the very wet year, the yield of durum wheat was influenced to the greatest extent by the plant protection treatments, while N supplies and the choice of variety were of approximately the same importance.  In the favourable year the yielding ability was determined by topdressing and the importance of plant protection dropped to half,  while no  significant difference could be detected between the tested varieties. According to the results of regression analysis, the positive effect of plant protection could not be substituted by an increase in the N rate in either year. The achievement of higher yields was only possible by a joint intensification of plant protection and N fertilisation. Nevertheless, the use of more efficient chemicals led to a slightly, though not significantly, higher yield, with a lower N requirement. 

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Fertilisation Effect on Quantity of 0.01 M CaCl2 Soluble N-Forms in a Long-Term-Small-Plot Experiment
Published May 11, 2003
166-170

long-term experiments have an opportunity to investigate the effects of fertilization and plant nutrition. The paper reports the results achieved in the 39th years of a long-term-small-plot fertilisation and liming experiment set up on acidic sandy brown forest soil in the Nyírség region. From the 32 treatment, four replications, altogether 1...28 plot experiments with 10 treatments are summarized. We took samples after harvest of triticale, in August.
We used a reliable method (segmented continuous flow analysis) to determine different (easily mobilized - 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble) N-forms of soil. The 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble inorganic and total N content and the UV digestable organic-N form of soil were determined by this method.
The results are summarized below:
– The mineralized-N (Nmin.) content of soil increased with dose of nitrogen treatment. Liming treatments increase the amount of Nmin.
– The maximum content of easily mobilize organic-N-fraction was found in the upper (0-20 cm) layer. This fact due to the large amount of crop and roots.
– Changing of content of 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble total-N-forms due to N doses.
– The ratios of these N forms are variable. It is very important that the content of organic N fraction is not negligible and this fraction plays a main role in the plant nutrition.

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Effect of N, P and K fertilisers and their interactions in a long-term experiment on winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Published October 24, 2016
87-92

The aim of this work was to analyse the effect of K, P and N supplies on the yield of winter barley in a long-term mineral fertilisation experiment with clearly distinct soil nutrient supply levels in order to develop fertilisation guidelines for winter barley growers. The experiment was set up in 1989 on a chernozem meadow soil calcareous in t...he deeper layers, applying all possible combinations of 4 levels each of N, P and K fertiliser, giving a total of 64 treatments.

The results of analyses performed in 2011 and 2012 can be summarised as follows:

  1. In 2011, when rainfall supplies were deficient in the shooting phase, improved K supplies (324 mg kg-1 AL-K2O) increased the grain yield, but in 2012, when rainfall supplies were more evenly distributed, K supply levels in the range 210–335 mg kg-1 AL-K2O had no significant influence on the yield of winter barley.
  2. An analysis of the P treatments revealed that, compared to the 119–133 mg kg-1 AL-P2O5 level (P0), better P supplies (186–251 mg kg-1) led to a significant increase in the grain yield.
  3. In both years rising N rates significantly increased the yield up to an annual N rate of 160 kg ha-1.

      4. A K×N interaction could only be detected in the nutrient supplies of winter barley in 2011. The yield-increasing effect of N fertiliser was more    pronounced at better K supply levels, while K fertiliser led to higher yields in the case of better N supplies.

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The scientific background of competitive maize production
Published September 5, 2018
33-46

The effect and interaction of crop production factors on maize yield has been examined for nearly 40 years at the Látókép Experiment Site of the University of Debrecen in a long-term field experiment that is unique and acknowledged in Europe. The research aim is to evaluate the effect of fertilisation, tillage, genotype, sowing, plant densit...y, crop protection and irrigation. The analysis of the database of the examined period makes it possible to evaluate maize yield, as well as the effect of crop production factors and crop year, as well as the interaction between these factors.

Based on the different tillage methods, it can be concluded that autumn ploughing provides the highest yield, but its effect significantly differed in irrigated and non-irrigated treatments. The periodical application of strip tillage is justified in areas with favourable soil conditions and free from compated layers (e.g. strip – strip – ploughing – loosening). Under conditions prone to drought, but especially in several consecutive years, a plant density of 70–80 thousand crops per hectare should be used in the case of favourable precipitation supply, but 60 thousand crops per hectare should not be exceeded in dry crop years. The yield increasing effect of fertilisation is significant both under non-irrigated and irrigated conditions, but it is much more moderate in the non-irrigated treatment.

Selecting the optimum sowing date is of key importance from the aspect of maize yield, especially in dry crop years. Irrigation is not enough in itself without intensive nutrient management, since it may lead to yield decrease.

The results of research, development and innovation, which are based on the performed long-term field experiment, contribute to the production technological methods which provide an opportunity to use sowing seeds, fertilisers and pesticides in a regionally tailored and differentiated way, adapted to the specific needs of the given plot, as well as to plan each operation and to implement precision maize production.

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Changes in the Macro-, Mezo-, and Microelement Contents of Maize Hybrids in Relation to the Level of Nutrient Supply
Published May 11, 2003
126-130

n my research, I measured the effect of NPK fertilisation on the macro- meso- and microelements content of maize hybrids in 2001. The experiment was set in the demonstration garden of the Department of Crop Production and Applied Ecology in the Agricultural Centre, at the University in Debrecen. The soil of the experiment is calcerous chernozem... soil. Five fertilisation steps were applied. Besides the control the smallest rate was 40 kg N; 25 kg P2O5; 30 kg K2O of active ingredients. The largest rate was five times more than the smallest one: 200 kg N; 125 kg P2O5; 150 kg K2O, which is equal to 475 kg mixed active ingredients. The NPK treatment significantly influenced the macrolement content in several cases. The N content was the lowest in the control treatment. Compared to this the fertiliser treatments significantly increased the N content of hybrids. However the highest amounts of potassium and phosphorus could be measured in the control and the lowest amounts could be measured at the N 200+PK kg/ha treatment.
The Ca content of hybrids was the highest in the N 120+PK kg/ha treatment, while their Mg and Zn content was the highest in the control treatment. The lowest amounts were weighed in the N 200+PK kg/ha treatments, that in several cases resulted in statistically proved decreasement compared to the control or the lower fertilizer doses. Considering the two mesoelements and Zn the most favourable results were obtained in the case of the Norma SC and DK 366 SC hybrids.
Summing up what has been said moderate amounts of fertiliser doses (N 40-120+PK kg/ha) had a favourable influence on the micro- and macroelement content of hybrids.

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Impact of fertilisation and the fluctuation of precipitation on the ecophysical and production characteristics of maize
Published September 18, 2014
39-44

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of this study was to analyse the problems caused by the unfavourable (dry and wet) weather and its consequences in the R1 growth stage of maize (Zeamays L.), as well as their management and the alternatives of preventing yield reduction by using agrotechnical measures fertilisation, irrigation), also, we wanted to examine whether the Chl content measured in the R1 growth phase provides reliable prediction of yield per hectare.

The examinations were carried out in a moderately warm and dry production area at the Látókép Experiment Site of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural Sciences on calcareous chernozem soil in 2007 and 2008. Six different N doses (0,30,60,90,120,150 kg ha-1) were used in the irrigated and non-irrigated treatments of the field experiment.

The results showed that there is a significant strong positive correlation between Chl content and yield both in the non-irrigated (P<0.001, R=0.777) and the irrigated (P<0.001, R=0.801) treatment. The results of the correlation analyses performed yearly showed that weather factors significantly influence the strength of correlations, but these correlations are always positive.

The Chl content of maize leaves provided a reliable prediction of yield per hectare in the R1 growth stage. In the irrigated treatment, the correlation is always closer than in the non-irrigated treatment.

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Using research findings in precision maize production
Published November 13, 2012
227-231

The effect of crop production factors on maize yield are examined on chernozem soil in a more than 30 year old long-term experiment on the Látókép Experiment Site of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen. The aim of research is to evaluate the effect of fertilisation, cultivation, plant numbe...r, genorype and irrigation. The analysis of the data in the database of the examined period makes it possible to evaluate the effect of maize yield, as well as that of the crop production factors and the crop year, while the correlations and interactions between these factors were also examined. During the examination of the cultivation treatments, it was concluded that the highest yield was obtained as a result of autumn ploughing, but its effect largely differs in the irrigated and the nonirrigated treatments. Based on our examinations, strip cultivation should be applied periodically (e.g. strip – strip – ploughing – loosening) in areas with favourable soil conditions free from compacted layers. 
In years with smaller, average precipitation supply or when the precipitation was higher than average, higher plant numbers were more favourable. Under drier conditions, but especially in several consecutively dry years, a lower plant number can be recommended which is not higher than 60 thousand per hectare. In the case of favourable water supply, 70-80 thousand plants per hectare can be  used. The yield increasing effect of fertilisation was significant in the case of both non-irrigated and irrigated conditions, but it was much more moderate in the non-irrigated treatment. The extent of weed coverage was significantly affected by the previous crop. In the case of a favourable previous crop (wheat), the weed coverage was significantly lower than after an unfavourable previous crop (maize). In the case of the same previous crop (maize), the extent of weed coverage was mostly determined by the crop year and the extent of precipitation supply. Irrigation is not enough in itself, because if it was not accompanied by intensive nutrient management, yields started to decline.
The results of researhc, development and innovation contributed to the technological method which makes it possible to apply locally adjusted sowing seed, fertiliser and pesticide in a differentiated way, as well as to change the method of operations within the given plot.

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The imact of crop rotation and fertilisation on the SPAD values of winter wheat on chernozem soil in a long-term experiment
Published March 11, 2014
123-126

We have carried out our outdoor field experiments at the Látókép Experimental Farm of the CAS of the University of Debrecen in the cropyear of 2012/2013 on chernozem soil in a long-term experiment. We have studied the effects of two different preceding crops (sweet corn, sunflower) on the development of the SPAD values of wheat varieties of ...different genotypes in the cases of control, N60+PK and N120+PK fertilizer treatments. According to our research results, we have concluded that the preceding crop, the fertilizer application and the variety selection influenced the SPAD values. According to our data, we have measured higher SPAD values after sweet corn preceding crop, the standard deviations were in a smaller range in the case of the studied varieties. After sunflower preceding crop, smaller averages were experienced with wider standard deviation range. In the case of favourable preceding crop, the differences between the varieties are more pronounced than in the case of unfavourable preceding crop. The maximal SPAD values were measured in milky ripening in the case of N120+PK fertilizer treatment.

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Using crop analysis in the precision nutrient supply system of maize
Published November 13, 2012
183-186

The effect of the N, P and K supplies of soil on the grain yield and N, P and K status of maize was studied in a long-term mineral fertilisation experiment between 2001 and 2008 and nutrient supply limit values were determined to plant analysis. Based on the interaction between the N concentrtion of maize leaves measured at the beginnig of tass...eling and grain yield, the satisfactory limit value of N supply to reach 10–14 t ha-1 yield was between 2.0–4.0%. Leaf analysis at the beginning of tasselling indicated that better P and K supplies were associated with a higher P and K concentration in the maize leaves. Correlation analysis on the P concentration of the maize leaves and the grain yield showed that at a grain yield level of 10–14 t ha-1 a P concentration of 0.20–0.37% represented a satisfactory P supply level. The satisfactory K supply limit value to reach 10–14
t ha-1 grain yield was 1.5–2.6%.

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Comparative analysis on the fertiliser responses of Martonvásár maize hybrids in long-term experiments
Published December 21, 2008
111-117

The results of experiments carried out in the Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences clearly show that in the case of hybrids grown in a monoculture greater fertiliser responses can be achieved with increasing rates of N fertiliser than in crop rotations. In the monoculture experiment the parameters investigated re...ached their maximum values at a rate of 240 kg/ha N fertiliser, with the exception of 1000-kernel mass and starch content. In both cases the starch content was highest in the untreated control, gradually declining as the N rates increased. Among the parameters recorded in the crop rotation, the values of the dry grain yield, the 1000-kernel mass, the protein yield and the starch yield were greatest at the 160 kg/ha N fertiliser rate, exhibiting a decrease at 240 kg/ha. Maximum values for the protein content and SPAD index were recorded at the highest N rate. It is important to note, however, that although the N treatments caused significant differences compared to the untreated control, the differences between the N treatments were not significant.
In the given experimental year the values achieved for the untreated control in the crop rotation could only be achieved in the monoculture experiment at a fertiliser rate of 160 kg/ha N, indicating that N fertiliser rates could be reduced using a satisfactory crop sequence, which could be beneficial from the point of view of environmental pollution, crop protection and cost reduction.
The weather in 2006 was favourable for maize production, allowing comparative analysis to be made of the genetically determined traits of the hybrids. Among the three hybrids grown in the monoculture experiment, Maraton produced the best yield, giving maximum values of the parameters tested at a fertiliser rate of 240 kg/ha N. The poorest results were recorded for Mv 277, which could be attributed to the fact that the hybrid belongs to the FAO 200 maturity group, while the other hybrids had higher FAO numbers. Maraton also gave the highest yields in the crop rotation experiment at the 160 kg/ha N level. All three hybrids were found to make excellent use of the natural nutrient content of the soil.
It was proved that the protein content of maize hybrids can only be slightly improved by N fertilisation, as this trait is genetically coded, while the starch content depends to the greatest extent on the ecological factors experienced during the growing season.

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Examination of the impact of ecological and agrotechnical factors in a maize fertilisation experiment
Published March 11, 2014
13-17

The year 2013 was rather extreme breeding year because of the uneven distribution of precipitaion and the summer heat. The experiment was set on with eight different genetic characteristics maize hybrids in 2013. In our study were included different kind of breeding season hybrids. We studied the effect of NKP fertilization and row spacing on t...he yield. The fertilizer doses are based on 25-year long-term experiment. Compared to control, the N40+PK treatment has also achieved a significant yield increase, although some hybrid of increasing fertilizer doses yield response to loss. The majority of hybrids reached higher yields using the 50 cm row spacing. The water release of hybrids was measured between 21th August and 17th September weekly, at the same time points. The rainy September slowed ripening hybrids and water release, so the grain wet content at harvest showed higher values.

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Study of plant production modells with different intensity in winter wheat production
Published December 21, 2008
51-60

The effects of crop rotation, nutrient supply and plant protection technologies were examined on the yield of Mv PÁLMA winter wheat variety and on the most important diseases of ear and leaf. Our experiments were carried out on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság in 2006 and 2007, and three plant protection technologies (extensive, average, inten...sive) and three irrigation variations (without irrigation, irrigated with 50 mm, irrigated with
100 mm) were applied in different crop rotation systems. 
In the triculture crop rotation a higher rate of infection was observed than in the biculture crop rotation, because the vegetative growth was more expressed after pea and these microclimatic factors were favourable for the development of pathogens.
In the triculture crop rotation (pea – wheat – maize) the powdery mildew, DTR and leaf rust of wheat were present in both examined years (powdery mildew 5-15%, DTR 14-42%, leaf rust 8-37% in cropyear 2005/2006, powdery mildew 12-32%, DTR 9-29%, leaf rust 8-26% in cropyear 2006/2007). Fusaria could be observed in 2006 (depending on the plant protection technologies and nutrient supply in the biculture 7-27% and in the
triculture 5-19%). With higher amounts of fertilizers the rate of infection increased and reached its maximum at the highest dose of nutrient supply (N200 +PK).
We observed the highest rate of infection by ear and leaf diseases in the case of the extensive technology, while this rate could be considerably reduced by the application of the intensive technology.
Both in 2006 and 2007, yields were the highest at the N100-200+PK levels in the triculture after pea (6028-7939 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2006, 6578-8690 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2007 depending on plant protection technologies), and at the N150-200+PK levels in the biculture after maize (6096-7653 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2006, 4974-8123 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2007 depending on the plant protection technologies). The highest yield maximums were
reached when pea was the forecrop. The yields on the experimental plots of the intensive plant protection technology was 224-2198 kg ha-1 higher (depending on the forecrop) compared to the plots where the extensive technology was used.
The highest yield without irrigation was at the N150+PK both in biculture and triculture crop rotation. Among the irrigated variations Ö2 and Ö3 at N200+PK fertilisation resulted in the highest yield in the biculture crop rotation, while the N100+PK level in triculture system. In the biculture crop rotation the extra yield was 14-51% higher (575-1225 kg ha-1 depending on plant protection technology) when 50 mm water was irrigated, and
15-54% higher (778-2480 kg ha-1) if 100 mm irrigation was applied comparing to the non-irrigated versions. The yield was  7-17% higher (560-1086 kg ha-1) in the Ö2 irrigation variation, and 8-23% (691-1446 kg ha-1) higher in the Ö3 irrigation variation compared to Ö1 irrigation variation (non-irrigated).
A correlation analysis was made to reveal the connection between the yield, the amount of fertilizers, the rate of infection, the plant protection technologies and the forecrops. Strong positive correlation (0.846) was found between year and fusaria infection. Strong positive correlation was observed between fertilization and powdery mildew infection (0.525), fertilization and DTR (0.528), fertilization and yield quantity (0.683). Lower
correlation was found between fertilization and leaf rust infection (0.409), and forecrop and yield (0.472), recpectively. Negative correlation was calcutated between plant protection technologies and DTR (-0.611), and plant protection technologies and leaf rust (-0.649).

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Visualization techniques in agriculture
Published February 25, 2014
95-98

This paper describes a dynamic map representation method which provides a flexible, spectacular and cost-effective opportunity for the illustration and description of spatial data due to its parametrability, web-based publication and the free sowftare it uses in multi-user circumstances.

The tasks of the database serves and the processi...ng were performed by an ASUS WL-500 G Premium v2 router and a 80 GB hard disk. The database contains the measured data of the nitrogen fertilisation experiment established on the Látókép Experiment Site of the Centre for Agricultural Sciences of the University of Debrecen. The tests showed that the generation time of the processor which was run through the router did not significantly increase. Therefore, the configuration developed by us is suitable for users who do not wish to invest into a large and expensive server, but they still want to view their data quickly and easily, as well as to reach them from anywhere.

The available data were not sorted into a database which was performed with Quantum GIS in a way to have an optimum database structure which is adjusted to the expected areas of use and the expected running speeds were also taken into consideration. The processor which processes the database items was written in PHP language. The main role of the processor is that it produces a KML file real time which is suitable for viewing with a given map viewer client (e.g. Google Earth). This application makes it possible to view information related to geographical objects, values stored in the database or those calculated by the processor on a map in 2D or 3D in a versatile way.

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Motivation for and Possibilities of Increasing Table Beet Root Cultivation
Published December 10, 2002
131-135

Due to its manifold nutritional-physiological effects, table beet root would deserve more attention. Its active components and their role in human therapy and prevention should rank it higher in our list of vegetables.
The actual some 100 ha area under beet root could be considerably increased, if its role in nutrition and its varied product...s were universally known.
Most of the physiologically favourable effects are related to its pigment content. Pigment content can be increased by choosing proper varieties and applying cultural methods which, favourably influence red pigment synthesis (optimal sowing date).
The high Mg-content and advantageous ion ratio must also be mentioned. They can be increased by Mg leaf fertilisation, as can solids content and foliage resistance.
The special knowledge accumulated in literature ought to be made known to experts so as to help them to set up trials and to introduce results into practice.

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The effect of long-term fertilization on phosphorus content determined in different soil extractants on meadow chernozem soil
Published December 15, 2010
7-11

The 0.01 M CaCl2 universal extractant is known all over Europe since the 90’s. During my research, I exam the phosphorus content determined in 0.01 M CaCl2 of the samples originated from the B 17 National Uniformed Long Term Fertilisation Trials in the experimental site Karcag, in the 40th year of the experime...nt. Relationships between the CaCl2-P and the AL-P content of the soil, the average yields, and the phosphorus balance of the
2006/2007 year were studied. From the results of the study it was concluded as follows:
– Correlation was close (r=0.68-0.7) between the AL-P and CaCl2-P. This is in accordance with the results of previous experiments in Hungary and other countries.
– My studies confirmed that the calcium-chloride method indicates well the deficiency and the surplus of plant available phosphorus. In case of different degrees of negative balance, the amount of CaCl2 extractable phosphorus showed no changes, or decreased, and in case of positive balance it increased exponentially by the long-term effect of P rates.
– The 120 and 180 kg ha-1 rates resulted in significant increases in the amount of CaCl2-P according to the control and treatments that are not fertilized with phosphorus. The 60 kg ha-1 rate didn’t result any increase as it didn’t meet the phosphorus requirement of winter wheat, and presumably the P-balance was negative in the earlier years as well.
– It can be stated that the 0.01 M CaCl2 was able to assess the deficiency and the excess of phosphorus causing negative impacts on environment as well.

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The impact of fertilisation on a few microbiological parameters of the carbon cycle
Published March 5, 2015
45-50

The 30 years old long-term experiment of Látókép is continued in our experiments. The long-term fertilization experiment was set in 1983, and our sample was taken in spring 2014. The examinations of soil respiration processes and factors that influence soil respiration are required in optimal management. In our study, we interested to know h...ow the growing levels of fertilization influence the microbial processes under nonirrigated and irrigated conditions in maize mono, bi, and triculture. The experimental results and those statistics suggest that the bi and triculture influenced higher microbial activity which was reflected in number of fungus, soil respiration, and microbial biomass carbon (MBC).

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The effect of long-term fertilization on the 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable nutrient content of a meadow soil
Published December 16, 2012
73-79

During my research, I studied the 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable NO3--N, NH4+-N, Norg, P and K contents of the soil samples originated from a long term fertilisation trial in the experimental site Hajdúböszörmény. Relationships among the soil nutrient contents, the agronomic nutrient balances... of the 2009 year, and fertilization were studied. 
From the results of the study it was concluded as follows:
– Fertilization significantly increased the CaCl2 extractable NO3--N, NH4+-N, and K contents of soil.
– Norg fraction increased as a function of the increasing yield. Hence, it can be assumed that the greater the produced yield, the more the stubble and root residues remain on the arable land. These organic residues can result significant increase in the Norg content of soils.
– The CaCl2 extractable P and K contents were compared with the calculated P and K limit values. According to these, the experimental soil has a good phosphorus and lower potassium supply capacity. These results are in accordance with the results of the conventional Hungarian fertilization recommendation system.
– It can be stated that the 0.01 M CaCl2 is able to determine not just inorganic N forms but Norg fraction as well that characterize the easily mineralizable nitrogen reserves. The results proved that AL-P and -K (ammonium lactate acetic acid, traditional Hungarian extractant) are in good agreement with the P and K reserves, but it is important from the aspect of environmental protection and plant nutrition to measure the easily soluble and exchangeable K-, and P-contents of soil. 0.01 M CaCl2 method is recommended for this.

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Investigation of the Quality of Winter Wheat in a Sulphur Fertilisation Experiment, 2001/2002
Published May 11, 2003
153-156

We have started a small parcell and a factorial S fertilization experiment with winter wheat in the 2001/2002 cropping year to examine its effect on yield and quality. The scene of experiment was the Latokep Experimental Station of the DE ATC (calcareous chernozeem) in case of small parcell examination and the Agricultural Company of Felsőzsol...ca (brown forest soil) in case od factorial examination.
The protein and gluten content of the grain was investigated with PerCon Inframatic 9001 NIR Analyser, then we have measured these parameters with PerCon 8620 infra appliance. After the milling we measured the following parameters: glutenindex, farinographic parameters (farinographic index, water absorption capacity, dough development time, stability, softening, extension) and valorigraphic index.
Based on the results there’s no justified relation between the fertilization and the protein and gluten content. The valorigraphic index of the samples taken from Felsőzsolca factory characteristically increased as a result of the S-fertilization. In the small-parcell experiment the values of the water absorption capacity, the dough development time and the softening parameters from the valorigrphic parameters depended significantly from the mineral treatments. Signifikant quality improvement wasn’t experieced.
There was sampling in all of critical phenophase (…). The green plant samples were examined on element content with ICP-OES. These measurements are currently in progress.

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Economic questions of maize production on different soil types
Published November 13, 2012
289-292

The requirements and objective of cultivation are in constant change. For example, different cultivation systems are developed for the purpose of soil protection, the preservation of its moisture content and on soils with various precipitation supply or production site conditions. Traditionally, one of the most important cultivation aims is cro...p needs. Further cost saving in fertilisation and crop protection can only be achieved by reducing the quality and quantity of production or it cannot be achieved at all. Furthermore, the costs can be significantly reduced by means of the rationalisation of cultivation. Energy and working time demand can also be notably reduced if ploughing is left out from the conventional tillage method. The key requirement of economicalness is to perform the cultivation at the optimal date, moisture level and the lowest possible cost.
Within production costs, the cost of cultivation is between 3–17%, while they are between 8–36% within machinery costs. It is the vital condition the usability of each technological method to progressively reduce costs. Our evaluation work was carried out with the consideration of the yield data obtained from cooperating farms and the experiment database of the Institute for Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen. Three technological methods (ploughing, heavy cultivator and loosening tillage) were used on several soil types which differ from in terms of cultivability (chernozem, sandy and sandy clay soils) from the economic/economical aspect. We examined the sectoral cost/income relation of maize production as an indicator plant. The maize price during the analytical period was 45 thousand HUF per t. On chernozem soils, the production of maize can be carried out on high income level, while maize production on sandy soils has a huge risk factor. The role of cultivation is the highest on high plasicity soils, since they have a huge energy
demand and the there is a short amount of time available for each procedure in most cases.

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The effect of and interaction between the biological bases and the agrotechnical factors on maize yield
Published June 30, 2018
83-87
The effect of and interaction between the biological bases and the agrotechnical factors on maize yield In our research, we examined the effect of the hybrid, the nutrient supply, the number of plants and the abiotic factors (temperature, amount of precipitation) on the yield, crop quality and yield stability of m...aize. We devoted special attention to the natural nutrient utilization ability and fertilizer reaction of maize. The experiment took place in Hajdúszoboszló on chernozem soil, on a nearly 8 ha field. The size of one plot was 206 m2; therefore, this experiment was half-industrial. We tested six hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing seasons.
We analysed the correlation between the nutrient supply and the yield of maize hybrids with a control treatment (treatment without fertilization) and with N 80, P2O5 60, K2O 70 kg ha-1 and N 160, P2O5 120, K2O 140 kg ha-1 fertilizer treatments. The yield increasing effect of the fertilizer also depended on the number of plants per hectare to a great extent. The number of plants of the six tested hybrids was 60, 70, and 80 thousand plants ha-1.
In 2015, the highest yield was produced by hybrid P9241 with N80+PK and 70 thousand plants per hectare. With the N160+PK fertilizer dosage, the same hybrid responded the best, followed by hybrids P9486 and DKC4717. Using the same fertilizer treatment, the 80 thousand plants per hectare population density resulted in decrease in the yield with most of the examined hybrids. In 2016, with the increase in the number of plants per hectare, even with non-fertilised treatment (control treatment), the yield could be increased in the case of each hybrid.
Averaged over the different hybrids and fertilizer treatments, applying 80 thousand plants ha-1 instead of 60 thousand resulted in 1.0 ha-1 yield increase. In 2017, the number of plants had a slighter effect. With N160+PK treatment, in most cases no significant difference can be observed. The value of LSD5%: plant number: 0.20 t ha-1, hybrid: 0.28 t ha-1, interaction: 0.48 t ha-1. With N160+PK treatment, the hybrids produced yields between 10.07 and 12.45 t ha-1. When examining the three years in the average of the number of plants, with treatment without fertilisation, the average yield of hybrids reached 7.53 t ha-1. With N80+PK treatment, this value was 9.71 t ha-1 and with doubling the fertilizer dosage, this value increased to 10.42 t ha-1. No economic profit was gained as a result of applying double dosage of fertilizer; therefore, the N80+PK dosage can be considered ideal.
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