The Carpathian Basin is characterized by varying hydrological extremes, both in space and time. Hungary's natural endowments are more favourable than average, especially for agricultural production, with 5,3 million hectares of land we have which is suitable for agricultural production. These extreme water management are often occur in the same... year and mostly in the same region, which may become more frequent in the future, especially in the lowland regions. The negative impacts of extreme water management was influenced by the land use changes in recent years, which has modified the runoff processes of the affected regions.
The aim of the study was to research the formation of inland water and drought circumstances in two sample areas the Great Plain (Szolnok-Túri flat and Nyírség) by geoinformatic tools. During the investigation in the first step we determined that areas which are susceptible to inland water and drought, based on the AGROTOPO database. In addition, land-use categories of characteristics of the sample areas are evaluated according to the Corine Land Cover. Furthermore, after defining characteristic of NDVI values between the period of 2003–2013, we evaluated the effect of drought whether can be detected in crop failures in respective areas.
Based on our results, we concluded that the formation of inland water and drought circumstances can be investigated in a large spatial extension by geoinformatic tools and databases.
Precision animal nutrition consists of meeting the nutrient requirements of animals as accurately as possible in the interest of a safe, high-quality and efficient production, besides ensuring the lowest possible load on the environment. This is facilitated by electronic feeding based on IT technology, an important but by far not the only tool...of precision nutrition. In the present paper the following most important elements of precision nutrition are discussed: diet formulation, quality control of ingredients and compound feeds, reduction of the harmful effects of heat stress in pigs with different nutritional tools, application of the recent findings of the molecular genetics in animal nutrition, the relationship between genetics and animal nutrition and reduction of the N and P excretion by nutritional tools.
Nowadays the different IT tools and use of the internet have appeared almost in every sectors of the economy, so it may give several benefits and help to the agricultural producers. In this article I give a brief overview about e-government and its’ opportunities, then I give a short description of a few important governmental and specialized... administration on-line services which are provided to the farmers. According to many experts using of informatics may cause essential change in the operation of the administration because of the fact that the electronic administration may evolve. Generally speaking, today the egovernment services are already an indispensable device to the reformation of the public administration, the modification of services which suits to people's demands and the creation of the more adaptable, clearer public administration. The electronic
documents are free from formal errors which is either important for clients or offices. The cases can be arranged even from home in 24 hours of the day. The spread and success of the use of electronic services depend not only on the quality of services, but the IT readiness of the target audience is also very important factor. Unfortunately the affect of e-gap is bigger in case of the farmers.
The authors have been carrying out stand evaluation, crop estimation and yield analysis in winter wheat since 2012. The sampling areas were assigned at the fields of the Training Farm of the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences of Széchenyi István University Mosonmagyaróvár according to the structure of the cropping system. According t...o their observations the value of field emergence is always lower than the laboratory germination. The weak emergence is important because the lower plant density cannot be compensated by the increased tillering in spite of having larger plant growth space. It is proven by the fact that they detected strong productive tillering even at 5 and 10 mm plant spacing while there were single-spiked plants at 40-50 mm plant spacing as well. The analysis revealed that the total ear mass and grain mass of wheat plants bearing two or more ears is almost the double than that of the single-spiked plants. It was a further basic experience that the largest ear of ”multiple-spiked” plants is always heavier than the single ear of one-spiked plants. Plants with intense tillering and more ears demonstrate the importance of proper seedbed preparation and drilling and the significance of sowing good quality seeds. These are the factors that determine field germination and emergence, influence the speed and intensity of initial development and by all these factors the sufficient productive tillering. The authors emphasize the use of exact and objective methods at crop estimation, e.g. the relationship between the ear mass and the yield which is in strong correlation whilst ear length and grain mass are not suitable for a precise estimation. The authors conclude that crop estimation and yield analysis must be inevitable tools of modern crop production and will be particularly important in precision agriculture. These tools also qualify the job done by farmers and helps to identify the areas that require special attention.
Almost simultaneously with the developments in information technology over the past fifteen to twenty years, literacy has gained new dimensions. To be considered literate in our age demands functional, academic, critical and technological skills. Because language and technology are inseparable in this context, technology as a means for developi...ng literacy skills must be an integral part of the language class.
This paper examines some of the ways electronic tools can be of use in developing student language literacy competences, with a special emphasis on the benefits learners of English for Specific Purposes can reap.
Fusarium graminearum is one of the most significant arable pathogen in Hungary, and various types of trichothecene mycotoxins (mostly DON, deoxynivalenol) are detected most commonly in cereals (Biró et al., 2011). Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production could not be eliminated, and infected maize by Fusarium sp. cannot be exploited as food..., seed, or animal feed. However it can be raw material of biogas production. In this research we would like to investigate the content and effect of the toxin in the end product of biogas production on plant germination. The Fusarium sp. can cause mildew and seedling mortality in seed of maize (Zea mays L.), so we examine the effect of this on germination. In preliminary examination Fusarium sp. was not detected in the bioreactor of the Institute after the retention time (30 day), however it can be assumed that during the hydrolysis of the fungus growth and mycotoxin production also increased exponentially. There were no appropriate tools to detect the toxin in the end product of biogas production so modelling of anaerobic hydrolysis was necessary. The effects of hydrolyzed product for germination were also detected.
Soil is the main source and at the same time the potential sink of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO2, CH4). Measurements were carried out in the experimental sites (soil tillage experiments and an extensive pasture) of the Karcag Research Institute of University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural Sciences to determine the CO
hence a new instrument was needed to be invented. In order to measure CO2-emission on a larger area without deep disturbance of the soil, a special metal frame was created with a matching bowl. The most problematic part was the spatial delimitation of the measurement area as the surface of the soil can be very various and proper isolation is a must. We consider the frame+bowl method we developed suitable for measuring CO2-emission of pastures as well as other crop-fields.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The concept of external governance tries to define the expanding scope of EU rules beyond EU borders. This article presents the theoretical foundations of the concept, differentiating the various institutional modes according to which external governance may take place. Due to the financial and economic crisis the European Union is forced to strengthen its competitiveness opposite to cohesion. In the second part of the study I present the five mechanisms by which the European Union may foster its position in the global competition. The five mechanisms are as follows: extension of the political space of the EU, expansion of the regulation mechanisms of the EU, active coaching of international organisations, territorial extension of the EU’s influence, division of the costs of globalization. After that I deal with the different forms of economic patriotism. Economic patriotism plays crucial role in maintaining the performance and strengthening the position of some preferred domestic industries, ‘national champions’. Tools of economic patriotism differ due to ideological affinities.
Thanks to communication tools, globalization is spreading wordwide. For this reason, it is crucial to protect and strengthen our feature. On the one hand, we are repetitive joining the uniting world of economics, on the other hand, it is our responsibility to preserve our national characteristics with conscious politics.
Responding tardy to
Soils provide the most indispensable function of supporting the production of food and feed for a growing human population. At the same time they provide a range of regulating and supporting functions related to climate change and removal of greenhouse gases. The majority of the soil functions are closely linked to the flows and stocks of soil...organic carbon (SOC); low levels of both flows and stocks may seriously interfere with several of the essential soil functions and thus affect the ecosystem services that soils deliver. Soil degradation is considered a serious problem in Europe and a large part of the degradation is caused by intensive cultivation practices in agriculture. The aim of the SmartSOIL project is to link the results of different scientific fields through a holistic and multidisciplinary approach and as a result develop a decision making tool contributing to sustainable development.
The more widely use of GIS, remote sensing technology provides appropriate data acquisition and data processing tools to build several national and international biodiversity monitoring system of environmental protection and natur conservation. The ChangeHabitats 2 is a similar international project, which uses airborne hyperspectral and airbor...ne laser scanning (airborne LiDAR) sources beyond traditional data collection methods to build a monitoring system of Natura 2000 habitats. The goal of our research, on one hand, was to separate the most typical species of trees which can be found in the largest coverage in the research plots of Debreceni Nagyerdő Nature Reserve from field and airborne remote sensing data, use image classification that based on spectral and geometry (height) characteristics of the trees. On the other hand our goal was to evaluate the efficient use of the integration of mobilGIS, airborne hyperspectral and airborne LiDAR data collecting methods to complement or substitut of the traditional, field data collecting methods. We used ArcGIS 10.2 and Exelis 5.0 GIS software for data evaluation, in which the mosaicing, the selection of plots and the spectral image processing were carried out.
The utilisation of renewable energy sources have come to front with the decreasing fossil fuel stocks, the unsolved problems and fears of nuclear energy and so the cumulating energy dependence. In Hungary the potential of biomass is the largest in renewable energy sources.
During our examinations, we analysed the promotion of producing energ
The expected growth rate of energy plantations will be low, according to the low rate of subsidy intensity (40-60%). The uncertainty of direct area payments decreases the calculability that cuts back the favour of investment in short rotation forestry planting.
The accompanying phenomenon of the ongoing economic crisisis the deepening and fixation of awidely reaching social crisis. The concept o fdeep poverty has become generally known in recent years and has now become inevitable the convergence of the most disadvantaged at EU, governmental,regional and local levels. Besides government and othe rprog...rams a lot of research and studies serve reintegration. Among convergence tools education and training play prominent roles, which besides the acquisition o fpractical knowledge, place special emphasis on the development of a convergence helping environment and culture, the creation of a "convergenceculture".
Regional politics determines the aims of regional structures, and the tools with the institutional background on the whole necessary achieve these. Realizing the aims of regional politics is a precondition of executing the basic principles of regional development and politics. The regional institutional system for handling the decentralized fin...ancial resources has not evolved in Hungary yet. The professional institutes for preparing the programs have not been set up, and the management of execution is slowly taking shape. There are still deficiencies in the domestic application of concentration and addition principles. A number of funds are provided on a national level, that are directly or indirectly aimed at regional development. The obvious coordination among the funds is not carried out neither on a national, nor on a regional level, partly to avoid parallel consumption aims. The future of Hungarian spatial structure depends on the type of decentralization strategy the country will follow for the new resources after the accession. Total decentralization offers the most efficient solution for Hungary.
Agroforestry systems are part of the history of the European Union rural landscapes, but the regional increase of size of agricultural parcels had a significant effect on European land use in the 20th century, thereby it has radically reduced the coverage of natural forest. However, this cause conflicts between interest of agricu...ltural and forestry sectors. The agroforestry land uses could be a solution of this conflict management. One real – ecological – problem with the remnant forests and new forest plantation is the partly missing of network function without connecting ecological green corridors, the other problem is verifiability for the agroforestry payment system, monitoring the arable lands and plantations.
Remote sensing methods are currently used to supervise European Union payments. Nowadays, next to use satellite imagery the airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) remote sensing technologies are becoming more widespread use for nature, environmental, forest, agriculture protection, conservation and monitoring and it is an effective tool for monitoring biomass production.
In this Hungarian case study we made a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to create agroforestry site selection model. The aim of model building was to ensure the continuity of ecological green corridors, maintain the appropriate land use of regional endowments. The investigation tool was the more widely used hyperspectral and airborne LiDAR remote sensing technologies which can provide appropriate data acquisition and data processing tools to build a decision support system.
Management and decision-support of today’s businesses require design and application of management reports based and high-end controlling systems. One of the main source of information for controlling systems is financial accounting that should be designed to support planning, controlling and monitoring systems. Financial and accounting infor...mation is essential for decision making support of organizations. Therefore
eligible assurance is needed that these information are true and fair. Internal and external financial audits as assurance qualifiers are linking to the controlling systems through assurance. Weaknesses of and threats to controlling systems shall be recovered and communicated to the management during qualifying process. Recovering of threats should be based on risk analysis, assessment. In this study I would like to present some methods and tools of risk assessment of financial reports, statements and a way on they can be further developed.
The main purpose of the mid-term evaluation of grant programmes is to assess relevance, progress, effectiveness and efficiency. There are several methodologies, tools and techniques applied in various evaluations to assess these programme aspects. An important area of the evaluation of both the financial progress and the effectiveness of the pr...ogramme is to evaluate the risk of absorption which is indicated by various factors, inter alia risk of supported project failure. If a project fails in any EU co-funded programme in the stage of preparation or implementation, then the fund already committed to that particular project (assumed to have already been absorbed or “spent”) is to be reused again or is to face decommitment (funds have to be paid back to the EU). There are strict EU regulations governing the time scale of this re-use (n+2, n+3 rules), therefore it is of major importance to assess the risk severity (measured as the resultant of the volume of grant at risk and the chance of project failure) and build up an early warning mechanism which indicates if the risk reaches a critical level that requires immediate intervention.
Tourism as one of the most significant sectors of the world economy plays an important role in achieving the goals of sustainable development. The fundamental conditions of sustainable development are the proper management of the environmental, social and economic impacts, as well as the well-established planning based on a detailed analysis. M...easuring the changes and evaluating the results are tasks carried out by governmental and professional organizations. The first step of the assessment is defining the concept of sustainable tourism. Indicators are the most widely used set of tools for the assessment. Several international organizations have focused on elaborating the most suitable indicators for sustainable tourism development and formulating assessment models based on indicators since the beginning of the 1990s. Neither a generally accepted set of indicators nor a universally applicable assessment method has been put together until now. In the present study a few definitions of sustainable tourism are reviewed, criteria for indicator selection are listed, followed by the presentation of a sustainable tourism model. Finally a recently published assessment procedure based on the Bellagio Principles is summarized.
Virtualization is increasingly taking on a key role in various system architectures which follow new platform concepts like Software as a Service (SaaS). This trend addresses more instant and short-term environments and comes with new methods and strategies for the distribution of mainly complex application stacks not only in large IT infrastru...ctures. The paper presents how a so called Virtual Appliance can be set up in order to operate in virtual server environments using hypervisor software like Oracle Virtual-Box. Using the example of two server-side components within the Integrated Land Management System (ILMS), it will be shown that the use of state-of-the-art methods, standardized tools and interfaces on servers enables different aspects of environmental system management, analysis and planning.
In every economic sector, the enacted and expected quality of the products strongly affects its market entry and subsistence. The aim of management is success, competitiveness and subsistence that require adequate human and material resources and enough production stock. We must also notice that the quality of tools and instruments significantl...y influences work productivity. This applies to both plant production and animal husbandry.
The author researched milk production factors with methodical observation, document analysis and interviews. Data were collected with a ten-year interval, thus this assay can highlight the field, volume and sources of investments during this period and that the production stock increased in most farms and decreased in few. The data also shows the influence of investments on work productivity - there are differences between farms of equal size, so there are still ways of development.
One of the key sustainability challenges for the coming decades will be to improve the management of natural resources in order to reduce current levels of anthropogenic environmental pressure and respect the biological and physical limits and the carrying capacity of the planet. The first step towards meeting this challenge is an enhancement o...f the understanding of the material basis of our society. In the past 15 years, scientists in several research institutes have created a fast growing field of research, a new family of different methods, named material flow analysis (MFA). These instruments have an increasing policy relevance: international organizations (UN, EU, OECD) have encouraged member states to establish MFA accounting in their statistical programmes and urged governments and economic actors to use these tools. In this paper I present selected examples to reveal how the MFA approach and derived material flow indicators can be used for the evaluation of sustainability policies at municipality level.
The theme of my PhD research is the online marketing possibilities and judgment of the domestic food-sector. This article is based on the important bibliography of my research theme. I show the new categorization of the tools of marketing communication. I examine the recent years’ changes of the social approach and the interactivity. Based on... the meeting of the Internet I separate our ages’ generations. Furthermore I examine the transformation of consumers into users in the digital environment. I prove the changes of the Internet’s penetration and the presence of enterprises in the Internet with statistic data. I touch the tendency of information searching in online environment. I present new methods to measure the online marketing activities’ return.
Finally, I define my objectives of research based on my own experience and bibliography overview over and above I draw up my concrete future’s research which I separate seconder and primer section.
Presently, the process of regionalization is slowly progressing in Hungary. The regional institutional system is young and the institutional experiences are limited. The Hungarian regional development agencies are operated with a limited number of personnel and their budget is only a fraction of EU regional agencies of similar size. There is no... unequivocal cooperation between regional development agencies and county development agencies. In the absence of these, the strategical objectives of the region cannot be aligned and the application of consistent development policies cannot be achieved. In the past five-six years the supports from EU Pre-Accession Funds, along with the new tools of regional development policies, have all contributed to the development of the North Great Plain Region. Phare projects – beside supporting development – have played a significant role in forming the approach of individuals who are actively involved in regional development, in promoting cooperation among cross-border and other regions, as well as in preparing the regions to accept EU structural funds. Prior to the May 1st, 2004 EU accession of Hungary, the North Great Plain Region received 24-25% in direct regional development funds in the Nineties. The support per capita in the case of TFC, TEKI and CÉDE has exceeded the national average. The North Great Plain Region has received support from investment type agricultural supports, the Employment Fund and the Touristical Directives that well exceeded the national average, from the sectoral resource funds. However, the applicants of the North Great Plain Region have received little support in the case of environmental, water management and especially road development supports. About 200 applications have been submitted for the SAPARD calls nationally, 32 of these were from the North Great Plain Region. The significance of cooperation among sub-regions is demonstrated by the fact that, except for 15 settlements in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, all have submitted an application. The efforts of inhabitants is highlighted by the high number of submitted applications, as well as by the significant degree of own contribution. Still, the GDP of the North Great Plain Region has not increased, the rate and tendency of unemployment does not sufficiently reflect the positive effect of supports. The Regional Development Directive has provided support for the development of many small- and medium size enterprises, but their effect did not ensure a sustained economic growth.
The greatest difficulty is that the number of dedicated professionals who are skilled in regional politics and regional development is few. However, advantages of our EU accession can only be exploited if a group of highly skilled professionals is provided on local, county, regional and national level as well. Thus, we need a group of professionals who are informed about the European Union, the EU support forms and most of all about the operation of Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds to establish the suitable institutional background for professionally handling the funds obtained from the EU, to prepare the professional documents to access the funds and to generate development projects to efficiently use the funds as well as establishing connections with the institutions of the EU. Appropriate share from funds coming from the EU is only possible if the country, certain regions, counties and sub-regions can achieve rapid results in the areas listed above.
Application of fungicides have advantages and also some direct or indirect disadvantages, such as imbalance and/or fungicide resistance in microbe population. To avoid these problems the development of alternative, eco-friendly methods like mostly spraying with oils are in the focus nowadays. The investigations of the effects of fungicides on m...icrobiota in some cultivations can give a more complex view to this topic and developmental possibilities. In the present study, our aim was testing of the effects of paraffine oil (as alternative fungicide) on microbial properties (CFU and rate of filamentous fungi and yeasts) of Chardonnay and Kékfrankos leaves and berries.
Our results from 2014 showed that the application of paraffine oil as sole spray agent can decrease the presence of saprophytic filamentous fungi on the berries of Chardonnay (susceptible for fungal infections). In the case of Kékfrankos berries opposite properties were observed, which may be the result of the absorption of oil by the thick wax layer of this variety. The oil treatment did not affect the yeast population of Chardonnay and Kékfrankos berries contrary to negative effect of the regular pesticide treatment. The selective fungicide effect of paraffine oil against filamentous fungal population caused the accumulation of yeast cells in the mycobiota of grape berries. The careful use of this yeasts in spontaneous fermentation can improve the aroma profile of wines. The year of 2015 did no prefer the growth of fungi, therefore no interesting properties were detected in the mycobiota of grape varieties. The occurence of the harmful saprophytic filamentous fungi predicted to be increased in mild climate agricultures as the result of the climate change.
In summary, the paraffine oils are seem to be promising tools for the eco-friendly control of harmful fungi of grapes.
All companies have business processes, regardless of the size or the industry in which they operate. Both executive and operational managers need insight into software-based business processes and their performance for that transforming business workflows by modeling, simulating, optimizing, and publishing processes and defining business...rules.
I would like to introduce what kind of possibility the companies have got, when they want to model their business process. I choose the ARIS system from software market. I sketch out the function of ARIS system, and his application possibility. At last I present the best known diagram by means of some practical example.