Fruit size is determined by the genetic makings of varieties the pomology and enviromental factors. The climate and the previous year’s harvested yield have a great effect on yield volume. It is not easy to harmonize the qualitative and quantitave parameters of the fruit. High yield usually causes smaller fruits.
The aim of our trials was
Since the political changes in Hungary, agricultural businesses have worked in a declining economic environment and hectic market situation, with a widening price gap between agricultural and industrial products and low profitability. A declining export comes then by no surprise. The sector has not been able to even benefit from export opportun...ities provided in the European Agreement. The area least benefiting from quotas is animal products (beef, mutton, lamb, slaughtered chicken, cheese, egg). The ministry of agriculture was lagging behind in responding to these problems, and it was as late as in 1995 when it launched a reorganisation programme for export stocks fund build-up (5).
The author has conducted empirical studies on agricultural enterprises in Csongrád county to see what results the special investment support delivered under the reorganisation programme produced. The fundamental aim of the reorganisation programme for export stocks fund build-up was to boost exportable Hungarian animal product stocks in a bid for businesses to better benefit from the preferential quotas set by the European Agreement. The author examined how the special investment support scheme succeeded in its aims, whether livestock grew considerably in its wake, whether farmers were able to attain exportable quality and what development funds enterprises were able to raise.
Nowadays, the importance of marketing is increasingly obvious. The number of those who apply those possibilities and methods provided by the marketing with which more efficient operation and higher amount of profit can be obtained is increasing. Special marketing fields have appeared that make the marketing characteristics of the single trades,... product groups and industrial branches are widely known and utilized. During the more than 10 years following the changes of regime, the Hungarian wine market underwent a huge change. It is obvious, that this process has not stopped, and further market rearrangements may be claimed. The product and price policies have changed. Out of the marketing mix elements, mostly the marketing communication has changed, and the costumer has come to the centre. This marketing approach resulted in the formation of the newly established Hungarian Wine Marketing Public Benefit Company. The common marketing activity of the organization should have positive impacts on the industrial branch, although its efficient operation still has hindrances
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of cooling, deep-freezing and sex-orientation methods on fertility of ram and buck semen. It was pointed out that deep-freezing and sexorientation methods had a more considerable destruction on both semen compared with the effect of cooling method. However, with the development of the sex-orien...tation method, the results of lambing had a significant increase in sheep. On the other hand, the NRR of the inseminations with deep-frozen ram semen exceeded most of previously publicated results. Being interesting, and hopefully useful benefit in practice that the analysed buck semen samples are shown more favourable results in all methods compared with the same results of rams.
The goal of research planning is to optimize human and material resources while maximizing efficiency. If there are databases that can be used as a substitute for own data collection, effective research can be facilitated by reallocating resources. In the case of environmental studies, the knowledge of the climatic conditions of the study p...eriod is known to be a key factor in research planning process.
In the present study, the data of our meteorological station in our research area (known as “Szamárháti Tanya”, Kesznyéten, Hungary) was compared with the measurements of meteorological stations operated by the competent water authority. Stations were taken into the study within a 10 and 20 km radius over a period of 21 months, to determine which provided more relevant data from the area.
During the evaluation of results, the relationship between the local and regional weather stations were determined, and deductions were made from the obtained results to support the decision which of the targeted investigations could be of greater benefit.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">By guess, annual volume of milk whey is 185–190 million tons and this volume probably will increase next years. Whey has significant biochemical oxygen demand due to its high organic matter content so whey as sewage is one of the most pollutant by-products in the food industry. Apart from environmental pollution, benefit of several whey constituents for human health is another reason to utilize whey. Corn and potato, as well as the processing of milk in the food industry in large quantities of by-products generated by low cost, substantial quantities of starch and lactic acid, which are due to high biological oxygen demand are considered as hazardous waste. Some of them are destroyed sewage storage tanks, and those products are excellent substrates for the growth of microorganisms could be. The traditional nutrient solution optimization methods are solution and time-consuming and are not able to determine the real optimum because of the interaction of factors involved.
This research was conducted at the University of Debrecen Látókép Research Station and is part of an ongoing long-term polyfactorial experiment. The impact of three tillage systems (Mouldboard plowing-MT, Strip tillage-ST, Ripper tillage-RT) and two levels of fertilizer treatments (N80 kg ha-1, N160 kg ha...-1) along with a control (N0 kg ha-1) on the yield of maize hybrids (Armagnac- FAO 490 & Loupiac-FAO 380) cultivated in rotation with winter wheat was evaluated during a two-year period (2017–2018).
Amongst the three tillage treatments evaluated, ripper tillage (RT) had the highest average yield (10.14 t ha-1) followed by mouldboard tillage (MT) and strip tillage (ST) with 9.84 and 9.21 t ha-1 respectively. Yield difference between RT and MT was not significant (P>0.05), as compared to ST (P<0.05). Soil moisture content varied significantly with tillage practices and was highest in ST, followed by RT and MT (ST>RT>MT). Yield of RT was 7–9% higher than MT in monoculture plots, while MT reign superior in biculture plots (monoculture: RT>MT>ST; biculture: MT>RT>ST).
A positive interaction between tillage and fertilization was observed, with higher yield variation (CV=40.70) in the non-fertilized (N0) plots, compared to those which received the N80 (CV=19.50) and N160 kg ha-1 (CV=11.59) treatments.
Incremental yield gain from increase fertilizer dosages was significantly higher in monoculture, compared to biculture. There was no significant difference in yield between N160 and N80 in the biculture plots (12.29 vs 12.02 t ha-1). However, in monoculture plots, N160 yield was 23% higher than the N80 kg ha-1 (N160=11.74 vs N80=9.56 t ha-1).
Mean yield of maize in rotation with winter wheat was 28% (2.47 tons) higher than monoculture maize. The greatest benefit of crop rotation was observed in the control plots (N0) with an incremental yield gain of 4.39 tons ha-1 over monculture maize (9.92 vs 5.43 t ha-1).
Yield increased with higher fertilizer dosages in irrigated plots. Fertilizer application greatly increased the yield of maize and accounted for 48.9% of yield variances. The highest yield (11.92 t ha-1) was obtained with N160 kg ha-1 treatment, followed by N80 kg ha-1 (10.38 t ha-1) and N0 kg ha-1 (6.89 t ha-1) respectively.
Overall mean yield difference between the two hybrids was not statistically significant, however, yield of FAO 380 was 3.9% higher (9.06 vs. 8.72 t ha-1) than FAO 490 in monoculture plots, while in biculture plots, FAO 490 was 4.1% higher than FAO 380.
Average yield in 2018 was 13.6% (1.24 t ha-1) higher than 2017 for the same set of agrotechnical inputs, thus, highlighting the significant effect of cropyear.
Armagnac (FAO 490) cultivated in rotation with winter wheat, under ripper tillage and N80 kg ha-1 is the best combination of treatments for optimum yield.
In Western medicine is beginning to increasingly focus on the key role of healthy nutrition and lifestyle in preventing certain diseases. Therefore, it is important to emphasize the importance of primary prevention in our country, and to promote it; not only the health care team work, but broaden the recommended foods, which have benefit for hu...man health as well.
Polyphenols are antioxidants, which are easily consumable with diet, however, food processing can influence the level of them.
In our study, nutritional assessment was made of raw beet root and a juice, made from this beet root. We investigated in which special diet referenced to eat this foods and whether this is suitable to develop functional foods from animal sources as a row material.
Projects funded by the European Union contribute significantly to the socio-economic development of Hungary, its increasing competitiveness, thereby the local people's general level of satisfaction, their ”happiness and prosperity”. Successful spending from the Union's funds, successful project implementation directly impacts all actors in...the Hungarian economy and society. Therefore, to examine the factors that support or jeopardize the implementation of the projects is a priority at EU and national levels. My research and doctoral dissertation aims to develop a methodology to assess the management efficiency of projects supported by the European Union, implemented in Hungary taking into account all measurable factors (technical and special expertise) and the "suspected" factor (EU thinking learning).
I intend to draw up guidelines for future EU funded project management teams to realize projects successfully for the benefit of Hungary.
This paper gives a summary of the possibility for applying genomic information for breeding value estimation in beef cattle breeding. This process is called genomic prediction and is now widely used in dairy cattle globally as well as in some beef and sheep populations. The advantage of genomic prediction is a more accurate estimate of the gene...tic merit of an individual at a young age thereby facilitating greater annual genetic gain, predominantly through shorter generation intervals. Genomic predictions are more advantageous for sex-linked (e.g., milk yield), low heritability (e.g., fertility) and difficult-to-measure (e.g., feed intake) traits. The larger the reference population, on average, the more accurate the genomic predictions; additionally, the closer genetically the reference population is to the candidate population, the greater the accuracy of genomic predictions. Research is continuing on strategies to generate accurate genomic predictions using a reference population consisting of multiple breeds (and crossbred). Retrospective analysis of real-life data where genomic predictions have been operation for several years clearly shows a benefit of this technology.
The environmental policy of the European Union focuses on decreasing emission of greenhouse gases. However there is no knowledge about the effect and the operation of the environmental economic methods which could efficiently influence this process. Therefore, practical emission trade was investigated. Recently, the commerce of AUEs started to...change in Hungary, as well. Most transactions are made by a broker. Electronic commerce, which can be made with or without a broker, is spreading. The benefit of this form is that it is simple and cheap, in spite of the entrance fee of the stock exchange. This study could help to utilize carbon quotas in different types of commerce.
Models predicting the nutrient partitioning and animal performance have been developed for decades. Nowadays, growth models are used in practical animal nutrition, and they have particular importance in precision livestock farming. The aim of the present study was to introduce a broiler model and to provide examples on model application. The mo...del predicts protein and fat deposition as well as the body weight of an individual broiler chicken from digestible nutrient intake over time. Feed intake (FI) and the digestible nutrient content of the feed are inputs as well as some animal factors like: initial BW, feed intake at 1 and 2 kg of BW, precocity and mean protein deposition. The protein and energy metabolism is represented as in the classical nutrient partitioning models. The protein deposition (PD) is driven by digestible amino acid supply and is under “genetic control”, the so-called potential PD limits the actual PD if protein is oversupplied.
The authors discuss how the model can be used to simulate the animal response upon different scenarios. Examples are given to show that the diet might be limiting if some animal trait is changed. Applicability of the model has shown through running the model by using different feed strategies (three- vs five-phase-feeding) and variations with animal factors. In conclusion, growth models are useful tools to support decision making for defining the most suitable feeds used in a broiler farm. The model presented in this paper shows a high sensibility and flexibility to test different scenarios. By challenging the model with different inputs, the animal response in terms of changes in body weight and feed conversion can be understood more by studying the shift in deposition of chemical constituents. The examples provided in the present paper shows the benefit of using mathematical models and their applicability in precision nutrition. It can be concluded that the growth model helps to apply “from desired feed to desired food” concept.