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Application of different compost doses in Pinova and Golden Delicious apple orchards
Published May 6, 2013
91-94

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Nowadays the success vegetable and fruit production are unimaginable without regular nutrient management. The animal husbandry is getting decrease, thereby there is the lack of organic fertilizer and it is suggested to find alternative nutrient supply methods. One of the ways to supply the required nutrients in an environmentally friendly way is the application of composts, which is less widespread so far, which is appropriate for the requirement of organic farming.

From the year of 2010 in each year, compost doses were applied in biological apple orchards in cooperation with the Institute of Horticultural Science. In the function of the years different changes were resulted by the compost treatments in the examined parameters in case of both apple species (Golden Delicious and Pinova). It was concluded that the dry matter, ash, total acids, sugar content and the vitamin C changed versus time and species. It is supposed that the effect of compost treatments is getting visible.

According to the data higher dry matter, total acids and sugar content, (in some cases) ash were measured in case of the apple species Pinova, while the measurements showed higher vitamin C content in case of the species Golden Delicious.

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Effect of Ozone Exposure on Phytopathogenic Microorganisms on Stored Apples
Published December 14, 2004
9-13

The aim of our study was to clarify the effect of ozone exposure on several phytopathogenic fungi on stored apple fruits under different storage conditions. The study was conducted at Bistrita, Romania, in the storehouse of an experimental apple orchard in 2002 and 2003. Two widely grown apple cultivars (‘Jonathan’ and ‘Golden Delicious...) were used. General microbial examination of the fruits was made during storage in order to identify the most important storage pathogens. Efficacy of six ozone treatments was evaluted on fruit decay caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Monthly observations (January, February, March and April) were made of the degree of decay and three measurements were assessed (disease frequency, disease intensity and degree of attack). Our results showed that the most important phytopathogenic fungi during storage was blue mold, caused by species of Penicillium. Disease frequency of apple fruits was very high on cv. ‘Jonathan’, much higher than on cv. ‘Golden delicious’. Ozone treatments (25 ppm ozone for 0.5 and 1.5 hours in November) caused significantly lower disease incidence on stored apple than all other ozone treatments. For longer storage, it seems that additional ozone treatments in February increased treatment efficacy. Cv. ‘Golden delicious’ seemed to be more resistant to storage diseases than cv. ‘Jonathan’ both on the untreated and treated fruits. The effect of the ozone treatments was also the most effective when 25 ppm ozone was applied for 0.5 and 1.5 hours in November.

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Compost application in integrated and organic fruit cultivation
Published July 31, 2012
135-139

Nowadays the success vegetable and fruit production are unimaginable without regular nutrient management. One of the ways to supply the required nutrients in an environmentally friendly way is the application of composts, which is less widespread so far. Compost doses were applied in biological and integrated apple orchards in cooperation with ...the Institute of Horticultural Science in the years 2010 and 2011. Different changes were resulted by the compost treatments in the examined parameters in case of both apple varieties (Golden Delicious and Pinova). There is no clear effect of compost on the changes of ash-, total acids, Vitamin C and the sugar content until now, because the improvement of the nutritional indicators takes more time. However significant differences were observed after one year between the apple varieties. Higher ash-, total acids and sugar content were measured in case of the apple variety Pinova, while the measurements showed higher Vitamin C content in case of the variety Golden Delicious.

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Effects of soil compost application on the leaf surface area per running meter of apple (Malus domesticaBorkh.) leaves cultivated in organic and integrated orchard
Published March 11, 2014
111-116

The effect of different compost doses on the nutrient contents of the soil (in depth of 0–30) were measured in an (organic and integrated) apple orchards. The leaf surface area per running meter shoot for certain apple species (Golden Delicious and Pinova) were determined.

The field experiments were conducted in the Research Field of ...Debrecen-Pallag, University of Debrecen, the analysis of the soil and plant samples took place in the laboratories of the Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science.
The compost treatments increased the amount of the examined nutrients in the top 30 cm of soil originated from organic and integrated orchard. Changes in rainfall were observed in the trends of the leaf surface area of the two apple varieties. 2010 was rainy and 2012 was drier. The leaf surface area of the Pinova increased better under the precipitation/year effect, than in case of the nutrient supply treatments. The opposite was observed in case of the Golden Delicious.

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Comparative Senses-based Investigation of Traditional and Modern Apple Cultivars
Published May 4, 2004
70-74

Apple consumption has significantly decreased over the last 10-15 years in Hungary. While consumption of fresh apple was 25 kg/person/year before the change of regime, today it hardly exceeds 10 kg according to careful estimations. In spite of the fact that the former dull cultivar structure (Jonathan, Starking, Golden Delicious) has widened wi...th numerous new cultivars, apple consumption in Hungary has not increased. Unfortunately, customers do not or scarcely know most of these new cultivars.
In a survey conducted among the students of five Hungarian universities, we gathered information about comsumer opinion of both and older cultivars.
Numerous questonnaires – 592 – were filled out on 8 cultivars (Jonagold, Novajo, Topaz, Golden Reinders, Idared, Pinova, Braeburn, Jonathan, Starking) about the qualitiy parameters that determine the value for consumption. The results clearly show that besides the old cultivars, such cultivars are preferred that are known worldwide, such as Jonagold, or Golden (free of russetting) or the resistant Topaz.
Promotion of these cultivars and creating the possibility of their supply can help to increase a fresh apple consumption.

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Nutrient Supply Effects on the Fruit Quality of Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
Published December 6, 2005
230-235

The aim of our two year study is to research the effect of nutrient supply on apple fruit quality, and to explore the relationships between selected fruit quality parameters.
Observations were made in Kálmánháza (in the eastern part of Hungary), on a commercial apple orchard. In this experiment, we studied the nutrient supply reaction of ...four apple cultivars (Golden Delicious, Granny Smith, Idared and Jonathan Csány) under different N and NPK doses. The following fruit quality parameters were studied: fruit diameter, fruit height, fruit weight, flesh firmness, colour-coverage and we studied the density of foliage.
The research results showed that N fertilization has a great effect on fruit quality. This is shown in the cases of increase of fruit size (fruit diameter, fruit height, fruit weight). The increase is proportional with the N doses, accordingly the highest positive difference was observed by using 100 kg/ha N doses. It is important to note that moderate N doses (75 kg/ha) plus P and K additions also had positive effects. There approached the values of 100 kg/ha N, and even exceeded its values in the cultivar Golden Reinders. The increased N doses enlarged the standard deviation, on the other hand, this parameter was low in the cases of balanced NPK fertilization. The nutrient supply increased the vegetative area (density of foliage) in addition to the generative parts, in particular only N fertilizer. However the denser foliage hindered the growth of fruit weight and colour-coverage, and also decreased the fruit quality and the flesh firmness of cultivars, which have a negative effect on storageability.
A linear correlation was demonstrated between the fruit weight and colour-coverage, or between fruit weight and flesh firmness. The character of their relationship was similar, but the direction differed: high fruit weight was with high colour-coverage, but with low flesh firmness.

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